व्रत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vrat aur upavas snkalpapoorvak kie ge karm ko 'vrat' kahate hain. manushy ko puny ke acharan se sukh aur pap ke acharan se du:kh hota hai. snsar ka pratyek prani apane anukool sukh ki prapti aur apane pratikool du:kh ki nivritti chahata hai. manav ki is paristhiti ko avagat kar trikalgy aur parahit men rat rishi muniyon ne ved, puran, smriti aur samast nibndhagrnthon ko atmasath kar manav ke kalyan ke hetu sukh ki prapti tatha du:kh ki nivritti ke lie anek upay kahe gaye hain. unhin upayon men se vrat aur upavas shreshth tatha sugam upay hain. vraton ke vidhan karane vale grnthon men vrat ke anek angon ka varnan dekhane men ata hai. un angon ka vivechan karane par dikhaee padata hai ki upavas bhi vrat ka ek pramukh ang hai. isilie anek sthalon par yah kaha gaya hai ki vrat aur upavas men paraspar bhav snbndh hai. anek vrat ke acharanakal men upavas karane ka vibhinn vidhan dekha jata hai.

yag ka vidhan

vrat dharm ka sadhan mana gaya hai. snsar ke samast dharmon ne kisi n kisi roop men vrat aur upavas ko apanaya hai. vrat ke acharan se papon ka nash, puny ka uday, sharir aur man ki shuddhi, abhilashit manorath ki prapti aur shanti tatha param purusharth ki siddhi hoti hai. anek prakar ke vraton men sarvapratham ved ke dvara pratipadit agni ki upasana roopi vrat dekhane men ata hai. is upasana ke poorv vidhanapoorvak agni parigrah avashyak hota hai. agniparigrah ke pashchath vrati ke dvara sarvapratham paurn mas yag karane ka vidhan hai. is yag ko prarnbh karane ka adhikar use us samay prapt hota hai jab yag se poorvadit vah vihit vrat ka anushthan snpann kar leta hai. yadi pramadavash upasak ne avashyak vratanushthan nahin kiya aur usake angabhoot niyamon ka palan nahin kiya to devata usake dvara samarpit havi dravy svikar nahin karate.

vrat ke niyam

brahman grnth ke adhar par devata sarvada satyashil hote hain. yah lakshan apane trigunatmak svabhav se paradhin manav men ghatit nahin hota. isilie devata manav se sarvada paroksh rahana pasnd karate hain. vrat ke parigrah ke samay upasak apane aradhy agnidev se karabaddh prarthana karata hai -'main niyamapoorvak vrat ka acharan karunga, mithya ko chhodakar sarvada saty ka palan karoonga.' is uparyukt arth ke dyotak vaidik mntr ka uchcharan kar vah agni men ahuti karata hai. us din vah ahoratr men keval ek bar havishyann ka bhojan, trin se achchhadit bhoomi par ratri men shayan aur akhnd brahmachary ka palan prabhriti samast avashyak niyamon ka palan karata hai.

vraton ke prakar

vaidik kal ki apeksha pauranik yug men adhik vrat dekhane men ate hain. us kal men vrat ke prakar anek ho jate hain. vrat ke samay vyavahar men lae janevale niyamon ki kathorata bhi kam ho jati hai tatha niyamon men anek prakar ke vikalp bhi dekhane men ate hain. udaharan roop men jahan ekadashi ke din upavas karane ka vidhan hai, vahin vikalp men laghu phalahar aur vah bhi snbhav n ho to phir ek bar odanarahit annahar karane tak ka vidhan shastrasammat dekha jata hai. isi prakar kisi bhi vrat ke acharan ke lie tadarth vihit samay apekshit hai. 'vasnte brahmanoagni nadadhit' arthath vasnt ritu men brahman agniparigrah vrat ka prarnbh kare, is shruti ke anusar jis prakar vasnt ritu men agniparigrah vrat ke prarnbh karane ka vidhan hai vaise hi chandrayan adi vraton ke acharan ke nimitt varsh, ayan, ritu, mas, paksh, tithi, var, nakshatr, yog aur karan tak ka vidhan hai. is pauranik yug men tithi par ashrit rahanevale vraton ki bahulata hai. kuchh vrat adhik samay men, kuchh alp samay men poorn hote hain.

