मकर संक्रांति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

makar snkranti
makar snkranti
any nam 'til snkranti', 'khichadi parv'
anuyayi hindoo dharmavalambi
uddeshy makar snkranti ke din gnga snan aur til dan karane ka vishesh mahatmay hota hai.
prarambh pauranik
tithi 14 janavari (varsh- 2019)
utsav yah din sundar patngon ko udane ka din bhi mana jata hai. log bade utsah se patngen udakar patngabazi ke danv–pechon ka anand lete hain.
anushthan is din kahin khichadi to kahin 'choodadahi'[1] ka bhojan kiya jata hai tatha til ke laddoo banaye jate hain. ye laddoo mitr v sage sambandhiyon men banten bhi jate hain.
dharmik manyata hindoo dharm
snbndhit lekh pongal, lohadi, maghabihoo
snkranti ka arth 'snkranti' ka arth hai soory ka ek rashi se doosari rashi men jana, at: vah rashi jisamen soory pravesh karata hai, snkranti ki sngya se vikhyat hai.[2]
any janakari makar snkranti ke din soory dakshinayan se uttarayan men pravesh kar jata hai. soory ke makar rashi men pravesh karane ko 'uttarayan' kahate hain.
adyatan‎

makar snkranti (angrezi: Makar Sankranti) bharat ke pramukh tyauharon men se ek hai. yah parv pratyek varsh janavari ke mahine men samast bharat men manaya jata hai. is din se soory uttarayan hota hai, jab uttari golardh soory ki or mud jata hai. parampara se yah vishvas kiya jata hai ki isi din soory makar rashi men pravesh karata hai. yah vaidik utsav hai. is din khichadi ka bhog lagaya jata hai. gud–til, revadi, gajak ka prasad banta jata hai. is tyauhar ka sambandh prakriti, ritu parivartan aur krishi se hai. ye tinon chizen hi jivan ka adhar hain. prakriti ke karak ke taur par is parv men soory dev ko pooja jata hai, jinhen shastron men bhautik evn abhautik tatvon ki atma kaha gaya hai. inhin ki sthiti ke anusar ritu parivartan hota hai aur dharati anaj utpann karati hai, jisase jiv samuday ka bharan-poshan hota hai. yah ek ati mahattvapoorn dharmik krity evn utsav hai. lagabhag 80 varsh poorv un dinon ke pnchangon ke anusar, yah 12vin ya 13vin janavari ko padati thi, kintu ab vishuvaton ke agragaman (ayanachalan) ke karan 13vin ya 14vin janavari ko pada karati hai.[3]varsh 2017 men makar snkranti '14 janavari' ko manaee gee.

dharm grnthon men ullekh

makar snkranti ka udgam bahut prachin nahin hai. eesa ke kam se kam ek sahastr varsh poorv brahman evn aupanishadik grnthon men uttarayan ke chh: mason ka ullekh hai [4] men 'ayan' shabd aya hai, jisaka arth hai 'marg' ya 'sthal. grihyasootron men 'udagayan' uttarayan ka hi dyotak hai[5] jahan spasht roop se uttarayan adi kalon men snskaron ke karane ki vidhi varnit hai. kintu prachin shraut, grihy evn dharm sootron men rashiyon ka ullekh nahin hai, unamen keval nakshatron ke snbndh men kalon ka ullekh hai. yagyvalkyasmriti men bhi rashiyon ka ullekh nahin hai, jaisa ki vishvaroop ki tika se prakat hai.[6] 'udagayan' bahut shatabdiyon poorv se shubh kal mana jata raha hai, at: makar snkranti, jisase soory ki uttarayan gati arambh hoti hai, rashiyon ke chalan ke uparant pavitr din mani jane lagi. makar snkranti par til ko itani mahatta kyon prapt huee, kahana kathin hai. sambhavat: makar snkranti ke samay jada hone ke karan til jaise padarthon ka prayog sambhav hai. eesavi san ke arambh kal se adhik prachin makar snkranti nahin hai.[3]
rngoli, makar snkranti

