ग्रहण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chandr grahan ki kuchh jhalakiyan

(angrezi bhasha:- Eclipse) grahan ek khagoliy avastha hai jisamen kisi khagoliy pind (grah ya upagrah) ka poorn athava anshik roop se kisi any pind se dhak jana ya pichhe a jana arthath kisi prakash ke srot jaise soory aur doosare khagoliy pind jaise prithvi ke bich a jana jisase prakash ka kuchh samay ke liye avarodh ho jata hai, grahan kahalata hai. jab koee khagoliy pind kisi any pind dvara badhit hokar nazar nahin ata, tab grahan hota hai. soory ek prakash pind hai, jisake charon or grah ghoom rahe hai. apani kakshaon men ghoomate hue jab tin khagoliy pind ek rekha men a jate hai tab grahan hota hai. inamen mukhy roop se prithvi ke sath hone vale grahanon men nimnalikhit ullekhaniy hain :-

  1. chandr grahan - is grahan men chand ya chndrama aur soory ke bich prithvi a jati hai. aisi sthiti men chand prithvi ki chhaya se hokar gujarata hai. aisa sirf poornima ke din snbhav hota hai.
  2. soory grahan - is grahan men chand soory aur prithvi ek hi sidh men hote hain aur chand prithvi aur soory ke bich hone ki vajah se chand ki chhaya prithvi par padati hai. aisa akasar amavasya ke din hota hai.
  3. poorn grahan - yah grahan tab hota hai jab khagoliy pind jaise prithvi par prakash poori tarah avaruddh ho jaye. anshik grahan ki sthiti men prakash ka srot poori tarah avaruddh nahin hota.

grahan ka shastron ke anusar varnan

yah vaigyanik vishleshan n hokar keval pauranik jyotish aur khagol shastr dvara di gee grahan ki vyakhya matr hai-

prachin kalon se soory-chandr-grahanon ko mahattv diya jata raha hai. grahan ke sambandh men vishal sahity ka nirman ho chuka hai. sambandhit grnth hain-

  1. hemadri
  2. kalavivek
  3. krityaratnakar
  4. kalanirnay
  5. varshakriyakaumudi
  6. tithitattv
  7. krityatattv
  8. nirnayasindhu
  9. smritikaustubh
  10. dharmasindhu
  11. gadadharapaddhati [1]

