कल्प  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kalp ka arth

‘kalp’ shabd ka prayog rigved [1] men paya jata hai. [2], jahan aisa aya hai- ‘srishtikarta ne soory, chndr, din, prithvi evn antariksh ki, pahale ki bhanti, srishti ki.’ nishchit tithi vala atynt prachin praman ashok ke anushasanon men paya jata hai, yatha giranar evn kalasi ka chautha prastar-lekh [3] tatha shahabajagadhi evn manasehara ka panchava prastar lekh [4]. isase yah siddh hota hai ki kalp ke vishal vistar ke siddhant ee. poo. tisari shati ke bahut pahale se gyat the. bauddhon ne bhi kalpon ke siddhant ko apanaya tha, yah 'mahaparinibbanasut' [5] se prakat hai- ‘he bhagavanh, kripa karake kalp men rahen . he mahabhag, asnkhy logon ke kalyan evn sukh ke lie kalp bhar rahen.’ aisi manyata hai ki adi kal men manav-samaj adarsh roop se ati utkrisht tha aur kramash: naitik baton, svasthy, jivan-vistar adi men kramik apakarsh hota chala gaya aur sudoor bhavishy men pun: padh naitik baton adi ka svarn yug avatarit hoga.

yug shabd ke kee arth

‘yug’ shabd ke kee arth hain-

  1. kal ki alpavadhi [6],
  2. panch varshon ka ek vritt,
  3. dirghavadhi evn sahasron varsh ki avadhi.
  • pro. manh-kad ne ‘poona orintalist’ [7] men isake das arth diye hain. unaki sabhi baten grahan nahin ki ja sakati, udaharanasvaroop, jab ve shakuntal [8] men yug ko din ka chauthaee bhag manate hain . shakuntal men usaka arth hona chahie ‘soory akash men (poorv kshitij men) ek yug (ghura) oopar a gaya hai.’ rigved [9] men bhi yahi arth hai. mahabharat, manusmriti evn puranon men yugon, manvantaron evn kalpon ke vishay men bahut kuchh vistar ke sath varnit hai.
  • yug char hain -
  1. krit,
  2. treta,
  3. dvapar evn
  4. tishy ya kali aur ye keval bharat se sambndhit mane gaye hain. [10]
  • arambhik roop men dyoot (jooa) ke kinhin char pashon ke prakshepon (phenkon) ko yug kaha jata tha, kintu lagabhag ee. poo. chauthi shati men yug manavon se sambndhit ho gaya.
  • arambhik guptabhilekhon men krit yug ko mahanh gunon ke vritt se sambndhit mana gaya hai [11].
  • mahabharat men yugon, manvantaron evn kalpon ke siddhant ka vistar se ullekh hua hai [12];
  • manusmriti [13], vishnudharmasootr [14], vishnu puran[15], brahm puran[16], matsy puran[17], vayu puran[18], koorm puran[19], brahmand puran[20], markandey puran [21] men bhi yug snbndhi vishal sahity hai.
  • jyoti:shastriy grnth bhi, yatha aryabhatiy, sooryasiddhant, brahmagupt, siddhantashiromani bhi inake vishay men ullekh karate hain, kintu inamen kahin bhi kalpon, manvantaron evn yugon ke udbhav ke vishay men santoshajanak vyakhya nahin di gayi hai .
  • parjitar mahoday ka kathan hai ki yug vibhajan ka aitihasik adhar hai. katipay puranon men aya hai ki yug-siddhant bharat tak hi simit tha. samanyat: yugon ke svabhav ya svaroop ka varnan in granthon men ek-sa hai, kintu vistaron men matabhed hai.
  • manusmriti ke ullekh prachinatam ullekhon men pariganit hain. sat manu ye hain-
  1. svaynbhuv,
  2. svarochish,
  3. uttam,
  4. tamas,
  5. raivat,
  6. chakshush evn
  7. vaivasvat .
  • isake uparant nimeshon ka vibhajan hai - 18 nimesh=kashtha, 30 kashtha=kala, 30 kala=muhoort, 30 muhoort=ahoratr.