snkranti ka arth

'snkranti' ka arth hai soory ka ek rashi se doosari rashi men jana, at: vah rashi jisamen soory pravesh karata hai, snkranti ki sngya se vikhyat hai.[7] rashiyan barah hain, yatha mesh, vrishabh, mithun, kark, sinh, kanya, tula, vrishchik , dhanu, makar, kumbh, min. malamas pad jane par bhi varsh men keval 12 rashiyan hoti hain. pratyek snkranti pavitr din ke roop men grahy hai. matsyapuran [8]ne snkranti vrat ka varnan kiya hai. ek din poorv vyakti (nari ya purush) ko keval ek bar madhyahn men bhojan karana chahie aur snkranti ke din danton ko svachchh karake til yukt jal se snan karana chahie. vyakti ko chahie ki vah kisi snyami brahman grihasth ko bhojan samagriyon se yukt tin patr tatha ek gay yam, rudr evn dharm ke nam par de aur char shlokon ko padhe, jinamen se ek yah hai- 'yatha bhedn' n pashyami shivavishnvarkapadmajanh. tatha mamastu vishvatma shnkar:shnkar: sada..'[9], arthath 'main shiv evn vishnu tatha soory evn brahma men antar nahin karata, vah shnkar, jo vishvatma hai, sada kalyan karane vala hai. doosare shnkar shabd ka arth hai- shn kalyann karoti. yadi ho sake to vyakti ko chahie ki vah brahman ko abhooshanon, parynk, svarnapatron (do) ka dan kare. yadi vah daridr ho to brahman ko keval phal de. isake uparant use tail-vihin bhojan karana chahie aur yatha shakti any logon ko bhojan dena chahie. striyon ko bhi yah vrat karana chahie. snkranti, grahan, amavasya evn poornima par gnga snan mahapunyadayak mana gaya hai aur aisa karane par vyakti brahmalok ko prapt karata hai.[10] pratyek snkranti par samany jal (garm nahin kiya hua) se snan karana nityakarm kaha jata hai, jaisa ki devipuran[11]) men ghoshit hai- 'jo vyakti snkranti ke pavitr din par snan nahin karata vah sat janmon tak rogi evn nirdhan rahega; snkranti par jo bhi devon ko havy evn pitaron ko kavy diya jata hai, vah soory dvara bhavishy ke janmon men lauta diya jata hai.[3]

punyakal

makar snkranti ke avasar par patng bechane vala

prachin grnth men aisa likhit hai ki keval soory ka kisi rashi men pravesh matr hi punitata ka dyotak nahin hai, pratyut sabhi grahon ka any nakshatr ya rashi men pravesh punyakal mana jata hai[12]. hemadri[13] evn kal nirnay[14] ne kram se jaimini evn jyoti:shastr se uddharan dekar soory evn grahon ki snkranti ka punyakal ko ghoshit kiya hai- 'soory ke vishay men snkranti ke poorv ya pashchath 16 ghatikaon ka samay puny samay hai; chandr ke vishay men donon or ek ghati 13 phal punyakal hai; mngal ke lie 4 ghatikaen evn ek pal; budh ke lie 3 ghatikaen evn 14 pal, brihaspati ke lie char ghatikaen evn 37 pal, shukr ke lie 4 ghatikaen evn ek pal tatha shani ke lie 82 ghatikaen evn 7 pal.[3]

soory jab ek rashi chhodakar doosari men pravesh karata hai to us kal ka yathavath gyan hamari mansal ankhon se sambhav nahin hai, at: snkranti ki 30 ghatikaen idhar ya udhar ke kal ka dyotan karati hain[15]. soory ka doosari rashi men pravesh kal itana kam hota hai ki usamen snkranti krityon ka sampadan asambhav hai, at: isaki sannidhi ka kal uchit thaharaya gaya hai. devipuran men snkranti kal ki laghuta ka ullekh yon hai- 'svasth evn sukhi manushy jab ek bar palak girata hai to usaka tisavan kal 'tatpar' kahalata hai, tatpar ka sauvan bhag 'truti' kaha jata hai tatha truti ke sauven bhag men soory ka doosari rashi men pravesh hota hai. samany niyam yah hai ki vastavik kal ke jitane hi samip krity ho vah utana hi punit mana jata hai.' isi se snkrantiyon men punyatam kal sat prakar ke mane gaye hain- 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 ya 12 ghatikaen. inhin avadhiyon men vastavik phal prapti hoti hai. yadi koee in avadhiyon ke bhitar pratipadit krity n kar sake to usake lie adhikatam kal simaen 30 ghatikaon ki hoti hain; kintu ye punyakal-avadhiyan shadashiti[16]evn vishnupadi[17]ko chhodakar any sabhi snkrantiyon ke lie hai.'[3]

