यज्ञ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ygy
ygy karate log
vivaran 'ygy' se tatpary hai- 'tyag, balidan, shubh karm'. apane priy khady padarthon evn moolyavan sugndhit paushtik dravyon ko agni evn vayu ke madhyam se samast snsar ke kalyan ke lie ygy dvara vitarit karana.
dharm hindoo dharm
ygy ke ang 'snan', 'dan', 'hom' tatha 'jap'.
prakar lok, kriya, sanatan grih, pnchabhoot tatha manushy.
grihasth dharm ke ygy brahm-ygy, dev-ygy, pitri-ygy, bhoot-ygy, manushy-ygy.
vishesh jis prakar devataon men vishnu, vaishnav purushon men shiv, shastron men ved, tirthon men gnga, vraton men ekadashi, pushpon men tulasi, nakshatron men chandrama, pakshiyon men garud, striyon men bhagavati mool prakriti radha ko sarvopari mana jata hai, usi prakar sampoorn ygyon men 'vishnu ygy' shreshth mana jata hai.
snbndhit lekh hindoo dharm, hindoo, hindoo dharm snskar
any janakari vaidik ygyon men 'ashvamedh ygy' ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. yah mahakratuon men se ek hai. 'mahabharat' men maharaj yudhishthir dvara kauravaun par vijay prapt karane ke pashchath pap mochanarth kiye gaye ashvamedh ygy ka vishad varnan hai.

ygy snskrit bhasha ka shabd hai, jisaka arth hai- "ahuti, chadhava". yah hindoo dharm men prachin bharat ke arnbhik grnthon vedon men nirdharit anushthanon par adharit upasana paddhati hai. yah upasana us pooja ke viparit hai, jisamen avaidik moortipooja evn bhakti prathaen shamil ho sakati hain. ygy hamesha uddeshyapoorn hota hai. yahan tak ki isaka lakshy brahmand ki svabhavik vyavastha qayam rakhane jaisa vyapak bhi ho sakata hai. isamen anushthanon ka sahi nishpadan aur mntron ka shuddh uchcharan anivary mane jate hain tatha nishpadak aur prayukt samagri ka atyadhik pavitr hona avashyak hai. aisi anushthanik avashyakataon ne purohiton ke vyavasayik varg, adhunik brahmanon ko janm diya, jinaki ab bhi mahattvapoorn sarvajanik ygy karane men avashyakata padati hai. kee roodhivadi hindoo parivar panch dainik ghareloo ahutiyan aur mahaygy ab bhi karate hain.

ygy ke ang tatha prakar

ygy ke char ang mane ge hain- 'snan', 'dan', 'hom' tatha 'jap'. isake panch prakar bataye ge hain-

  1. lok
  2. kriya
  3. sanatan grih
  4. pnchabhoot
  5. manushy

tatpary

ygy se tatpary hai- 'tyag, balidan, shubh karm'. apane priy khady padarthon evn moolyavan sugndhit paushtik dravyon ko agni evn vayu ke madhyam se samast snsar ke kalyan ke lie ygy dvara vitarit kiya jata hai. vayu shodhan se sabako arogyavardhak sans lene ka avasar milata hai. havan hue padarth vayubhoot hokar pranimatr ko prapt hote hain aur unake svasthyavardhan, rog nivaran men sahayak hote hain. ygy kal men uchcharit ved mntron ki punit shabd dhvani akash men vyapt hokar logon ke antahkaran ko satvik evn shuddh banati hai. is prakar thode hi kharch evn prayatn se ygykartaon dvara snsar ki badi seva ban padati hai. vaiyaktik unnati aur samajik pragati ka sara adhar sahakarita, tyag, paropakar adi pravrittiyon par nirbhar hai. yadi mata apane rakt-mans men se ek bhag naye shishu ka nirman karane ke lie n tyage, prasav ki vedana n sahe, apana sharir nichodakar use doodh n pilae, palan-poshan men kasht n uthae aur yah sab kuchh nitant niahsvarth bhav se n kare, to phir manushy ka jivan-dharan kar sakana bhi snbhav n ho. isalie kaha jata hai ki manushy ka janm ygy bhavana ke dvara ya usake karan hi snbhav hota hai. gitakar ne isi tathy ko is prakar kaha hai ki prajapati ne ygy ko manushy ke sath judava bhaee ki tarah paida kiya aur yah vyavastha ki, ki ek doosare ka abhivardhan karate hue donon phalen-phoolen.

ashvamedh ygy

ashvamedh mukhyat: rajanitik ygy tha aur ise vahi samrat kar sakata tha, jisaka adhipaty any sabhi naresh manate the. 'apastamb:' men likha hai