  • aisi manyata hai ki manav mas pitaron ka ahoratr (din evn ratri) hai, manav varsh daiv ahoratr hai. krit yug ka vistar daiv-man se 4000 varsh hai, isake poorv sndhya 400 varsh hai isake uparant sandhyant 400 varsh hai . shesh tin, treta, dvapar evn kaliyug kram se 3000, 2000 evn 1000 daivavarsh ke hain; sndhya evn sndhyant kram se hain 600, 400 evn 200 daiv varsh . is prakar char yugon ka vistar 12000 varshon (4800+3600+2400+1200) ka hai, jise devon ka yug (yah divy manak hai) kaha gaya hai; in charon ke 1000 varsh brahma ka ek din aur utani hi brahma ki ek ratri hai. 12000 daiv varshon ke 71 yugon men pratyek ko manvantar kaha jata hai aur manvantar asnkhy hain aur isi prakar srishtiyan evn pralay bhi asnkhy hain. manu men kalp ka ullekh nahin hai.
  • manusmriti ke atirikt any granthon men jaise - vishnu puran [22] men aya hai ki 14 manvantaron ka ek kalp hota hai, jo brahma ka ek din hai . devon ka ek din ek manav varsh hai, at: 12000 varshon ki chaturyugi 43,20,000 manav varshon ke barabar hogi (12000 X 360), jise manush kal-manak kaha jata hai. yugon ki in vishal varsh snkhyaon ka nirdesh kab aur kaise hua, yah abhi ek paheli hi hai.
  • shatapath brahman kal men hi log vishal varsh-snkhyaon se parichit the. shatapath brahman men[23] aya hai ki ek varsh men 10,800 muhoort hote hain (30 X 360, 30 ahoratr ka dyotak hai), prajapati ne rigved ki vyavastha is prakar ki ki isake aksharon ki snkhya 12000 vyahratiyon (pratyek vyahrati men 36 akshar hote hain) ke barabar hai, arthath kul akshar 4,32,000 hain; aisa bhi kaha gaya ki rigved men 10,800 pnktiyan (pratyek pnkti men 40 akshar hain, at: 10800 X 40=4,32,000) hain. prajapati ne any do vedon ki vyavastha bhi ki aur tinon vedon men 8,64,000 akshar hain . 360 ygyiy dinon men 10,800 muhoort hote hain aur muhoort ke uparant muhoort par 80 aksharon ki vriddhi hoti hai, at: 10,800 X 80=8,64,000 akshar hue.
  • peris ke ‘kaaulej d frans’ ke pro. da. jin filiyojat ne ek mat prakashit kiya hai ki shatapath[24] men di gee uparyukt snkhya vaigyanik hai aur heraklits ne jo kaha hai ki 10,800 sadharan manush varsh ‘mahan varsh’ dyotak hain aur berosas ne jo yah kaha ki mahanh jyotishiy kal 4,32,000 varshon ka hai, to vah yah hai ki yoonaniyon ne bharat se udhar liya [25]
  • brahma ka ek din barabar hai ek kalp ke , arthath 4,32,0000 X 1000=4,32,00,00,000 varsh . brahma ke jivan ke 100 varsh ke manush varsh janane ke liye 4,32,00,00,000 ko 2 se guna aur pun: 360 aur pun: 100 se guna karana hoga, is prakar brahma ka varsh barabar hoga 31,10,40,00,00,00,000 manav varsh ke.
  • yahi bat albarooni [26] ne bhi kahi hai. kuchh logon ne brahma ke jivan ko 108 varsh mana hai. brahma ab tak 50 varsh ke ho chuke hain. aur unake jivan ka doosara ardhansh hai, ab varahakalp evn 'vaivasvat manvantar' (satavan) chal raha hai. atit chh: manu hain- svaynbhuv, svarochish, uttam, tamas, raivat evn chakshush tatha aj ke manu hain vaivasvat (sataven). [27]. shesh 7 manu vibhinn roopon se sngyapit hain .
  • narasinh-puran [28] men bhavi manuon ke nam ye hain-
  1. savarni,
  2. daksh savarni,
  3. brahmasavarni,
  4. dharmasavarnik,
  5. rudrasavarni,
  6. ruchi evn
  7. bhaum;
  1. savarni,
  2. raibhy,
  3. rauchy evn
  4. merusavarni.
  • narad puran [30] men 14 manuon ke nam aye hain. aisa aya hai ki pratyek manvantar [31]men vibhinn rishiyon, manu-putron, devon, rajaon, smritiyon, indr evn dharm ki samyak vyavastha evn logon ki raksha ke palakon ka dal hota hai [32].
  • vishnu puran men aisa aya hai ki kuchh dev char yugon tak, kuchh ek manvantar tak aur kuchh ek kalp tak rahate hain[33].