makar snkranti manate log

aj ke jyotish shastr ke anusar jade ka ayan kal 21 disambar ko hota hai aur usi din se soory uttarayan hote hain. kintu bharat men ve log, jo prachin paddhatiyon ke anusar rache pnchangon ka sahara lete hain, uttarayan ka arambh 14 janavari se manate hain. ve is prakar upayukt makar snkranti se 23 din pichhe hain. madhyakal ke dharmashastr grnthon men yah bat ullikhit hai, yatha hemadri[18] ne kaha hai ki prachalit snkranti se 12 din poorv hi punyakal padata hai, at: pratipadit dan adi krity prachalit snkranti din ke 12 din poorv bhi kiye ja sakate hain.[3]

punyakal ke niyam

snkranti ke punyakal ke vishay men samany niyam ke prashn par kee mat hain. shatatap[19], jabal evn marichi ne snkranti ke dharmik krityon ke lie snkranti ke poorv evn uparant 16 ghatikaon ka punyakal pratipadit kiya hai; kintu devipuran evn vasishth[20] ne 15 ghatikaon ke punyakal ki vyavastha di hai. yah virodh yah kahakar door kiya jata hai ki laghu avadhi keval adhik puny phal dene ke lie hai aur 16 ghatikaon ki avadhi vishnupadi snkrantiyon ke lie pratipadit hai. snkranti din ya ratri donon men ho sakati hai. din vali snkranti poore din bhar punyakal vali hoti hai. ratri vali snkranti ke vishay men hemadri, madhav adi men lambe vivechan upasthit kie gaye hain. ek niyam yah hai ki das snkrantiyon men, makar evn karkat ko chhodakar punyakal din men hota hai, jabaki ve ratri men padati hain. is vishay ka vistrit vivaran tithitattv[21] aur dharmasindhu[22] men milata hai.[3]

grahon ki snkranti

makar snkranti ke avasar par rngoli banate hue

grahon ki bhi snkrantiyan hoti hain, kintu pashchatkalin lekhakon ke anusar 'snkranti' shabd keval ravi-snkranti ke nam se hi dyotit hai, jaisa ki smritikaustubh[23]men ullikhit hai. varsh bhar ki 12 snkrantiyan char shreniyon men vibhakt hain-

  1. do ayan snkrantiyan- makar snkranti, jab uttarayan ka arambh hota hai evn karkat snkranti, jab dakshinayan ka arambh hota hai.
  2. do vishuv snkrantiyan arthath mesh evn tula snkrantiyan, jab ratri evn din barabar hote hain.
  3. ve char snkrantiyan, jinhen shadayitimukh arthath mithun, kanya, dhanu evn min kaha jata hai tatha
  4. vishnupadi ya vishnupad arthath vrishabh, sinh, vrishchik evn kumbh namak snkrantiyan.[24][3]

snkranti ke prakar

'ye barah snkrantiyan sat prakar ki, sat namon vali hain, jo kisi saptah ke din ya kisi vishisht nakshatr ke sammilan ke adhar par ullikhit hain; ve ye hain- manda, mandakini, dhvankshi, ghora, mahodari, rakshasi evn mishrita.

  1. ghora ravivar, mesh ya kark ya makar snkranti ko,
  2. dhvankshi somavar ko,
  3. mahodari mngal ko,
  4. mandakini budh ko,
  5. manda brihaspati ko,
  6. mishrita shukr ko evn
  7. rakshasi shani ko hoti hai.
  • isake atirikt koee snkranti yatha mesh ya kark adi kram se manda, mandakini, dhvankshi, ghora, mahodari, rakshasi, mishrit kahi jati hai, yadi vah kram se dhruv, mridu, kshipr, ugr, char, kroor ya mishrit nakshatr se yukt hon. 27 ya 28 nakshatr nimnokt roop se sat dalon men vibhajit hain-
  1. dhruv (ya sthir) – uttaraphalguni, uttarashadha, uttarabhadrapada, rohini
  2. mridu – anuradha, chitra, revati, mrigashirsh
  3. kshipr (ya laghu) – hast, ashvini, pushy, abhijit
  4. ugr – poorvaphalguni, poorvashadha, poorvabhadrapada, bharani, magha
  5. char – punarvasu, shravan, dhanishtha, svati , shatabhishak
  6. kroor (ya tikshn) – mool, jyeshtha, ardra, ashlesha
  7. mishrit (ya mridutikshn ya sadharan) – krittika, vishakha[25]. aisa ullikhit hai ki brahmanon ke lie manda, kshatriyon ke lie mandakini, vaishyon ke lie dhvankshi, shoodron ke lie ghora, choron ke lie mahodari, mady vikretaon ke lie rakshasi tatha chandalon, pukkason tatha jinaki vrittiyan (peshe) bhaynkar hon evn any shilpiyon ke lie mishrit snkranti shreyaskar hoti hai[26].[3]