"raja sarvabhaum: ashvamedhen yajeth. napyasarvabhaum:"

arthat "sarvabhaum raja ashvamedh kare asarvabhaum kadapi nahin." yah ygy usaki vistrit vijayon, sampoorn abhilashaon ki poorti evn shakti tatha samrajy ki vriddhi ka dyotak hota tha.

rajasooy ygy

rajasooy ygy men shrikrishn ka charan poojan

aitarey brahman[1] is ygy ke karane vale maharajaon ki soochi prastut karata hai, jinhonne apane rajyarohan ke pashchath prithvi ko jita evn is ygy ko kiya. is prakar yah ygy samrat ka pramukh kartavy samajha jane laga. janata isamen bhag lene lagi evn isaka paksh dharmik ki apeksha adhik samajik hota gaya. yah ygy chakravarti raja banane ke lie kiya jata tha.

grihasth dharm ke ygy

hindoo dharm-granthon ke anusar pratyek grihasth hindoo ko panch ygyon ko avashy karana chahie-

  1. brahm-ygy - pratidin adhyayan aur adhyapan karana hi brahm-ygy hai.
  2. dev-ygy - devataon ki prasannata hetu poojan-havan adi karana.
  3. pitri-ygy - 'shraddh' aur 'tarpan' karana hi pitri-ygy hai.
  4. bhoot-ygy - 'bali' aur 'vaishv dev' ki prasannata hetu jo pooja ki jati hai, use 'bhoot-ygy' kahate hain tatha,
  5. manushy-ygy - isake antargat 'atithi-satkar' ata hai.

ukt panchon ygyon ko nity karane ka nirdesh hai.

brahmaygy

brahmaygy men gayatri viniyog hota hai. maranottar snskar ke sndarbh men ekatrit sabhi kutumbi-hitaishi parijan ek sath baithen. mritatma ke sneh-upakaron ka smaran karen. usaki shanti-sadgati ki kamana vyakt karate hue sabhi log bhavanapoovark panch minat gayatri mantr ka manasik jap karen, ant men apane jap ka puny mritatma ke kalyanarth apirt karane ka bhav karen- yah nyoonatam hai. yadi sambhav ho, to shuddhi divas ke bad trayodashi tak bhavanashil parijan mil-julakar gayatri jap ka ek laghu anushthan poora kar len. brahyaygy ko usaki poonarhuti manen. snkalp bolen:-

namahn...
namnah pretatvanivrittidvara, brahmalokavaptaye...
parimann gayatri
mahamantranushthanapunyn shraddhapoovarkamh ahn samaparyishye.

devaygy

devaygy men devapravrittiyon ka poshan kiya jae. dushpravrittiyon ke tyag aur satpravrittiyon ke abhyas ka upakram apanane se devashaktiyan tusht hoti hain, devavrittiyan pusht hoti hain. shraddh ke samay snskar karane vale pramukh parijan sahit upasthit sabhi parijanon ko is ygy men yathashakti bhag lena chahie. apane svabhav ke sath judi dushpravrittiyon ko sadaiv ke lie ya kisi avadhi tak ke lie chhodane, paramarth gatividhiyon ko apanane ka snkalp kar liya jae, usaka puny mritatma ke hitarth apirt kiya jae. snkalp bolen:-

namahn...
namakamritatmanah devagatipradanatharh...
dinani yavath masapayarntn-vasharpayarntn...
dushpravrittyunmoolanaiah ...
satpravrittisndharanaiah jayamann punyn mritatmanah samutkasharnay shraddhapoovarkn ahn samaparyishye.

pitriygy

yah krity pitriygy ke antagart kiya jata hai. jis prakar tarpan men jal ke madhyam se apani shraddha vyakt ki jati hai, usi prakar havishyann ke madhyam se apani shraddhabhivyakti ki jani chahie. maranottar snskar men 12 pindadan kiye jate hain- jau ya gehoon ke ate men til, shahad, ghrit, doodh milakar lagabhag ek-ek chhatank ate ke pind banakar ek pattal par rakh lene chahie. snkalp ke bad ek-ek karake yah pind jis par rakhe ja saken, aisi ek pattal samip hi rakh leni chahie. chhah tarpan jinake lie kiye gaye the, unamen se pratyek varg ke lie ek-ek pind hai. satavan pind mritatma ke lie hai. any panch pind un mritatmaon ke lie hain, jo putradi rahit hain, agnidagdh hain, is ya kisi janm ke bandhu hain, uchchhinn kul, vnsh vale hain, un sabake nimitt ye panch pind samapirt hain. ye barahon pind pakshiyon ke lie athava gay ke lie kisi upayukt sthan par rakh diye jate hain. machhaliyon ko chugaye ja sakate hain. pind rakhane ke nimitt kush bichhate hue nimn mantr bolen:-

