अधिक मास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adhik mas
pustak 'adhikamas mahatmy'
vivaran 'adhik mas' ka hindoo dharm men bada hi mahattv mana gaya hai. bharat men khagoliy ganana ke anusar pratyek tisare varsh ek adhik mas hota hai.
any nam 'adhimas', 'malamas', 'malimluch', 'snsarp', 'anhaspati' ya 'anhasaspati', 'purushottamamas'.
kya karen is mah men vrat, dan, pooja, havan, dhyan adi karane se pap karm samapt ho jate hain aur kie ge punyon ka phal kee guna prapt hota hai.
vishesh 'malamas' ya 'adhik mas' ka koee svami nahin hota, at: is mah men sabhi prakar ke mangalik kary, shubh evn pitrikary varjit mane ge hain.
any janakari devi bhagavat puran ke anusar 'malamas' men kie gaye sabhi shubh karmo ka annt guna phal prapt hota hai. is mah men 'bhagavat' katha shravan ki bhi vishesh mahatta hai. adhik mas men tirth sthalon par snan ka bhi mahattv hai.

purushottam, mal ya adhik mas
bharatiy pnchang (khagoliy ganana) ke anusar pratyek tisare varsh ek adhik mas hota hai. yah saur aur chndr mas ko ek saman lane ki ganitiy prakriya hai. shastron ke anusar purushottam mas men kie ge jap, tap, dan se annt punyon ki prapti hoti hai. soory ki barah snkranti hoti hain aur isi adhar par hamare chndr par adharit 12 mah hote hain. har tin varsh ke antaral par adhik mas ya malamas ata hai. shastranusar-

yasmin chandre n snkranti: so adhimaso nigahyate
tatr mngal karyani naiv kuryat kadachanh.
yasmin mase dvi snkranti kshay: mas: s kathyate
tasmin shubhani karyani yatnat: parivarjayet..

adhik mas kya hai?

  • jis mah men soory snkranti nahin hoti vah adhik mas hota hai. isi prakar jis mah men do soory snkranti hoti hai vah kshay mas kahalata hai.
  • in donon hi mason men mangalik kary varjit mane jate hain, parntu dharm-karm ke kary puny phaladayi hote hain. saur varsh 365.2422 din ka hota hai jabaki chndr varsh 354.327 din ka hota hai. is tarah donon ke kailendar varsh men 10.87 din ka farq a jata hai aur tin varsh men yah antar 1 mah ka ho jata hai. is asamanata ko door karane ke lie adhik mas evn kshay mas ka niyam banaya gaya hai.

adhik mas kyon v kab

yah ek khagolashastriy tathy hai ki soory 30.44 din men ek rashi ko par kar leta hai aur yahi soory ka saur mahina hai. aise barah mahinon ka samay jo 365.25 din ka hai, ek saur varsh kahalata hai. chndrama ka mahina 29.53 dinon ka hota hai jisase chndr varsh men 354.36 din hi hote hain. yah antar 32.5 mah ke bad yah ek chndr mah ke barabar ho jata hai. is samay ko samayojit karane ke lie har tisare varsh ek adhik mas hota hai. ek amavasya se doosari amavasya ke bich kam se kam ek bar soory ki snkranti hoti hai. yah prakritik niyam hai. jab do amavasya ke bich koee snkranti nahin hoti to vah mah badha hua ya adhik mas hota hai. snkranti vala mah shuddh mah, snkranti rahit mah adhik mah aur do amavasya ke bich do snkranti ho jayen to kshay mah hota hai. kshay mas kabhi kabhi hota hai.