snkranti ka devikaran

age chalakar snkranti ka devikaran ho gaya aur vah sakshath‌ durga kahi jane lagi. devipuran[27] men aya hai ki devi varsh, ayan, ritu, mas, paksh, din adi ke kram se sookshm vibhag ke karan sarvagat vibhu roop vali hai. devi puny tavn pap ke vibhagon ke anusar phal dene vali hai. snkranti ke kal men kiye gaye ek krity se bhi koti-koti phalon ki prapti hoti hai. dharm se ayu, rajy, putr, sukh adi ki vriddhi hoti hai, adharm se vyadhi, shok adi badhate hain. vishuv[28] snkranti ke samay jo dan ya jap kiya jata hai ya ayan [29] men jo sampadit hota hai, vah akshay hota hai. yahi bat vishnupad evn shadashiti mukh ke vishay men bhi hai.[3]

til ke laddoo

ajakal ke pnchangon men makar snkranti ka devikaran bhi ho gaya hai. vah devi man li gayi hai. snkranti kisi vahan par chadhati hai, usaka pramukh vahan hathi jaise vahan pashu hain; usake upavahan bhi hain; usake vastr kale, shvet ya lal adi rngon ke hote hain; usake hath men dhanush ya shool rahata hai, vah lah ya gorochan jaise padarthon ka tilak karati hai; vah yuva, praudh ya vriddh hai; vah khadi ya baithi huee varnit hai; usake pushpon, bhojan, abhooshanon ka ullekh hai; usake do nam sat namon men se vishisht hain; vah poorv adi dishaon se ati hai aur pashchim adi dishaon ko chali jati hai aur tisari disha ki or jhankati hai; usake adhar jhuke hain, nak lambi hai, usake 9 hath hai. usake vishay men agr soochanaen ye hain- snkranti jo kuchh grahan karati hai, usake mooly badh jate hain ya vah nasht ho jata hai; vah jise dekhati hai, vah nasht ho jata hai, jis disha se vah jati hai, vahan ke log sukhi hote hain, jis disha ko vah chali jati hai, vahan ke log dukhi ho jate hain.[3]

snkranti par dan puny

poorv punyalabh ke lie punyakal men hi snan dan adi krity kiye jate hain. samany niyam yah hai ki ratri men n to snan kiya jata hai aur n hi dan. parashar[30] men aya hai ki soory kiranon se poore din men snan karana chahie, ratri men grahan ko chhodakar any avasaron par snan nahin karana chahie. yahi bat vishnudharmasootr men bhi hai. kintu kuchh apavad bhi pratipadit hain. bhavishyapuran [31] men aya hai ki ratri men snan nahin karana chahie, visheshat: ratri men dan to nahin hi karana chahie, kintu uchit avasaron par aisa kiya ja sakata hai, yatha grahan, vivah, snkranti, yatra, janan, maran tatha itihas shravan men. at: pratyek snkranti par visheshat: makar snkranti par snan nity karm hai.

dan nimn prakar ke kiye jate hain-

mesh men bhed, vrishabh men gayen, mithun men vastr, bhojan evn pey padarth, karkat men ghritadhenu, sinh men sone ke sath vahan, kanya men vastr evn gauen, nana prakar ke ann evn bij, tula-vrishchik men vastr evn ghar, dhanu men vastr evn vahan, makar men inghan evn agni, kumbh men gauen jal evn ghas, min men naye pushp. any vishesh prakar ke danon ke vishay men dekhie skandapuran [32], vishnudharmottar, kalika. [33] adi.[34]

upavas

makar snkranti ke avasar par patng udate hue, varanasi

makar snkranti ke samman men tin dinon ya ek din ka upavas karana chahie. jo vyakti tin dinon tak upavas karata hai aur usake uparant snan karake ayan[35] par soory ki pooja karata hai, vishuv evn soory ya chandr ke grahan par pooja karata hai to vah vanchhit ichchhaon ki poornata pata hai. apastamb men aya hai ki jo vyakti snan ke uparant ayan, vishuv, sooryachndr-grahan par din bhar upavas karata hai, vah sabhi papon se mukt ho jata hai. kintu putravan vyakti ko ravivar, snkranti evn grahanon par upavas nahin karana chahie[36]. rajamartand men snkranti par kiye gaye danon ke puny-labh par do shlok hain- 'ayan snkranti par kiye gaye danon ka phal samany din ke dan ke phal ka kotiguna hota hai aur vishnupadi par vah lakshaguna hota hai; shadashiti par yah 86000 guna ghoshit hai[37]. chndr grahan par dan sau guna evn soory grahan par sahastr guna, vishuv par shatasahastr guna tatha akamavai[38] ki poornima par anant phalon ko dene vala hai. bhavishyapuran ne ayan evn vishuv snkrantiyon par gnga-yamuna ki prabhoot mahatta gayi hai.[39].[3]