  • nity, naimittik aur kamy, in bhedon se vrat tin prakar ke hote hain -
  1. jis vrat ka acharan sarvada ke lie avashyak hai aur jisake n karane se manav doshi hota hai vah nityavrat hai. saty bolana, pavitr rahana, indriyon ka nigrah karana, krodh n karana, ashlil bhashan n karana aur paraninda n karana adi nityavrat hain.
  2. kisi prakar ke patak ke ho jane par ya any kisi prakar ke nimitt ke upasthit hone par chandrayan prabhriti jo vrat kie jate hain ve naimiktik vrat hain.
  3. jo vrat kisi prakar ki kamana vishesh se protsahit hokar manav ke dvara snpann kie jate hain ve kamy vrat hain; yatha putraprapti ke lie raja dilip ne jo vrat kiya tha vah kamy vrat hai.
vrat ki samay sima

pratyek vrat ke acharan ke lie thoda ya bahut samay nishchit hai. jaise saty aur ahinsa vrat ka palan karane ka samay yavajjivan kaha gaya hai vaise hi any vrat ke lie bhi samay nirdharit hai. mahavrat jaise vrat solah varshon men poorn hote hain. ved vrat aur dhvajvrat ki samapti barah varshon men hoti hai. pnchamahabhootvrat, sntanashtamvrat ek varsh tak kiya jata hai. arundhati vrat vasnt ritu men hota hai. chaitr mas men vatsaradhvrat, vaishakh mas men skndashashthvrat, jyeshth mas men nirjala ekadashi vrat, ashadh mas men harishayanvrat, shravan mas men upakarm vrat, bhadrapad mas men striyon ke lie haritalika vrat, ashvin mas men navaratr vrat, kartik mas men gopashtam vrat, margashirsh mas men bhairavashtamvrat, paush mas men martnd vrat, magh mas men shattilvrat, aur phalgun mas men mahashivaratri vrat pramukh hain. mahalakshmi vrat, bhadrapad shukl ashtami ko prarnbh hokar solah dinon men poorn hota hai. pratyek snkranti ko acharaniy vraton men mesh snkranti ko sujanmavapti vrat, kiya jata hai. tithi par ashrit rahanevale vraton men ekadashi vrat kiya jata hai. tithi par ashrit rahanevale vraton men ekadashi vrat, var par ashrit vraton men ravivar ko soory vrat, nakshatron men ashvini nakshatr men shiv vrat, yogon men vishkunbh yog men dhritadanvrat, aur karanon men navakaran men vishnvruat ka anushthan vihit hai. bhakti aur shraddhanukool chahe jab kie jane vale vraton men satyanarayan vrat pramukh hai.

vaigyanik drishtikon

ek bar bhojan grahan karane par kuchh ghnton tak jo sharir ko khae hue ahar se shakti milati rahati hai, kintu usake pashchath‌ sharir men snchit ahar ke avayavon-protin, karbohaidret aur sneh ya vasa-ka sharir upayog karane lagata hai. vasa aur karbohaidret parishram karane ki shakti utpann karate hain. protin ka kam sharir ke toote phoote bhagon ka punarnirman karana hai. kintu jab upavas lnba ya adhik kal tak hota hai to shakti utpadan ke lie sharir protin ka bhi upayog karata hai. is prakar protin ootak nirman (tishoo phaaurmeshan) aur shaktyutpadan donon kam karata hai.

karbohaidret ki kami

sharir men karbohaidret do roopon men vartaman rahata hai : glookos, jo rakt men pravahit hota rahata hai, aur galaikojen, jo peshiyon aur yakrit men snchit rahata hai. sadharanataya karbohaidret sharir pratidin ke bhojan se milata hai. upavas ki avastha men jab rakt ka glookos kharch ho jata hai tab snchit glaikojen glookos men parinat hokar rakt men jata rahata hai. upavas ki avastha men yah snchit karbohaidret do char dinon men hi samapt ho jata hai; tab karbohaidret ka kam vasa ko karana padata hai aur sath hi protin ko bhi is kary men sahayata karani padati hai.