adhik mas ke vividh sndarbh

  • adhik mas kee namon se vikhyat hai - adhimas, malamas, malimluch, snsarp, anhaspati ya anhasaspati, purushottamamas. inaki vyakhya avashyak hai. yah drashtavy hai ki bahut prachin kal se adhik mas nindy thaharaye ge hain.
  • aitarey brahman [1] men aya haiah 'devon ne som ki lata 13ven mas men kharidi, jo vyakti ise bechata hai vah patit hai, 13van mas phaladayak nahin hota.'
  • taitariy snhita men 13van mas 'snsarp' evn 'anhaspati' [2] kaha gaya hai.
  • rigved men 'anhash' ka tatpary pap se hai. yah atirikt mas hai, atah adhimas ya adhik mas nam pad gaya hai. ise malamas isalie kaha jata hai ki manon yah kal ka mal hai.
  • atharvaved [3] men 'malimluch' aya hai, kintu isaka arth spasht nahin hai.
  • kathasnhita [4] men bhi isaka ullekh hai.
  • pashchatkalin sahity men 'malimluch' ka arth hai 'chor'. [5].
  • malamasatattv [6] men yah vyutpatti haiah 'mali sanh mlochati gachchhatiti malimluchah' arthath 'malin (gnda) hone par yah age badh jata hai'. 'snsarp' evn 'anhasaspati' shabd vajasaneyi snhita [7] men tatha 'anhasaspatiy vajasaneyi snhita [8] men ae hain. [9].
  • 'anhasaspati' ka shabdik arth hai 'pap ka svami'. pashchatkalin lekhakon ne 'snsarp' evn 'anhasaspati' men antar vyakt kiya hai. jab ek varsh men do adhimas hon aur ek kshay mas ho to donon adhimason men pratham 'snsarp' kaha jata hai aur yah vivah ko chhodakar any dharmik krityon ke lie nindy mana jata hai. anhasaspati kshay mas tak simit hai. kuchh puranon men[10] adhimas purushottam mas (vishnu ko purushottam kaha jata hai) kaha gaya hai aur sambhav hai, adhimas ki nindyata ko kam karane ke lie aisa nam diya gaya hai.
  • dharmashastriy granthon men adhimas ke vishay par bahut kuchh likha hua hai-
  • agni puran [11] men aya hai - vaidik agniyon ko prajvalit karana, moorti-pratishtha, ygy, dan, vrat, snkalp ke sath ved-path, sand chhodana (vrishotsarg), choodakaran, upanayan, namakaran, abhishek adhimas men nahin karana chahie.
  • hemadri [12] ne varjit evn many krityon ki lambi-lambi soochiyan di hain.[13].
  • samany niyam yah hai ki malamas men nity karmon evn naimittik karmon (kuchh vishisht avasaron par kie jane vale karmon) ko karate rahana hi chahie, yatha sandhya, pooja, pnchamahaygy (brahmaygy, vaishvadev adi), agni men havi dalana (agnihotr ke roop men), grahan-snan (yadyapi yah naimittik hai), antyeshti karm (naimittik). yadi shastr kahata hai ki yah krity (yatha som ygy) nahin karana chahie to use adhimas men sthagit kar dena chahie. yah bhi samany niyam hai ki kamy (nity nahin, vah jise kisi phal ki prapti ke lie kiya jata hai) karm nahin karana chahie. kuchh apavad bhi hain, yatha kuchh karm, jo adhimas ke poorv hi arambh ho ge hon (yatha 12 dinon vala prajapaty prayashchit, ek mas vala chandrayan vrat), adhimas tak bhi chalae ja sakate hain. yadi dubhiksh ho, varsha n ho rahi ho to usake lie 'kariri ishti' adhimas men bhi karana mana nahin hai, kyonki aisa n karane se hani ho jane ki sambhavana rahati hai. ye baten kalanirnay-karikaon (21-24) men varnit hain.[14]
  • kuchh baten malamas ke lie hi vyavasthit hain, yatha pratidin ya kam se kam ek din brahmanon ko 33 apoopon (pooon) ka dan karana chahie.
  • kuchh aise karm hain jo shuddh mason men hi karaniy hain, yatha vapi evn tadag (bavali evn talab) khudavana, koop banavana, ygy karm, mahadan evn vrat.
  • kuchh aise karm hain jo adhimas evn shuddh mas, donon men kie ja sakate hain, yatha garbh ka krity (punsavan jaise snskar), byaj lena, parishramik dena, mas-shraddh (amavasya par), ahnik dan, antyeshti kriya, nav-shraddh, magha nakshatr ki trayodashi par shraddh, solah shraddh, chandr evn saur grahanon par snan, nity evn naimittik krity [15].
  • jis prakar hamare yahan 13ven mas (malamas) men dharmik krity varjit hain, pashchim deshon men 13vin snkhya abhagyasoochak mani jati hai, visheshatah mej par 13 chizon ki snkhya.