nari dvara dan

makar snkranti par adhikansh men nariyan hi dan karati hain. ve pujariyon ko mitti ya tamr ya pital ke patr, jinamen supari evn sikke rahate hain, dan karati hain aur apani saheliyon ko bulaya karati hain tatha unhen kunkum, haldi, supari, eekh ke tukade adi se poorn mitti ke patr deti hain. dakshin bharat men pongal namak utsav hota hai, jo uttari ya pashchimi bharat men manaye jane vali makar snkranti ke saman hai. pongal tamil varsh ka pratham divas hai. yah utsav tin dinon ka hota hai. pongal ka arth hai 'kya yah ubal raha' ya 'pakaya ja raha hai?'

snkranti par shraddh

kuchh logon ke mat se snkranti par shraddh karana chahie. vishnu dharmasootr [40] men aya hai- 'adity arthath soory ke snkraman par arthath jab soory ek rashi se doosari men pravesh karata hai, donon vishuv dinon par, apane janm-nakshatr par[41] vishisht shubh avasaron par kamy shraddh karana chahie; in dinon ke shraddh se pitaron ko akshay sntosh prapt hota hai. yahan par bhi virodhi mat hain. shoolapani ke mat se snkranti-shraddh men pindadan hona chahie, kintu nirnayasindhu[42]ke mat se shraddh pindavihin evn parvan ki bhanti hona chahie. snkranti par kuchh krity varjit bhi the. vishnupuran[43] men vachan hai- 'chaturdashi, ashtami, amavasya, poornima evn snkranti parv kahe gaye hain; jo vyakti aise avasar par snbhog karata hai, tail evn mans khata hai, vah vishmootr-bhojan' namak narak[44]men padata hai. brahmapuran [45] men aya hai- ashtami, pakshon ke ant ki tithiyon men, ravi-snkranti ke din tatha pakshopant (chaturdashi) men snbhog, til-mans-bhojan nahin karana chahie. ajakal makar snkranti dharmik krity ki apeksha samajik adhik hai. upavas nahin kiya jata, kadachit koee shraddh karata ho, kintu bahut se log samudr ya prayag jaise tirthon par gnga snan karate hain. til ka prayog adhik hota hai, visheshat: dakshin men. til ki mahatta yon pradarshit hai- 'jo vyakti til ka prayog chh: prakar se karata hai vah nahin doobata arthath vah asaphal ya abhaga nahin hota; sharir ko til se nahana, til se uvatana, sada pavitr rahakar tilayukt jal dena[46], agni men til dalana, til dan karana evn til khana.[47][3]

soory prarthana

snskrit prarthana ke anusar "he soory dev, apaka dandavat pranam, ap hi is jagath ki ankhen ho. ap sare snsar ke arambh ka mool ho, usake jivan v nash ka karan bhi ap hi ho." soory ka prakash jivan ka pratik hai. chandrama bhi soory ke prakash se alokit hai. vaidik yug men sooryopasana din men tin bar ki jati thi. mahabharat men pitamah bhishm ne bhi soory ke uttarayan hone par hi apana pranatyag kiya tha. hamare manishi is samay ko bahut hi shreshth manate hain. is avasar par log pavitr nadiyon evn tirth sthalon par snan kar adidev bhagavan soory se jivan men sukh v samriddhi hetu prarthana v yachana karate hain.

manyata

yah vishvas kiya jata hai ki is avadhi men dehatyag karane vale vyakti janm-maran ke chakr se poornat: mukt ho jate hain. mahabharat mahakavy men vayovriddh yoddha pitamah bhishm pandavon aur kauravon ke bich hue kurukshetr yuddh men sanghatik roop se ghayal ho gaye the. unhen ichchha-mrityu ka varadan prapt tha. pandav vir arjun dvara rachit banashaiya par pade bhishm uttarayan avadhi ki pratiksha karate rahe. unhonne soory ke makar rashi men pravesh karane par hi antim sans li, jisase unaka punarjanm n ho.