soory aur chandr grahan

  • poorn soory-grahan ka snket rigved[2] men bhi hai.
  • shankhayan brahman[3] men aya hai ki atri ne vishuvat (vishuv) ke tin din poorv saptadash-stom krity kiya aur usake dvara us svarbhanu ko pachhada jisane soory ko andhakar se bhed diya tha, arthath sooryagrahan[4] sharad vishuv ke tin din poorv hua tha.
grahan
  • brihatsnhita se prakat hota hai ki grahan ka vastavik karan bharatiy jyotish shastrgyon ko varahamihir (eesa ki chhathi shatabdi ka poorvardh) ke kee shatabdiyon poorv se gyat tha. varahamihir ne likha hai - chandragrahan men chandr prithivi ki chhaya men a jata hai tatha sooryagrahan men chandr soory men pravisht ho jata hai. (arthath soory evn prithivi ke bich men chandr a jata hai.), grahanon ke is karan ko pahale ke achary apani divy drishti se janate the; rahu grahanon ka karan nahin hai, yahi saty sthiti hai jise shastr ghoshit karata hai.[5] is saty siddhant ke rahate hue samany log, yahan tak ki padhe-likhe log (kintu jyotishashastrgy nahin). pahale vishvas karate the aur ab bhi vishvas karate hain ki rahu ke karan grahan lagate hain aur unhen snan, dan, jap, shraddh adi ka vishisht avasar manate hain. varahamihir ne shruti, smriti, samany vishvas evn jyotish ke siddhant ka samadhan karane ka prayatn kiya hai aur kaha hai ki ek asur tha jise brahma ne varadan diya ki grahan par diye gaye danon evn ahutiyon se tum ko sntushti prapt hogi. vahi asur apana ansh grahan karane ko upasthit rahata hai v use lakshanik roop se rahu kaha jata hai. buddhivad, samany paramparaen evn andhavishvas ek-sath nahin chal sakate. soory evn chandr ke grahanon men kuchh antar upasthit kiya gaya tha.
  • vyas ki ukti hai- 'chandragrahan (samany din se) ek lakhaguna (phaladayak) hai aur soory grahan pahale se dasaguna, yadi gnga-jal (snan ke lie) pas men ho to chandragrahan ek karodaguna adhik (phaladayak) hai aur sooryagrahan usase das-guna adhik[6] grahan-darshan par pratham kartavy hai snan karana. aisa kaha gaya hai ki rahu dekhane par sabhi varnon ke log apavitr ho jate hain. unhen sarvapratham snan karana chahie, tab any kartavy karane chahie, (grahan ke poorv) pakaye hue bhojan ka tyag kar dena chahie.[7]
  • grahan ke samay ke vishay men vichitr punitata ka ullekh hua hai, yadi koee vyakti grahan-kal evn snkranti-kal men snan nahin karata to vah bhavi sat janmon men kodhi ho jayaga aur du:kh ka bhagi hoga (s.m., pri. 130). use thande jal men snan karana chahie aur vah bhi yathasambhav pavitr sthal par. punitatam snan gnga nadi men ya godavari men ya prayag men hota hai, isake uparant kisi bhi badi nadi men, yatha 6 nadiyan jo himalay se nikali hain, 6 nadiyan jo vindhy se nikali hain, isake uparant kisi bhi jal men, kyonki grahan ke samay sabhi jal gnga ke saman pavitr ho uthate hain. garm jal ka snan keval bachchon, boodhon evn rogiyon ke lie agyapit hai. [8]
  • grahan arambh hone par snan, hom, devon ki pooja, grahan ke samay shraddh, jab grahan samapt hone ko ho to dan tatha jab grahan samapt ho jay to pun: snan karana chahie. janan-maran ke samay ashauch par bhi grahan ke samay snan karana chahie, kintu gaud-lekhakon ke mat se, use dan ya shraddh nahin karana chahie. is vishay men madanaratn tatha nirnayasindhu ne virodhi mat diya hai; unake mat se ashauch men snan, dan, shraddh evn prayashchitt karana chahie.[9]
  • kuchh puranon evn nibandhon men kuchh vishisht mason ke grahanon ke phalon tatha kuchh vishisht nadiyon ya poot sthalon men snan ke phalon men antar pratipadit hue hain.
  • kalanirnay ne chandragrahan par godavari men evn sooryagrahan par narmada men snan ki vyavastha di hai.[10]
  • krityakalpataroo (naiyatakal), hemadri (kal) evn kalavivek ne devipuran ki uktiyan di hain, jinamen kuchh nimn hain- 'kartik ke grahan men gnga-yamuna-sngam shreshth hai, margashirsh men devika men, paush men narmada men, magh men sannihita nadi pavitr hai' adi-adi. samany niyam yah hai ki ratri men snan, dan evn shraddh varjit hai.
  • apastambamantrapath men aya hai- 'ratri men use snan nahin karana chahie.'[11]
  • manusmriti ka kathan hai- ratri men snan nahin hona chahie, kyonki vah rakshasi ghoshit hai, aur donon sandhyayon men tatha jab soory abhi-abhi udit hua hai snan nahin karana chahie. kintu grahan men snan, dan evn shraddh apavad hain.[12]
  • yagyvalkyasmriti ke anusar grahan shraddh-kal kaha gaya hai.[13]
  • shatatap ka kathan hai ki grahan ke samay danon, snanon, tapon evn shraddhon se akshay phal prapt hote hain, any krityon men ratri (grahanon ko chhodakar) rakshasi hai, at: isase vimukh rahana chahie.[14]
  • mahabharat men aya hai- 'ayan evn vishuv ke dinon men, chandr-soory-grahanon par vyakti ko chahie ki vah supatr brahman ko dakshina ke sath bhoomidan de,'.[15]
  • yagyvalkyasmriti men hai ki 'keval vidya ya tap se hi vyakti supatr nahin hota, vahi vyakti patr hai jisamen ye donon tatha karm (in donon ke samanuroop) paye jayen.'
  • katipay shilalekhon men grahan ke samay ke bhoomidanon ka ullekh hai; prachin evn madhy kalon men raja evn dhani log aisa karate the.[16] aj bhi grahan ke samay daridr log nagaron evn bastiyon men vastron evn paison ke lie shor-gul karate drishtigochar hote hain.