sharir par prabhav

sharir men vasa vishesh matra men tvacha ke niche tatha kalaon men snchit rahati hai. sthool sharir men vasa ki adhik matra rahati hai. isi karan dubale vyakti ki apeksha sthool vyakti adhik dinon tak bhookha rah sakata hai. sharir ko dainik karmon aur ooshma ke lie karbohaidret, vasa aur protin, tinon padarthon ki avashyakata hoti hai, jo usako apane ahar se prapt hote hain. ahar se upalabdh vasa yakrit men jati hai aur vahan par rasayanik pratikriyaon men vasaml aur aisito-aisitik-aml men parivartit hokar rakt men pravahit hoti hai tatha sharir ko shakti aur ushma pradan rakati hai. upavas ki avastha men sharir ki snchit vasa ka yakrit dvara isi prakar upayog kiya jata hai. yah snchit vasa kuchh saptahon tak karbohaidret ka bhi sthan grahan kar sakati hai. antar keval yah hai ki jab sharir ko ahar se karbohaidret milata rahata hai tab aisito-aisitik-aml yakrit dvara utani hi matra men snchalit hota hai jitani ki avashyakata sharir ko hoti hai. karbohaidret ki anupasthiti men is aml ka utpadan vishesh tatha adhik hota hai aur usaka kuchh ansh mootr men ane lagata hai. is ansh ko kiton kahate hain kiton ka mootr men paya jana sharir men karbohaidret ki kami ka chihn hai aur usaka arth yah hota hai ki karbohaidret ka kary ab snchit vasa ko karana pad raha hai. yah upavas ki prarnbhavastha men hota hai. rugnavastha men jab rogi bhojan nahin karata tab sharir men karbohaidret ke chayapachay ko janane ke lie mootr men kiton ki janch karate rahana avashyak hai. upavas ki lnbi avadhi men snchit vasa ke samapt ho jane par ushma aur shakti ke utpadan ka bhar protin par a padata hai. sharir ke komal bhag ka pray: 75 pratishat ansh protin se bana hua raha hai. upavas ki avastha men yahi protin emino-amlon men parivartit hokar rakt men pravahit hota hai. sabhi angon ke protinon ka snchalan saman matra men nahin hota hai. lnbe upavas men jab tak mastishk aur hriday ka bhar pray: 3 pratishat kam hota hai, tab tak peshiyon ka 30 pratishat bhar kam ho jata hai. sharirik ootakon (tishooz) se prapt emino-amlon ke mukhy do kary hain :

  1. atyavashyak angon ko surakshit rakhana aur
  2. rakt men glookos ki apekshit matra ko sthir rakhana.

protin naitrojan yukt padarth hote hain. atev jab sharir ke protin ko uparyukt kam karane padate hain tab mootr ka naitrojaniy ansh badh jata hai. upavas ke pahale saptah men yah ansh prati din mootr ke sath lagabhag 10 gram nikalata hai. doosare aur tisare saptah men isaki matra kuchh kam ho jati hai. yadi is naitrojaniy ansh ko bahar nikalane men vrikk asamarth hote hain to vah ansh rakt men jane lagata hai aur vyakti men mootraraktata (yoorimiya) ki dasha men utpann ho jati hai. isako vyakti ki antim avastha samajhana chahie.

sharir men karbohaidret aur vasa ke saman protin ka snchay nahin rahata. sharir ek jivit yntr hai. isaki rachana ka adhar protin hai. is yntr ki yah visheshata hai ki isake samany bhagon men protin upavas kal men bhi avashyak angon ki raksha karate rahate hain. sharirik yntr ka sucharu roop se kary karate rahana sharir men bananevale rasayanon, kinvon (enazaims) aur harmonon par nirbhar rahata hai. ye upavas ki avastha men bhi banate rahate hain. inake nirman ke lie sharir ke samany bhag apana protin aimino aml ke roop men pradan karate rahate hain, jisase ye rasayinak padarth banate rahen aur sharir ki kriya men badha n pade.

oorja ki kami

svasth sharir ke lie protin ki dainik matra pray: nishchit hai. ek yuvak ke lie prati din pratyek kilogram sharirik bhar ke anupat men lagabhag ek gram protin avashyak hai aur yah ahar se milata hai. garbhavati stri tatha badhate hue shishu, balak athava tarun ko 50 pratishat adhik matra men protin ki avashyakata hoti hai. isase adhik protin ahar men rahane se sharir ko usaka vishleshan karake bahishkar karana padata hai, jisase yakrit aur vrikk ka kary vyarth hi badh jata hai. protin sharirik yntr ki marammat ke kam men ata hai. atev rogottar tatha upavasottar kal men ahar men protin badha dena chahie. in sab baton ka pata naitrojan sntulan ke lekhe jokhe se lagaya ja sakata hai. yah kam jiv-rasayan-prayogashala men kiya jata hai. yadi mootr ke naitrojan ki matra bhojan ke naitrojan se kam ho tab isako dhanatmak naitrojan sntulan kahate hain. isase yah samajha jata hai ki ahar ke naitrojan (arthath‌ protin) men se sharir keval ek vishisht matra ko grahan kar raha hai. yadi, isake viparit, mootr ka naitrojan adhik ho, to isaka arth yah hai ki sharir apane protin se bane naitrojan ka bhi bahishkar kar raha hai. is avastha ko rinatmak naitrojan sntulan kahate hain. upavas ki avastha men 'rinatmak protin sntulan' aur upavasottar kal men, ahar men protin paryapt matra men rahane par, 'dhanatmak protin sntulan' rahata hai.