ganana ka adhar

kal nirdharan men ‘varsh’ ki ganana ka mukhy adhar soory ke charon or prithvi ka bhraman hai. isase rituen banati hain. at: saur varsh ka spashtat: rituon ke sath sambandh hai. ek varsh men pray: 365.256363 din hote hain. saur man ke anusar ek saur snkrannti se doosari saur snkrannti tak ka samay ek saur mas hota hai kintu bharatiy paddhati ke anusar 'chandrama' se 'mas' ganana ko nirdharit kiya jata hai, jisaka man ek amavasya se doosari amavasya tak (amant man ke anusar) athava ek poornamasi se doosari poornamasi tak (poornimant man ke anusar) hota hai. savan ke dinon men chandraman ki avadhi lagabhag 29.5306 din hoti hai. at: barah chandr mas vale chandravarsh men pray: 354.3672 din hote hain. is prakar chandr varsh nirayan saur varsh se lagabhag 11 din kam hota hai kintu varsh ki ganana saur varsh se hi ki jati hai. bharatiy acharyon ne khagoliy vaigyanik vidhi se chandr evn saur manakon men samnjasy karane ke lie 'adhimas' ya 'malamas' jodane ki vidhi ka vikas kiya, jisase hamare vrat, parvotsav adi ka sambndh rituon aur chandr tithiyon se hi bana raha. is paddhati ka prachalan vaidik kal se hi prapt hota hai. vahan barah mason ke sath terahaven mas ki kalpana spashtataya prapt hoti hai[16]. us samay men bhi saur aur mas chandr mas the. varsh ganana ka sahaj sadhan rituon ka ek paribhramanakal aur mas ganana ka sahaj sadhan chandrama ke do bar poorn hone ki avadhi hai. yahi chandr saur pranali vikasit roop men hamare yahan ke paramparagat pnchangon men milati hai.

rituon ke ek chakr kal arthath ek varsh men char bindu khagoliy drishtikon se mahattvapoorn hain jo kramash: sayan mesh, kark, tula aur makar saur snkranti hain. inamen se mesh evn tula snkraman ko arthath 21 march aur 22 sitnbar ko din aur ratri barabar hote hain jabaki kark snkraman ( 21 joon) ko sabase bada din aur sabase chhoti rat aur makar snkraman ( 22 disambar) ko sabase chhota din aur sabase badi rat hoti hai. in kalon men jaivik prakriya men atyadhik sakriyata evn parivartan drishtigochar hote hain. at: in binduon ke asann kal men shakti, oorja, manasvita ityadi ki prapti hetu shaktipoojan upayukt pratit hota hain.

basant ritu ko vedon men snvatsar ka mukh kaha gaya hai[17]. isalie basant ritu men varsharambh hona chahie. hamare vrat, parvotsav ka nirdharan chandraman ke anusar hi hota hai, basant ritu aur mesh snkraman ka sambandh chandramason men ‘chaitr’ mas hai. 'chaitr' mas se hi chandramason ki ganana ki jati hai at: 'chaitr mas' se hi varsharambh mana jata hai. vaidik kal men bhi varsharambh chaitr mas athava vedokt madhumas men manaye jane ka praman milata hai. chandramas ka mukhyaman amant hai isilie 'shukl pratipada' se hi varsh ki pravritti mani gee hai. is prakar 'chaitr shukl pratipada' ko chandr saur paddhati ke anusar kalaganana ke anusar 'varsharambh' svikrit kiya gaya hai. bharatiy jyotish siddhant men chandr saur paddhati ke karan ‘chaitr shukl pratipada’ hi varsharambh ke roop men mani jati hai. kaliyug saptarshi-vikram-shak-gupt prabhriti bharatiy snvatsaron ki chandr-saur ganana ka prarambh bindu bhi ukt kal hi hai. in snvatsaron men vikram evn shak kal ka hi adhik chalan hai. vikram snvath ‘malav’ evn krith’ nam se bhi kee sthalon par ullikhit hai. bngal ko chhodakar sampoorn uttar bharat men isaka prachalan hai. 'vikram snvath' lokapriyata ke karan ‘snvath’ nam se bhi prachalit hai. jyotish siddhant men khagoliy ganana ke lie pray: shak kal ka hi prayog kiya jata hai.