grahan ke samay shraddh

grahan ke samay shraddh-karm karana do karanon se kathin hai-

  1. adhikansh men grahan alpavadhi ke hote hain,
  2. doosare, grahan ke samay bhojan karana varjit hai. grahan ke samay bhojan karane se prajapaty prayashchitt karana padata hai. isi se kuchh smritiyon evn nibandhon men aisa aya hai ki shraddh am-shraddh ya hem-shraddh hona chahie. grahan ke samay shraddh karane se bada phal milata hai, kintu us samay bhojan karane par prayashchitt karana padata hai aur vyakti any logon ki drishti men gir jata hai.
  • mitakshar[17] ne uddhrit kiya hai- 'soory ya chandr ke grahanon ke samay bhojan nahin karana chahie.' at: koee patr brahman asani se nahin mil sakata, aur vistar ke sath shraddh-karm ek prakar se asambhav hai. tab bhi shatatap adi kahate hain ki shraddh karana avashyak hai- 'rahu darshan par vyakti ko shraddh karana chahie, yahan tak ki apani sampoorn sampatti ke sath; jo vyakti shraddh nahin karata vah gay ke saman pnk men doob jata hai.'

grahan ka vidhan

grahan par krityon ke kram yon hain-

  1. gnga ya kisi any jal men snan,
  2. pranayam,
  3. tarpan,
  4. gayatrijap,
  5. agni men til evn vyahritiyon tatha grahon ke lie vyavasthit mantron ke sath hom[18], isake uparant
  6. am-shraddh, sona, gayon evn bhoomi ke dan. ajakal adhikansh log grahan ke samay snan karate hain aur kuchh dan bhi karate hain kintu grahan-sambandhi any krity nahin karate. grahan-kal jap, diksha, mantr-sadhana (vibhinn devon ke nimitt) ke lie uttam kal hai.[19] jab tak grahan ankhon se dikhaee deta hai tab tak ki avadhi punyakal kahi jati hai.

vibhinn mat

  • jabali men aya hai- 'snkranti men isake idhar-udhar 16 kalaon tak punyakal rahata hai kintu sooryachandr-brahan men yah keval tab tak rahata hai jab tak grahan darshan hota rahata hai.[20] is vishay men madhyakalik granthon men bade mat-matantar hain. vibhed 'yavaddarshanagochar' evn 'rahu-darshan' shabdon ko lekar hai.[21]
  • krityakalpataroo ka tark hai ki 'darshan' shabd katipay krityon (yatha snan, dan adi) ke karan evn avasar ko batata hai, grahan to tabhi avasar hai jab yah jana ja sake ki vah ghatit hua hai aur yah gyan ankh se prapt hota hai tatha jab soory ya chandr badalon men chhipa ho to vyakti grahan ke samay ke pratipadit karm nahin bhi kar sakata hai. hemadri ne isaka uddharan dekar isaki alochana ki hai. ve manu ke is kathan par vishvas karate hain ki[22] vyakti ko udit hote hue, ast hote hue ya jab usaka grahan ho yah jal men pratibimbit ho ya jab soory madhyahn men ho to usako nahin dekhana chahie. aisi sthiti men manu ke mat se vastavik grahan-darshan asambhav hai aur tab to vyakti snan nahin kar sakata. hemadri ka kathan hai ki shisht log snan adi karate hain, bhale hi ve grahan ko vastavik roop men n dekh saken. at: unake mat se punyakal tab tak rahata hai jab tak (jyotish) shastr dvara vah samapt n samajha jay.
chandr grahan ki kuchh jhalakiyan