  • vishnu dharmasootr [34] men manu ke saman hi manvantaron evn kalpon ka ullekh hai kintu isamen ek any bat bhi hai ki brahma ka sampoorn jivan purush (vishnu) ke ek din ke barabar hai aur purush ki ratri bhi itani hi lambi hai. yah drashtavy hai ki yahi mat albarooni [35] ne pulish siddhant men bhi paya hai. yah nahin gyat hai ki un yooropiy vidvanon ne, jo pulish ko 'paulas alekjaidrinas' kahate hain, yah kis prakar bataya hai ki uparyukt baten yoonani jyotirvid paulas men payi jati hain.
  • kaliyug ke [36] nirashavadi evn darun vrittanton ka ullekh vanaparv [37], shantiparv [38], harivnsh [39], brahm puran [40], vayu puran [41], matsy puran [42], koorm puran [43] tatha any puranon men kiya gaya hai. vayu puran [44] men 33 kalpon ke nam aye hain. matsy puran [45] ne 30 kalpon ke nam diye hain . brahmand puran [46] men aya hai ki kalp 25 men se n kam hain aur n adhik .
  • puranon men pralay ke char prakar diye gaye hain:
  1. nity (jo janm lete hai unaki prati din ki mrityu),
  2. naimittik (jab brahma ka ek din samapt hota hai, aur vishv ka nash hota hai)
  3. prakritik (jab pratyek vastu prakriti men vilin ho jati hai) tatha
  4. atyantik pralay (moksh, samyakh gyan se paramatma men vilinata).
  • katipay puranon men naimittik aur prakritik pralayon ka ati dukhavah varnan paya jata hai. koorm puran [47] men ullikhit hai- 'jab ek sahasr chaturyugon ka ant hota hai to ek sau varshon tak varsha nahin hoti; parinam yah hota hai ki prani mar jate hain aur prithvi men vilin ho jate hai; soory ki kiranen asahay ho jati hain , yahan tak ki samudr sookh jate hain; parvaton, vanon evn mahadvipon ke sath prithvi soory ki bhishan garmi se jalakar rakh ho jati hai. jab soory ki kiranen pratyek vastu ko jalati girati hai to sampoorn vishv ek vishal agni ke sadrish lagata hai. chal evn achal sabhi vastuen jal uthati hain . mahasamudron ke jantu bahar akar rakh ban jate hain. snvartak agni prachnd andhi se badhakar sampoorn prithvi ko jalane lagati hai aur usaki jvalaen sahasron yojan oopar uthane lagati hain, ve gandharvon, pishachon, yakshon, nagon, rakshason ko jalane lagati hai, keval prithvi hi nahin, pratyut ‘bhuv:’ evn ‘sv:’ lok bhi jal jate hain . tab vishal snvartak badal hathiyon ke jhundon ke saman, vidyut se chamatkrit ho akash men chha jate hain aur ati varsha kar agni bujhane lagate hain. jab agni bujh jati hai, nash ke badal sampoorn lok ko badhon se gher lete hai; parvat chhip jate hain, prithvi pani men nimagn ho jati hai aur sabhi kuchh jalarnav ho jata hai aur tab brahma yaugik nidra men a jate hain.' vanaparv [48] men naimittik pralay ka snkshipt varnan hai.
  • koorm puran [49] evn vishnu puran [50] men prakritik pralay ka varnan hai jo sankhy ke varnan ke saman hai - 'jab agh lokon ke sath sabhi lok anavrishti se nasht ho jate hai aur mahat se age ke sabhi prabhav nasht ho jate hain , to jal sarvapratham gandh ko sokh leta hai aur jab gandhat matra nasht ho jati hai, prithvi jalamay ho jati hai, jal ke vishisht gun ras-tanmatra ka nash ho jata hai, keval agni shesh rahati hai aur sampoorn lok agnijvala se paripoorn ho jata hai; tab vayu agni ko atmasat kar leta hai aur roop-tanmatra ka vinash ho jata hai; vayu sabhi 10 dishaon ko hila deta hai; akash vayu ke sparsh-gun ko har leta hai aur keval akash hi shoony-sa pada rahata hai aur shabd-tanmatra chali jati hai. is prakar sat prakritiyan mahat evn ahnkar ke sath kram se samapt ho jati hai; yahan tak ki purush evn prakriti paramatma (vishnu) men vilin ho jate hain. vishnu ka din manush varshon ke do pararghon ke barabar hota hai.'