til snkrati

desh bhar men log makar snkranti ke parv par alag-alag roopon men til, chaval, udad ki dal evn gud ka sevan karate hain. in sabhi samagriyon men sabase zyada mahatv til ka diya gaya hai. is din kuchh any chiz bhale hi n khaee jaen, kintu kisi n kisi roop men til avashy khana chahie. is din til ke mahatv ke karan makar snkranti parv ko "til snkrati" ke nam se bhi pukara jata hai. til ke gol-gol laddoo is din banae jate hain. aisa mana jata hai ki til ki utpatti bhagavan vishnu ke sharir se huee hai tatha uparokt utpadon ka prayog sabhi prakar ke papon se mukt karata hai; garmi deta hai aur sharir ko nirog rakhata hai. mnkar snkranti men jin chizon ko khane men shamil kiya jata hai, vah paushtik hone ke sath hi sath sharir ko garm rakhane vale padarth bhi hain.

soory ke uttarayan hone ka parv

jitane samay men prithvi soory ke charon or ek chakkar lagati hai, us avadhi ko "saur varsh" kahate hain. prithvi ka golaee men soory ke charon or ghoomana "krantichakr" kahalata hai. is paridhi chakr ko bantakar barah rashiyan bani hain. soory ka ek rashi se doosari rashi men pravesh karana "snkranti" kahalata hai. isi prakar soory ke makar rashi men pravesh karane ko "makar snkranti" kahate hain.

makar snkrati ke avasar par gnga snan karate shraddhalu

soory ka makar rekha se uttari kark rekha ki or jana 'uttarayan' tatha kark rekha se dakshini makar rekha ki or jana 'dakshinayan' hai. uttarayan men din bade ho jate hain tatha raten chhoti hone lagati hain. dakshinayan men thik isake viparit hota hai. shastron ke anusar uttarayan devataon ka din tatha dakshinayan devataon ki rat hoti hai. vaidik kal men uttarayan ko devayan tatha dakshinayan ko pitriyan kaha jata tha. makar snkranti ke din ygy men diye havy ko grahan karane ke lie devata dharati par avatarit hote hain. isi marg se punyatmaen sharir chhodakar svarg adi lokon men pravesh karati hain. isalie yah alok ka avasar mana jata hai. is din puny, dan, jap tatha dharmik anushthanon ka anany mahattv hai aur sau guna phaladayi hokar prapt hota hai. makar snkranti pratyek varsh prayah 14 janavari ko padati hai.

abhar prakat karane ka din

pnjab, bihar v tamilanadu men yah samay fasal katane ka hota hai. krishak makar snkranti ko 'abhar divas' ke roop men manate hain. pake hue gehoon aur dhan ko svarnim abha unake athak mehanat aur prayas ka hi phal hoti hai aur yah sambhav hota hai, bhagavan v prakriti ke ashirvad se. vibhinn paramparaon v riti–rivazon ke anuroop pnjab evn jammoo–kashmir men "lohadi" nam se "makar snkranti" parv manaya jata hai. sindhi samaj ek din poorv hi makar snkranti ko "lal lohi" ke roop men manata hai. tamilanadu men makar snkranti 'pongal' ke nam se manaya jata hai, to uttar pradesh aur bihar men 'khichadi' ke nam se makar snkranti manaya jata hai. is din kahin khichadi to kahin choodadahi ka bhojan kiya jata hai tatha til ke laddu banaye jate hain. ye laddoo mitr v sage sambandhiyon men banten bhi jate hain.
gud

khichadi snkranti

chaval v moong ki dal ko pakakar khichadi banaee jati hai. is din khichadi khane ka prachalan v vidhan hai. ghi v masalon men paki khichadi svadisht, pachak v oorja se bharapoor hoti hai. is din se sharad ritu kshin honi prarambh ho jati hai. basant ke agaman se svasthy ka vikas hona prarambh hota hai. is din gnga nadi men snan v sooryopasana ke bad brahmanon ko gud, chaval aur til ka dan bhi ati shreshth mana gaya hai. maharashtr men aisa mana jata hai ki makar snkranti se soory ki gati til–til badhati hai, isilie is din til ke vibhinn mishthan banakar ek–doosare ka vitarit karate hue shubh kamanaen dekar yah tyohar manaya jata hai.