rog ke dinon men hamare desh men bhojan pray: bnd karake varji, saboodana adi hi diya jata hai. isase rogi ko tanik bhi protin nahin milata, jisase angon ke hras ki poorti nahin ho pati. atev shirgh pachanevali protin bhi kisi n kisi roop men rogi ko dena avashyak hai. badhate hue balakon aur bachchon men protin aur bhi avashyak hai.

upavas men kuchh dinon tak sharirik kriyaen snchit karbohaidret par, phir vishesh snchit vasa par aur ant men sharir ke protin par nirbhar rahati hain. mootr aur rakt ki pariksha se un padarthon ka pata chal sakata hai jinaka sharir par us samay upayog kar raha hai. upavas ka pratyaksh lakshan hai vyakti ki shakti ka nirntar hras. sharir ki vasa ghul jati hai, peshiyan kshin hone lagati hain. uthana, baithana, karavat lena adi vyakti ke lie dushkar ho jata hai aur ant men mootraraktata (yoorimiya) ki avastha men chetana bhi jati rahati hai. rakt men glookos ki kami se sharir klant tatha kshin hota jata hai aur ant men sharirik yntr apana kam bnd kar deta hai.

bngal men akal

1943 ki akalapidit bngal ki janata ka vivaran bada hi bhayavah hai. is akal ke samajik aur naitik drishtikon bade hi romanchakari hain. kintu usaka vaigyanik adhyayan bada shikshaprad tha. bubhukshiton ke snbndh men jo anveshan hue unase upavas vigyan ko bada labh hua. ek drishtant yah hai ki in akalapidit bhukhamaron ke munh men doodh dalane se vah guda dvara jaise ka taisa turnt bahar ho jata tha. jan padata tha ki unaki antadiyon men n pachan ras banata tha aur n unamen kuchh gati (spndan) rah gee thi. aisi avastha men shiraon (ven) dvara unhen bhojan diya jata tha. tab kuchh kal ke bad unake amashay kam karane lagate the aur tab bhi ve poorv pachit padarthon ko hi pacha sakate the. dhire-dhire unamen doodh tatha any aharon ko pachane ki shakti ati thi.

isi prakar gat vishvayuddh men jin deshon men khady vastuon par bahut niyntran tha aur janata ko bahut dinon tak poora ahar nahin mil pata tha unamen bhi upavasajanati lakshan pae ge aur unaka adhyayan kiya gaya. in adhyayanon se ahar vigyan aur upavas snbndhi gyan men vishesh vriddhi huee. aisi alpahari janata ka svasthy bahut kshin ho jata hai. usamen rog pratirodhak shakti nahin rah jati. gat vishvayuddh men uchit ahar ki kami se kitane hi balak andhe ho ge, kitane hi any rogon ke gras bane.

upavas todane ke niyam

upavas poorn ho ya adhoora, thodi avadhi ke lie ho ya lnbi avadhi ke lie, chahe dharm ya rajaniti par adharit ho, sharir par usaka prabhav avadhi ke anusar saman hota hai. dirghakalin alpahar se sharir men ve hi parivartan hote hain jo poorn upavas men kuchh hi samay men ho jate hain. upavas todane ke bhi vishesh niyam hain. anashan: pray: phalon ke ras se toda jata hai. ras bhi dhire-dhire dena chahie, jisase pachak pranali par vishesh bhar n pade. do tin din thoda ras lene ke pashchath‌ ahar ke thos padarthon ko bhi aise roop men prarnbh karana chahie ki amashay adi par, jo kuchh samay se pachan ke anabhyast ho ge hain, akasmath‌ vishesh bhar n pad jae. ahar ki matra dhire-dhire badhani chahie. is avadhi men sharir vishesh adhik matra men protin grahan karata hai, isaka bhi dhyan rakhana avashyak hai.[1]




panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 122 |

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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