paramparagat shruti hai ki raja shalivahan ne sanh 78 ee. men shakon ko parast kar vijay smriti ke roop men shak kal ko prarambh kiya tha, kuchh vidvanh shakon ke dvara hi shak snvat ka prarambh manate hain.

adhik mas men kya karen

is mah men vrat, dan, pooja, havan, dhyan karane se pap karm samapt ho jate hain aur kie ge punyon ka phal kee guna prapt hota hai. devi bhagavat puran ke anusar malamas men kie gaye sabhi shubh karmo ka annt guna phal prapt hota hai. is mah men bhagavat katha shravan ki bhi vishesh mahatta hai. purushottam mas men tirth sthalon par snan ka bhi mahattv hai.

purushottam mas kaise hua

hamare pnchang men tithi, var, nakshatr evn yog ke atirikt sabhi mas ke koee n koee devata ya svami hain, parntu malamas ya adhik mas ka koee svami nahin hota, at: is mah men sabhi prakar ke mangalik kary, shubh evn pitri kary varjit mane ge hain.

puran men

adhik mas svami ke na hone par vishnulok pahunche aur bhagavan shrihari se anurodh kiya ki sabhi mah apane svamiyon ke adhipaty men hain aur unase prapt adhikaron ke karan ve svatntr evn nirbhay rahate hain. ek main hi bhagyahin hoon jisaka koee svami nahin hai, at: he prabhu mujhe is pida se mukti dilaie. adhik mas ki prarthana ko sunakar shri hari ne kaha 'he malamas mere andar jitane bhi sadgun hain vah main tumhen pradan kar raha hoon aur mera vikhyat nam 'purushottam' main tumhen de raha hoon aur tumhara main hi svami hoon.' tabhi se malamas ka nam purushottam mas ho gaya aur bhagavan shri hari ki kripa se hi is mas men bhagavan ka kirtan, bhajan, dan-puny karane vale mrityu ke pashchath shri hari dham ko prapt hote hain.

poojan vidhi

pavitr sthan par akshat se asht dal banakar jal ka kalash sthapit karana chahie. bhagavan radha-krishn ki pratima rakhakar podara vidhi se poojan karen aur katha shravan ki jae. sndhya samay dipadan karana chahie. mah ke ant men dhatu ke patr men 30 ki snkhya men mishthann rakhakar dan kiya jae.

purushottam mas men bhakt bhanti-bhanti ka dan karake puny phal prapt karate hain. mndiron men katha-puran ke ayojan kie jate hain. divngaton ki shanti aur kalyan ke lie poore mah jal seva karane ka snkalp liya jata hai. mitti ke kalash men jal bhar kar dan kiya jata hai. kharabooza, am, tarabooz sahit any mausami phalon ka dan karana chahie. mah men snan kar vidhipoorvak poojan-archan katha shravan karana chahie.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aitarey brahman 3|1
  2. taitariy snhita 1|4|4|1 evn 6|5|3|4
  3. atharvaved 8|6|2
  4. kathasnhita 38|14
  5. rigved 10|136|2, vajasaneyi snhita (22|30), shankhayan shrautasootr (6|12|15
  6. malamasatattv pri0 768
  7. vajasaneyi snhita 22|30 evn 31
  8. vajasaneyi snhita 7|31
  9. taitariy snhita (1|4|14|1 evn 6|5|3|4
  10. padm puran, 6|64
  11. agni puran 175|29-30
  12. hemadri, kal, pri0 36-63
  13. nirnayasindhu (pri0 10-15) evn dharmasindhu (pri0 5-7
  14. kamyarambhn tatsamaptin vivarjayeth.
    arabdhn malamasath prakh krichchhrn chandradikn tu yath.
    tatsamapyn savanasy manasyanatilnghanath..
    arambhasy samapteshch madhye syachchenmalimluchah.
    pravrittamakhiln kamyn tadanushtheyamev tu..
    kariryadi tu yatkamyn tasyarambhasamapane karyakalavilambasy pratikshaya asambhavath..
    ananyagatikn nityamagnihotradi n tyajeth.
    gatyantarayutn nityn somayagadi varjayeth.. - kalanirnay-karika (21-24).

  15. hemadri, kal, pri0 52; samay prakash, pri0 145
  16. va.sn. 7/30, 22/31 tai. sn. 1/4/14, 5/6/7, tai.vra. 3/8/3
  17. taitariy brahman 1/1/2/6,7

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