अयन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ayan ka arth hota hai chalana. poore varsh men soory gatiman rahata hai, soory ki avastha se hi rituon ka nirdharan hota hai.

  • hindoo dharm men ayan 'samay pranali' hai jisase rituon ka gyan hota hai.
  • kranti vrit ke pratham ansh ka vibhajan uttar aur dakshin gol ke madhyavarti dhurvon ke dvara mana gaya hai. yah vibhajan "uttarayan" aur "dakshinayan" kahalata hai.
  • ek varsh do ayan ke barabar hota hai aur ek ayan devata ka ek din hota hai. 360 ayan devata ka ek varsh ban jata hai.
  • soory ki sthiti ke anusar varsh ke adhe bhag ko ayan kahate hain. ayan do hote hain-
  1. uttarayan - soory ke uttar disha men ayan arthath gaman ko uttarayan kaha jata hai.
  2. dakshinayan - soory ke dakshin disha men ayan arthath gaman ko dakshinayan kaha jata hai.

ayan adhe varsh tak soory akash ke uttar golardh men rahata hai, adhe varsh tak dakshin golardh me. dakshin golardh se uttar golardh men jate samay soory ka kendr akash ke jis bindu par rahata hai use vasntavishuv kahate hain. yah vindu taron ke sapeksh sthir nahin hai; yah dhire-dhire khisakata rahata hai. is khisakane ko vishuv ayan ya snkshep men keval ayan (priseshan) kahate hain (ayan=chalan). vasntavishuv se chalakar aur ek chakkar lagakar jitane kal men soory phir vahin lautata hai utane ko ek sayan varsh kahate hain. kisi tare se chalakar soory ke vahin lautane ko nakshatr varsh kahate hain. yadi vishuv chalata n hota to sayan aur nakshatr varsh barabar hote. ayan ke karan donon varshon men kuchh minaton ka antar padata hai. adhunik napon ke anusar ausat nakshatr varsh ka man 365 din, 6 ghnta, 9 minat, 9.6 seknd ke lagabhag aur ausat sayan varsh ka man 365 din, 5 ghnta, 48 minat, 46.054 seknd ke lagabhag hai. sayan varsh ke anusar hi vyavaharik varsh rakhana chahie, anyatha varsh ka arnbh sada ek ritu men n padega. hinduon men jo varsh abhi tak prachalit tha vah sayan varsh se kuchh minat bada tha. isalie varsh ka arnbh age ki or khisakata ja raha tha. udaharanat: pichhale dhaee hajar varshon men 21 ya 22 din ka antar pad gaya hai. thik-thik batana snbhav nahin hai, kyonki sooryasiddhant brahmasiddhant, aryabhatiy ityadi men varshaman thoda bahut bhijh hai. yadi ham log do char hajar varshon tak purane varshaman ka hi prayog karen to savan bhadon ke mahine us ritu men padenge jab kadake ka jada padata rahega. isilie bharat sarakar ne ab apane rashtriy pnchang men 365.2422 dinon ka sayan varsh apanaya hai.

ayan ka ek parinam yah hota hai ki akashiy dhruv, arthath‌ akash ka vah bindu jo prithvi ke aksh ki sidh men hai, taron ke bich chalata rahata hai. vah ek chakkar lagabhag 26,000 varshon men lagata hai. jab kabhi uttar akashiy dhruv kisi chamakile tare ke pas a jata hai to vah tara prithvi ke uttar golardh men dhruvatara kahalane lagata he. is samay uttar akashiy dhruv pratham laghu saptarshi (ailfa arasi maijoris) ke pas hai. isilie is tare ko ham dhruvatara kahate hain. abhi akashiy dhruv dhruvatare ke pas ja raha hai, isalie abhi saikadon varshon tak poorvokt tara dhruvatara kahala sakega. lagabhag 5,000 varsh pahale pratham kaliy (ailfa draikonis) namak tara dhruvatara kahalane yogy tha. bich men koee tara aisa nahin tha jo dhruvatara kahalata. aj se 15,000 varsh pahale abhijit (vega) namak tara dhruvatara tha. hamare grihm sootron men vivah ke avasar par dhruvadarshan karane ka adesh hai. pratyaksh hai ki us samay koee n koee dhruvatara avashy tha. isase anuman kiya gaya hai ki yah pratha aj se lagabhag 5,000 varsh pahale chali hogi. shatapath brahman men likha hai ki krittikaen poorv men uday hoti hain. isase shatapath lagabhag 3,000 ee. poo. ka grnth jan padata hai, kyonki ayan ke karan krittikaen usake pahale aur bad men poorv men nahin uday hoti thin.

ayan ka karan

ayan ka karan-lattoo ko nachakar bhoomi par ek prakar rakh dene se ki lattoo ka aksh khada n rahakar tirachha rahe, lattoo ka aksh dhire-dhire mndarata rahata hai aur vah ek shnku (kon) parilikhat karata hai. thik isi tarah prithvi ka aksh ek shnku parilikhit karata hai jisaka ardh shirshakon lagabhag 23½° hota hai. karan yah hai ki prithvi thik-thik golakar nahin hai. bhoomadhy par vyas adhik hai. mote hisab se ham yah man sakate hain ki kendriy bhag shuddh roop se golakar hai aur usake bahar nikala bhag bhoomadhyarekha par chipaka hua ek valay hai. soory sada ravimarg ke samatal men rahakar prithvi ko akarshit karata hai. yah akarshan prithvi ke kendr se hokar nahin jata, kyonki poorvakalpit valay ka ek khnd apekshakrit soory ke kuchh nikat rahata hai, doosara kuchh door. nikatasth bhag par akarshan adhik padata hai, doorasth par kam. isalie in akarshanon ki yah pravritti hoti hai ki prithvi ko ghumakar usake aksh ko ravimarg ke dharatal par lnb kar den. yah ghoornanaj b prithvi ke apane aksh ke parit: ghoornan ke sath snlisht (kaaumbain) kiya jata hai to parinami ghoornan aksh ki disha nikalati hai jo prithvi ke aksh ki purani disha se jara si bhinn hoti hai, arthath‌ prithvi ka aksh apani purani sthiti se is navin sthiti men a jata hai. doosare shabdon men, prithvi ka aksh ghoomata rahata hai. aksh ke is prakar ghoomane men chndrama bhi sahayata karata hai. vastut: chndrama ka prabhav soory ki apeksha doona padata hai. sookshm ganana karane par sab baten thik vahi nikalati hain jo bedh dvara dekhi jati hain.[1]

prithvi ki madhyarekha ke phoole dravy par soory ke asam akarshan se prithvi ka aksh ek shnku parilikhit karata hai. chndramarg ka samatal ravimarg ke samatal se 5° ka kon banata hai. is karan chndrama prithvi ko kabhi ravimarg ke oopar se khinchata hai, kabhi niche se. phalat:, bhoomadhyarekha tatha ravimarg ke dharatalon ke bich ka kon bhi thod bahut badalata rahata hai. jise vidolan (nyooteshan) kahate hain. prithviaksh ke chalane se vasnt aur sharadh vishuv donon chalate rahate hain.

oopar batae ge ayan ko chandr-saur-ayan (looni-solar priseshan) kahate hain. isamen bhoomadhy ka dharatal badalata rahata hai. parntu grahon ke akarshan ke karan svayn ravimarg thoda vichalit hota hai. isase bhi vishuv ki sthiti men antar padata hai. ise grahiy ayan (plainetari priseshan) kahate hain.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 212 |
  2. sn.grn.-nyookaaumb : sferikal aistraaunomi; gorakhaprasad : sferikal aistraaunomi.

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