Om kushoasi kush putroasi, brahmana nimirtah pura.
tvayyachirtea chirtah soa stu, yasyahn nam kitarye.

maranottar (shraddh snskar) jivan ka ek abadh pravah hai. kaya ki samapti ke bad bhi jiv yatra rukati nahin hai. age ka kram bhi bhaliprakar sahi disha men chalata rahe, is hetu maranottar snskar kiya jata hai. sookshm vidyut tarngon ke madhyam se vaigyanik doorasth upakaran ka snchalan kar lete hain. shraddha usase bhi adhik sashakt tarngen preshit kar sakati hai. usake madhyam se pitaron-ko snehi parijanon ki jiv chetana ko disha aur shakti tushti pradan ki ja sakati hai. maranottar snskar dvara apani isi kshamata ke prayog se pitaron ki sadgati dene aur unake ashirvad pane ka kram chalaya jata hai. pitri-ygy hetu manishiyon ne hamare yahan ashvin ya kuar ke krishn-paksh ke poore pandrah din (matantar se 16 din) vishesh roop se surakshit kie hain. is pooja ke lie kuchh mukhy baten is prakar hai-

pitri-ygy: varshik shraddh
kramank vidhi
(k) pitri-paksh ke dinon men apane svargiy pita, pitamah, prapitamah tatha vriddh prapitamah aur svargiy mata, matamah, pramatamah evn vriddh-pramatamah ke nam-gotr ka uchcharan karate hue apane hathon ki anjuli se jal pradan karana chahie (yadi kisi karan-vash kisi pidhi ke pitar ka nam gyat n ho sake, to bhavana se smaran kar jal dena chahie).
(kh) pitaron ko jal dene ke lie vishesh vastuon ke prabandh ki avashyakata nahin hai. keval 1- kush, 2- kale til, 3- akshat (chaval), 4- gnga-jal aur 5- shvet-pushp paryapt hain. inhin se shraddha-poorvak jal pradan se pitar alp samay men santusht ho jate hain aur kalyan hetu ashirvad dete hain.
(g) skand-maha-puran’ men bhagavan shiv parvati ji se kahate hain ki – ‘he mahadevi ! jo ‘shraddh nahin karata, usaki pooja ko main grahan nahin karata. bhagavan hari bhi nahin grahan karate hain.
(gh) yadi kisi ko kisi karan-vash mata-pita ki mrityu-tithi ka gyan n ho, to use ‘amavasya’ ko hi varshik-shraddh karana chahie.
(n) shraddh-kartta ko keval ek samay bhojan karana chahie arthat ratri ko bhojan nahin karana chahie. shraddh ke din brahmachary ka palan karana chahie. [2]
bhootaygy-panchabali

bhootaygy ke nimitt panchabali prakriya ki jati hai. vibhinn yoniyon men snvyapt jiv chetana ki tushti hetu bhootaygy kiya jata hai. alag-alag patton ya ek hi badi pattal par, panch sthanon par bhojy padarth rakhe jate hain. urad-dal ki tikiya tatha dahi isake lie rakha jata hai. panchon bhag rakhen. kramashah mantr bolate hue ek-ek bhag par akshat chhodakar bali samapirt karen.

  1. gobali- pavitrata ki pratik goo ke nimitt- Om saurabheyyah savarhitaah, pavitraah punyarashayah. pratigrihnantu men grasn, gavastrailokyamatarah॥ idn gobhyah idn n mam.
  2. kukkurabali- kattarvyanishtha ke pratik shvan ke nimitt- Om dvau shvanau shyamashabalau, vaivasvatakulodbhavau. tabhyamannn pradasyami, syatametavahinsakau॥ idn shvabhyan idn n mam॥
  3. kakabali- malinata nivarak kak ke nimitt- Om aindravarunavayavya, yamya vai nairirtastatha. vayasaah pratigrihnantu, bhamau pindn mayojjhatimh. idn vayasebhyah idn n mam॥
  4. devabali- devatv snvadhark shaktiyon ke nimitt- Om devaah manushyaah pashavo vayansi, siddhaah sayakshoragadaityasnghaah. pretaah pishachastaravah samasta, ye channamichchhanti maya pradattamh॥ idn annn devadibhyah idn n mam.
  5. pipilikadibali- shramanishtha evn samoohikata ki pratik chintiyon ke nimitt- Om pipilikaah kitapatngakadyaah, bubhukshitaah kamarnibandhabaddhaah. teshan hi triptyatharmidn mayannn, tebhyo visrishtn sukhino bhavantu॥ idn annn pipilikadibhyah idn n mam. bad men gobali goo ko, kukkurabali shvan ko, kakabali pakshiyon ko, devabali kanya ko tatha pipilikadibali chinti adi ko khila diya jae.
manushyaygy-shraddh snkalp