  • krityaratnakar (pri. 526) ka kathan hai ki jab tak uparag (grahan) darshan yogy rahata hai tab tak snanadi kriya hoti rahati hai. kuchh logon ne to aisa tark kiya hai ki keval grahan-matr (darshan nahin) aisa avasar hai jab ki snan, dan adi krity kiye jane chahie, kintu kalavivek (pri. 521) ne uttar diya hai. ki yadi grahan-matr hi snanadi ka avasar hai to aisi sthiti utpann ho jaegi ki yadi chandr ka grahan kisi any dvip men ho to vyakti ko din men hi sooryagrahan ke saman apane desh men snanadi karane honge.
  • smritikaustubh (pri. 70) evn samayaprakash (pri. 126) ne isilie kaha hai ki 'darshanagochar' ka tatpary yah hai ki jab vyakti jyotishashastr se janata hai ki kisi desh men grahan ankhon se dekha ja sakata hai to use us kal men snanadi krity karane chahie. (bhale hi vah use n dekh sake)
  • snvatsar pradip ne spasht likha hai- 'vahi grahan hai jo dekha ja sake, vyakti ko aise grahan par dharmik krity karane chahie, keval ganana par hi ashrit nahin rahana chahie.' yadi sooryagrahan ravivar ko evn chandragrahan somavar ko ho to aisa sammilan 'choodamani' kahalata hai aur aisa pratipadit hai ki choodamani grahan any grahanon ki apeksha ek koti adhik phaladayak hota hai.[23]
  • kuchh logon ne aisa pratipadit kiya hai ki grahan ke ek din poorv upavas karana chahie, kintu hemadri ne kaha hai ki upavas grahan-din par hi hona chahie. kintu putravan grihasth ko upavas nahin karana chahie.[24] bahut prachin kalon se grahan ke poorv, usake samay tatha uparant bhojan karane ke vishay men vistar ke sath niyam bane hain.[25] inamen katipay shlok vibhinn logon dvara vibhinn logon ke kahe gaye hain.
  • vishnudharmasootr men vyavastha hai- 'chandr ya soory ke grahan-kal men bhojan nahin karana chahie; jab grahan samapt ho jay to snan karake khana chahie; yadi grahan ke poorv hi soory ya chandr ast ho jayen to snan karana chahie aur sooryoday dekhane ke uparant hi pun: khana chahie.' yahi bat kuchh granthon men uddhrit do shlokon men vistarit hai- 'soory-grahan ke poorv nahin khana chahie aur chandr-grahan ke din ki sandhya men bhi nahin khana chahie; grahan-kal men bhi nahin khana chahie; kintu jab soory evn chandr grahan se mukt ho jayen to snanoparant khaya ja sakata hai; jab chandr mukt ho jay to usake uparant ratri men bhi khaya ja sakata hai, kintu yah tabhi kiya ja sakata hai jab mahanisha n ho; jab grahan se mukt hone ke poorv hi soory ya chandr ast ho jayen to doosare din unake uday ko dekhakar hi snan karake khana chahie.'
  • yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki n keval grahan ke kal men hi khana nahin chahie, pratyut chandragrahan men arambh hone se 3 prahar (9 ghante ya 22.5 ghatikaen) poorv bhi bhojan nahin karana chahie aur sooryagrahan ke arambh ke char prahar poorv bhojan nahin karana chahie; kintu yah niyam bachchon, vriddhon evn striyon ke lie nahin hai.[26] yah tin ya char praharon ki avadhi (grahan ke poorv se) prachin kal se ab tak 'vedh' nam se vikhyat hai. krityatattv (pri. 434) ne bhojan vishayak sabhi uparyukt niyam ek sthan par ekatr kar rakhe hain. aj ye niyam bhali bhanti nahin sampadit hote, kintu aj se lagabhag 70 varsh poorv aisi sthiti nahin thi.