snkranti dan aur punyakarm ka din

snkranti kal ati puny mana gaya hai. is din gnga tat par snan v dan ka vishesh mahattv hai. is din kie ge achchhe karmon ka phal ati shubh hota hai. vastron v kambal ka dan, is janm men nahin; apitu janm–janmantar men bhi punyaphaladayi mana jata hai. is din ghrit, til v chaval ke dan ka vishesh mahattv hai. isaka dan karane vala sampoorn bhogon ko bhogakar moksh ko prapt karata hai, aisa shastron men kaha gaya hai. uttar pradesh men is din til dan ka vishesh mahattv hai. maharashtr men navavivahita striyan pratham snkranti par tel, kapas, namak adi vastuen saubhagyavati striyon ko bhent karati hain. bngal men bhi is din til dan ka mahattv hai. rajasthan men saubhagyavati striyan is din til ke laddoo, ghevar tatha motichoor ke laddoo adi par rupaye rakhakar, "vayan" ke roop men apani sas ko pranam karake deti hai tatha kisi bhi vastu ka chaudah ki snkhya men snkalp karake chaudah brahmanon ko dan karati hai.

patng udane ka din

yah din sundar patngon ko udane ka din bhi mana jata hai. log bade utsah se patngen udakar patngabazi ke danv–pechon ka maza lete hain. bade–bade shaharon men hi nahin, ab ganvon men bhi patngabazi ki pratiyogitaen hoti hain.

gngasnan v soory pooja

pavitr gnga men nahana v soory upasana snkranti ke din atyant pavitr karm mane ge hain. snkranti ke pavan avasar par hazaron log ilahabad ke triveni sngam, varanasi men gngaghat, hariyana men kurukshetr, rajasthan men pushkar, maharashtr ke nasik men godavari nadi men snan karate hain. gud v shvet til ke pakavan soory ko arpit kar sabhi men banten jate hain. gngasagar men pavitr snan ke lie in dinon shraddhaluon ki ek badi bhid umad padati hai.

punyakal ke shubharambh ka pratik

makar snkranti ke agami din jab soory ki gati uttar ki or hoti hai, to bahut se parv prarambh hone lagate hain. inhin dinon men aisa pratit hota hai ki vatavaran v paryavaran svayn hi achchhe hone lage hain. kaha jata hai ki is samay janme shishu pragatishil vicharon ke, susnskrit, vinamr svabhav ke tatha achchhe vicharon se poorn hote hain. yahi vishesh karan hai, jo soory ki uttarayan gati ko pavitr banate hain aur makar snkranti ka din sabase pavitr din ban jata hai.

khagoliy tathy

san 2012 men makar snkranti 15 janavari yani ravivar ki thi. raja harshavarddhan ke samay men yah parv 24 disambar ko pada tha. mugal badashah akabar ke shasan kal men 10 janavari ko makar snkranti thi. shivaji ke jivan kal men yah tyohar 11 janavari ko pada tha.

akhir aisa kyon?

soory ke dhanu rashi se makar rashi men pravesh karane ko 'makar snkranti' kaha jata hai. sal 2012 men yah 14 janavari ki madhyaratri men tha. isalie uday tithi ke anusar makar snkranti 15 janavari ko padi thi. darasal har sal soory ka dhanu rashi se makar rashi men pravesh 20 minat ki deri se hota hai. is tarah har tin sal ke bad soory ek ghnte bad aur har 72 sal men ek din ki deri se makar rashi men pravesh karata hai. matalab 1728 (72 guna 24) sal men phir soory ka makar rashi men pravesh ek din ki deri se hoga aur is tarah 2080 ke bad 'makar snkranti' 15 janavari ko padegi.

jyotishiy akalan

jyotishiy akalan ke anusar soory ki gati prativarsh 20 sekend badh rahi hai. mana jata hai ki aj se 1000 sal pahale makar snkranti 31 disnbar ko manaee jati thi. pichhale ek hazar sal men isake do haphte age khisak jane ki vajah se 14 janavari ko manaee jane lagi. ab soory ki chal ke adhar par yah anuman lagaya ja raha hai ki 5000 sal bad makar snkranti faravari mahine ke ant men manaee jaegi.[48]

vibhinn rajyon men makar snkranti

makar snkranti bharat ke bhinn-bhinn logon ke lie bhinn-bhinn arth rakhati hai. kintu sada ki bhaaunti, nanavidhi utsavon ko ek sath pirone vala ek sarvamany sootr hai, jo is avasar ko ankit karata hai. yadi dipavali jyoti ka parv hai to snkranti shasy parv hai, nee fasal ka svagat karane tatha samriddhi v sampannata ke lie prarthana karane ka ek avasar hai.