isake antagart dan ka vidhan hai. divngat atma ne uttaradhikar men jo chhoda hai, usamen se utana ansh hi svikar karana chahie, jo pichhe vale bina kamaoo balakon ya striyon ke nivarh ke lie anivary ho-kamaoo santan ko use svikar nahin karana chahie. divngat atma ke any ahasan hi itane hain ki unhen anek janmon tak chukana padega, phir naya rin bhari byaj sahit chukane ke lie kyon sir par lada jae. asamarth sthiti men abhibhavakon ki seva svikar karana uchit tha, par jab vayask aur kamaoo ho gaye, to phir use lekar 'haram-khaoo' muftakhoron men apani ganana kyon karaee jae? poovarjon ke chhode hue dhan men kuchh apani or se shraddhanjali milakar unaki atma ke kalyan ke lie dan kar dena chahie, yahi sachcha shraddh hai. pani ka tarpan aur ate ki goli ka pindadan payarpt nahin, vah kriya krity to matr pratik hain. shraddha ki vastavik pariksha us shraddh men hai ki poovarjon ki kamaee ko unhin ki sadgati ke lie, satkarmo ke lie dan roop men samaj ko vapas kar diya jae. apani kamaee ka jo sadupayog, moh ya lobhavash svargiy atma nahin kar saki thi, us kami ki poorti usake uttaradhikariyon ko kar deni chahie. prachinakal men brahman ka vyaktitv ek samagr snstha ka pratiroop tha. unhen jo diya jata tha, usamen se nyoonatam nivarh lekar shesh ko samaj ki satpravrittiyon men kharch karate the. apana nivarh bhi isalie lete the ki unhen nirantar paramarth prayojanon men hi laga rahana padata tha. aj vaise brahman nahin hai, isalie unaka brahmabhoj bhi sanp ke chale jane par lakir pitane ki tarah hai. doston-rishtedaron ko mrityu ke upalakshy men davat khilana mookharta aur unaka khana nilarjjta hai, isalie mritakabhoj ki vidambana men n phnsakar shraddhadhan paramarth prayojan ke lie laga dena chahie, jisase janamanas men sadhgyan ka prakash utpann ho aur ve kalyanakari satpath par chalane ki prerana prapt karen, yahi sachcha shraddh hai. kanya bhojan, din-apahij, anathon ko zaroorat ki chizen dena, is prakriya ke pratikatmak upachar hain. isake lie tatha lok hitakari paramathirk karyo ( vriksharopan, vidyalay nirman) ke lie diye jane vale dan ki ghoshana shraddh snkalp ke sath ki jani chahie. snkalp॥

namahn...
namakamritatmanah shanti-sadgati-nimittn lokopayogikayartharh...
parimane dhanadanasy kanyabhojanasy va shraddhapoovarkn snkalpamh ahn karishye॥
snkalp ke bad nimn mantr bolate hue akshat-pushp dev vedi par chadhaen.
Om ushantastva nidhimahi, ushantah samidhimahi.
ushannushata a vah, pitrinhavisheaattave॥
Om dakshinamaroh trishtuph tvaavatu brihatsam, panchadashastomo grishmarituah kshatrn dravinamh॥[3]

panchaygy poore karane ke bad agni sthapana karake gayatri-ygy sampann karen, phir likhe mantr se 3 vishesh ahutiyan den.

Om sooyarputray vidmahe, mahakalay dhimahi.
tanno yamah prachodayath svaha.
idn yamay idn n mam॥[4]

isake bad svishtakrit - poonarhuti adi karate hue samapan karen. visajarn ke poorv pitaron tatha devashaktiyon ke lie bhojy padarth thali men sajakar naivedy apirt karen, phir kramashah kshama-pratharna, pind visajarn, pitri visajarn tatha dev visajarn karen.

pauranik mahattv

vaidik ygyon men ashvamedh ygy ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. yah mahakratuon men se ek hai.

ygy ki mahima


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aitarey brahman 8.20
  2. vaidik jagath daaut kaaum (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 2 aktoobar, 2010.
  3. -19.70, 10.11
  4. -y॰ga॰
  5. shatapath brahman 13.1-5
  6. taittiriy brahman 3.8-1
  7. katyayaniy shrotasootr 20
  8. apastamb 20
  9. ashvalayan 10.6
  10. shnkhayan 16
  11. mahabharat 10.71.14

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