  • harivnsh [51], kahate hain ki kalp ke ant men keval muni markandey bache rahate hain aur pralay (ya kalp) ke samay tak vishnu men avasthit rahate hain aur phir unake mukh se bahar a jate hain .
  • brahm puran [52] ka kathan hai ki kalpant ke samay markandey ek vat vriksh dekhate hain aur ratnajatit ek shayya par pade hue ek balak (svayn vishnu) ko dekhate hai; isake uparant ve usamen pravesh kar jate hain aur bad ko bahar a jate hain .
  • matsy puran [53], bhagavadgita [54] men brahma ki ratri ke agaman par sabhi praniyon ke bar-bar lay evn brahma ke din ke arambh par praniyon ke pun:udbhav ki bat ayi hai.
  • yugon, manvantaron evn kalpon ka siddhant avastavik evn kalpana matr hai. kintu isamen antarhit bhav hai ki akhil brahmand ki 'kal-snhita'; yadyapi samay-samay par yah prakat hota hai, kramash: ghatata, nasht ho jata hai, keval divy prakash ke uparant poornata ke roop men pun: prakat hone ke liye. isamen yah bhavana bhi hai ki manav vastavikata ke pichhe pada rahata hai aur bhanti-bhanti ke adarshon ki prapti karana chahata hai. isamen yah mahanh bhavana hai ki manav kisi vishisht lakshy ko lekar chalata hai, vibhinn prakar ke bade-bade prayason evn udyogon ke sath usaki prapti ka prayatn karata hai, kuchh saphalata ke uparant us lakshy ka tyag karata hai aur us dhng ko bhi chhodata hai jisake sahare vah age badha tha aur pun: kisi any lakshy ka nirdharan karata hai aur usaki prapti ke lie bahut kal tak is asha se prayatn karata hai ki sudoor kal men vah aise samaj ka nirman kar sake jo poorn ho. [55]
  • yugon, manvantaron evn kalpon ke siddhant ke vistaron ke vishay men kee mat-matantar hain.
  • aryabhat ke mat se charon yugon ka vistar saman tha, n ki 4, 3, 2 evn 1 ke samanupat men; unhonne kaha hai ki jab ve 23 varsh ke the to tin yugapad evn 3600 varsh vyatit hue the [56].
  • brahmagupt [57] ne kaha hai ki yadyapi aryabhat ne ghoshit kiya hai ki kritayug adi yugon ke char pad barabar hai, kintu smritiyan men aisi bat nahin jati . ek any virodhi bat bhi hai. aryabhat [58] ne kaha hai ki manu 72 yugon ki ek avadhi hai, kintu any smritiyon evn puranon ne manvantar ko 71 yug mane hain. aryabhat ne yah bhi kaha hai ki brahma ka din 1008 chaturyugon ke barabar hai [59].
  • prasiddh vaigyanik jyotirvid bhaskarachary [60] ne adhairy ke sath kaha hai- ‘kuchh logon ka kathan hai ki brahma ka ardh jivan (arthath 50 varsh) samapt ho chuka hai kintu kuchh logon ke mat se 58 varsh vyatit hue hain. chahe jo saty parampara ho, isaka koee upayog nahin hai, brahma ke chaloo din men jo din vyatit ho chuke hain, unhin men sthitiyon ko rakhana hai. ’


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rigved,10|190|3
  2. sooryachndramasau dhata yavapoorvamakalpayath. didn ch prithivin chantarikshamo sv:. rigved (10|190|3
  3. av savat kapa arthath yavath sarvat-kalpamh
  4. av kapamh=yavat kalpamh
  5. mahaparinibbanasut 3|53
  6. rigved 3|26|3
  7. poona orintalist (jild 6,pri. 211-212
  8. 4 yugantaramh aroodh: savita
  9. rigved 10|60|8, 10|101|3 evn 4
  10. chatvari bharate varshe yugani munayo vidu:. kritn treta dvaparn ch tishyn cheti chaturyugamh॥ - vayu puran (24|1,45|137 evn 57|22) aur matsy puran(142|17-18), brahm puran (27|64). dvapar yug ke ant ke vishay men kee baten payi jati hain. aisa aya hai ki kauravon evn pandavon ka yuddh dvapar evn kali ki sndhya men hua. mahabharat adiparv 2|13). shalyaparv (60|25), vanaparv (149|38) men aya hai ki jab bharatayuddh hone vala tha to kaliyug samip tha. kintu bahut-se puranon men aisa aya hai ki krishn ne jab apane avatar ka ant kiya aur svarg chale ge to kaliyug ka arambh ho gaya. yah bat vayu puran (99|428-429), brahmand puran (3|74|241), matsy puran (273|49-50), vishnu puran (4|14|110), bhagavat puran (12|2|32), brahm puran (212|8) men doosare shabdon men kathit hai. mausalaparv (1|13 evn 2|20) men aya hai ki krishn bharat-yuddh (mahabharat) ke turnt bad hi ya kuchh varshon ke uparant dvapar ka ant hua.