grahan ke phal

grahanon se utpann bahut se phalon ki charcha huee hai. do-ek udaharan yahan diye jate hain. vishnudharmottar[27] men aya hai- 'yadi ek hi mas men pahale chandr aur uparant soory ke grahan hon to is ghatana ke phalasvaroop brahmanon evn kshatriyon men jhagade ya virodh utpann honge, kintu yadi isaka ulata ho to samriddhi ki vriddhi hoti hai.[28] usi puran men yah bhi aya hai- 'us nakshatr men, jisamen soory ya chandr ka grahan hota hai, utpann vyakti du:kh pate hain, kintu in du:khon ka marjan shanti krityon se ho sakata hai.' is vishay men atri ki ukti hai- 'yadi kisi vyakti ke janm-din ke nakshatr men chandr evn soory ka grahan ho to us vyakti ko vyadhi, pravas, mrityu evn raja se bhay hota hai.[29]

chandr grahan ki kuchh jhalakiyan


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hemadri (kal, pri. 379-394), kalavivek (pri. 521-543), krityaratnakar (pri. 625-631), kalanirnay (pri. 346-358), varshakriyakaumudi (pri. 90-117), tithitattv (pri. 150-162), krityatattv (pri. 432-434), nirnayasindhu (pri. 61-76), smritikaustubh (pri. 69-80), dharmasindhu (pri. 32-34), gadadharapaddhati (kalasar, pri. 588-599)
  2. rigved(5.40.5-6, 8)
  3. shankhayan brahman(24.3)
  4. rigved5.40.5)
  5. bhoochchhayan svagrahane bhaskaramarkagrahe pravishatindu:.... ityuparagakaranamuktamidn divyadrigbhiracharvai:. rahurakaranamasmitriyukt: shastrasadbhav:॥ brihatsnhita (5.8 evn 13)
  6. indorlakshagunn proktn raverdashagunn smritamh. gngatoye tu samprapte indo: koti raverdash॥ hemadri (kal, pri. 384), kalavivek (pri. 521) evn nirnayasindhu (pri. 64).
  7. hemadri , kal, pri. 390; kalavivek, pri. 533; varshakriyakaumudi, pri. 91)
  8. sarv gngasamn toyn sarve vyasasama dvija:. sarv meroosamn dann grahane sooryachandrayo:॥ bhujabal (pri. 348); varshakriyakaumudi (pri. 111); kalanirnay (pri. 348); s. m. (pri. 130). godavari bhimarathi tungabhadra ch venika. tapi payoshni vindhyasy dakshine tu prakirtita:॥ bhagirathi narmada ch yamuna ch sarasvati. vishoka ch vitasta ch himavatparvatashrita:॥ eta nady: pushyatama devatirthanyudahrita:. brahmapuran (70 .33-34)
  9. nirnayasindhu, pri. 66)
  10. kalanirnay(pri. 350)
  11. apastambamantrapath(1.11.32.8)
  12. manusmriti(3.280)
  13. yagyvalkyasmriti(1.2.18)
  14. hemadri, kal, pri. 387; kalavivek,pri. 527; smritikaustubh, pri. 71)
  15. kalanirnay, pri. 354; smritikaustubh, pri. 72)
  16. dekhie indiyan aintikveri, 6, pri. 72-75; epigraiphiya indika, 3, pri. 1-7; epigraiphiya indika, 3, pri. 103-110 ; epigraiphiya indika, 7, pri. 202-208; epigraiphiya indika, 9, pri. 97-102; epigraiphiya indika, 14, pri. 156-163 adi-adi)
  17. yagyvalkyasmriti 1.217-218)
  18. yagyvalkyasmriti 1/ 30-301)
  19. hemadri, kal, pri. 389; tithitattv, pri. 156; nirnayasindhu, pri. 67
  20. lakshmidhar krit krityakalpataroo, naiyat, pri. 368; hemadri, kal, 388; krityaratnakar, pri. 625; smritikaustubh, pri. 69)
  21. snann dann tap: shraddhamanantn rahudarshane. asuri ratriranyatr tasmattan parivarjayeth॥ (hemadri, kal, pri. 387; kalavivek, pri. 527; smritikaustubh, pri. 71). snkantau punyakalastu shodashobhayat: kala:. chandrasooryoparage tu yavaddarshanagochar:॥ jabali (lakshmidhar krit krityakalpat, naiyat, pri. 368; hemadri, kal, pri. 388; krityaratnakar, pri. 624; smritikaustubh, pri. 69)
  22. manusmriti 4.37
  23. kalavivek, pri. 523; kalanirnay , pri. 351; tithitattv, pri. 154; smritikaustubh, 70, vyas se uddhrit)
  24. hemadri vrat, bhag 2, pri. 917
  25. chandrarkoparage nashniyadavimuktayorastngatayordrishtva snatva pareahani. vishnudharmasootr (68. 1-3); hemadri, kal, pri. 396; kalavivek, pri. 537; krityaratnakar, pri. 626; varshakriyakaumudi, pri. 102; nadyatsooryagrahatpoorvamahni sayn shashigrahath. grahakale ch nashniyatsnatvashniyachch vimuktayon:॥ mukte shashini bhunjit yadi syatr mahanisha. snatva drishtvapareahvachadyadh grastastamitayostayo:॥ uddhat- krityakalpataroo (naiyat0, pri. 309-310); kalavivek (pri. 537); hemadri(kal, pri. 370); krityaratnakar (pri. 626-627); varshakriyakaumudi (pri. 104).
  26. vriddhagautam:. sooryagrahe tu nashniyath poorv yamachatushtayamh. chandragrahe tu yamanstrinh balavriddhaturairvina॥ hemadri, kal, pri. 381; smritikaustubh, pri. 76.
  27. vishnudharmottar(1.75.56)
  28. 'ekasminyadi mase syadh grahann chandrasooryayo:. brahmakshatravirodhay viparite vivriddhaye॥ vishnudharmotar (1.85.56) 'yannakshatragatau rahurgrasate chandrabhaskarau. tajjatanan bhavetpida ye nara: shantivarjita:॥' vahi, (1.85.33-34).
  29. 'ah chatri:. yasy svajanmanakshatre grasyete shashibhaskarau. vyadhin pravasn mrityun ch ragyshchaiv mahadbhayamh॥ kalavivek (pri. 543), hemadri (kal. pri. 392-393)

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