  11. epigraiphiya indika, jild 23, pri. 81
  12. vanaparv adhyay 149,188; shantiparv adhyay 69, 231-232
  13. manusmriti 1|61-74, 79-86
  14. vishnudharmasootr 20|1-21
  15. vishnu puran 1|3, 6|3
  16. brahm puran 5|229-232
  17. matsy puran 142-145
  18. vayu puran adhyay 21,22,57,58,100
  19. koorm puran 1, a. 51 evn 53
  20. brahmand puran 2|6 evn 31-36, 3|1
  21. markandey puran 58-64, 66-70,91-97
  22. vishnu puran 6|3|11-12
  23. shatapath brahman 10|4|2, 22, 23, 25
  24. shatapath brahman
  25. da. je. filiyojat, je. o. ar., madras, jild 25,1957 ee. pri.1-8
  26. alaberooni sachau, jild 1, pri. 332
  27. brahm puran (5|4-5), vishnu puran (3|1|6-7
  28. nrisinh puran 24|17-35
  29. brahm puran 5|5-6
  30. narad puran 1|40|20-23
  31. manvantar ka arth hai ‘any manu:’ ya manoonamantaramavakashoavadhirva. yadi 1000 mahayugon ko 14 se bhag den to pratyek manvantar 71 mahayug+kuchh aur (arthath 14 mahayug). ‘manu’ shabd rigved evn any snhitaon men aya hai. manu ko manavata evn muniyon ka pita kaha gaya hai ki ve manavon ke uchit marg ka pradarshan karate hain . - rigved (2|33|13|, 8|30|3, 4|54|1); taittiriy snhita(2|2|10|2); kathak snhita (11|5).shatapath brahman (1|8|1|1) men manu evn pralay ki prasiddhi gatha ayi hai. taittiriy snhita (3|1|9|4-6) evn aitarey brahman (22|9) men manu evn unake putr nabhanedisht ki katha hai.
  32. brahm puran 5|39; vishnu puran 3|1-2
  33. vishnu puran 1|12|93
  34. vishnu dharmasootr 20|1-15
  35. albarooni sachau, jild 1, pri.332
  36. jo puranon ke anusar 4,32,000 varshon tak chalega aur jo 5071 varshon tak sanh 1970 ee. men bit chuka hai
  37. vanaparv (adhyay 188, 190
  38. shantiparv 69|80-97
  39. bhavishyaparv, adhyay 3-5
  40. brahm puran adhyay 229-230
  41. vayu puran adhyay 58,99
  42. matsy puran 144|32-47
  43. koorm puran 1|30
  44. vayu puran adhyay 21-23
  45. matsy puran 290
  46. brahmand puran 2|31|119
  47. koorm puran 2|45|11-49
  48. vanaparv (272|32-48
  49. koorm puran 1|46
  50. vishnu puran 6|4|12-49
  51. bhavishyaparv, adhyay 10|12-68
  52. brahm puran 52|12-29 evn 53|55
  53. matsy puran 167|14-66
  54. bhagavadgita 8|18-19
  55. manusmriti- tap: parn kritayuge tretayan gyanamuchyate. dvapare ygymevahurdanamekn kalau yuge॥- manusmriti (1|86) yahi bat shanti parv (23|28), vayu puran (8|65-66), parasharasmriti (1|23)men aya hai—‘kritayug men tap sarvochch lakshy tha, treta men gyan, dvapar men ygy, kali men keval dan .’ yah bat manav ke vibhinn sundar udyogon evn preranaon ki dyotak hai.
  56. kalakriyapad 10
  57. brahmagupt 1|9
  58. aryabhat dashaghatika, shlok 3
  59. brahmagupt 1|12
  60. bhaskarachary 1114 ee. men utpann

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