uttar pradesh men makar-sakranti

uttar pradesh men yah mukhy roop se dan ka parv hai. ilahabad men yah parv magh mele ke nam se jana jata hai. 14 janavari se ilahabad me har sal magh mele ki shuruat hoti hai. 14 disambar se 14 janavari ka samay khar mas ke nam se jana jata hai. aur uttar bharat me to pahale is ek mahine me kisi bhi achchhe kary ko anjam nahi diya jata tha. masalan vivah adi mngal kary nahin kie jate the par ab to samay ke sath log kafi badal ge hai. 14 janavari yani makar snkranti se achchhe dinon ki shuruat hoti hai. magh mela pahala nahan makar snkranti se shuroo hokar shivaratri tak yani akhiri nahan tak chalata hai. snkranti ke din nahan ke bad dan karane ka bhi chalan hai.samooche uttar pradesh men is vrat ko khichadi ke nam se jana jata hai aur is din khichadi sevan evn khichadi dan ka atyadhik mahatv hota hai. ilahabad men gnga, yamuna v sarasvati ke sngam par pratyek varsh ek mah tak magh mela lagata hai.

uttarakhnd men makar-sakranti

uttarakhnd ke bageshvar men bada mela hota hai. vaise gnga snan rameshvar, chitrashila v any sthanon men bhi hote hain. is din gnga snan karake, til ke mishthan adi ko brahmanon v poojy vyaktiyon ko dan diya jata hai. is parv par bhi kshetr men gnga evn ramagnga ghaton par bade mele lagate hai.

maharashtr men makar-sakranti

maharashtr men is din sabhi vivahit mahilaen apani pahali snkranti par kapas, tel, namak adi chijen any suhagin mahilaon ko dan karati hain. tal-gool namak halave ke bantane ki pratha bhi hai. log ek doosare ko til gud dete hain aur dete samay bolate hain :- `til gud dhya ani god god bola` arthath til gud lo aur mitha mitha bolo. is din mahilaen apas men til, gud, roli aur haldi bantati hain.

pnjab men lohadi

makar snkranti bharat ke any kshetron men bhi dharmik utsah aur ullas ke sath manaya jata hai. pnjab men ise 'lohadi' kahate hain jo gramin kshetron men nee fasal ki kataee ke avasar par manaya jata hai. purush aur striyan ganv ke chauk par utsavagni ke charon or paramparagat veshabhoosha men lokapriy nrity bhangada ka pradarshan karate hain. striyan is avasar par apani hatheliyon aur panvon par akarshak akritiyon men mehndi rachati hain.

bngal men makar-sakranti

gud aur til se bani gajak

pashchim bngal men makar sakranti ke din desh bhar ke tirthayatri gngasagar dvip par ekatr hote hain, jahan gnga bngal ki khadi men mil jati hai. ek dharmik mela, jise 'gngasagar mela' kahate hain, is samaroh ki mahattvapoorn visheshata hai. aisa vishvas kiya jata hai ki is sngam par dubaki lagane se sara pap dhul jata hai. bngal men is parv par snan pashchath til dan karane ki pratha hai. yahan gngasagar men har sal vishal mela lagata hai. makar snkranti ke din hi gngaji bhagirath ke pichhe-pichhe chalakar kapil muni ke ashram se hokar sagar men ja mili thin. manyata yah bhi hai ki is din yashoda ji ne shrikrishn ko prapt karane ke lie vrat kiya tha. is din gnga sagar men snan-dan ke lie lakhon logon ki bhid hoti hai. log kasht uthakar gnga sagar ki yatra karate hain.

karnatak men makar-sakranti

karnatak men bhi fasal ka tyohar shan se manaya jata hai. bailon aur gayon ko susajjit kar unaki shobha yatra nikali jati hai. naye paridhan men saje nar-nari, eekh, sookha nariyal aur bhune chane ke sath ek doosare ka abhivadan karate hain. pntagabazi is avasar ka lokapriy paramparagat khel hai.

gujarat men makar-sakranti

gujarat ka kshitij bhi snkranti ke avasar par rngabirngi pntagon se bhar jata hai. gujarati log snkranti ko ek shubh divas manate hain aur is avasar par chhatron ko chhatravritiyan aur puraskar bantate hain.

keral men makar-sakranti

keral men bhagavan ayappa ki nivas sthali sabarimala ki varshik tirthayatra ki avadhi makar snkranti ke din hi samapt hoti hai, jab sudoor parvaton ke kshitij par ek divy abha ‘makar jyoti’ dikhaee padati hai.

tamilanadu men makar-sakranti

tamilanadu men is tyohar ko pongal ke roop men char din tak manaya jata hai.pahale din bhogi-pongal, doosare din soory-pongal, tisare din mattoo-pongal athava kenoo-pongal, chauthe v antim din kanya-pongal. is prakar pahale din kooda karakat ikattha kar jalaya jata hai, doosare din lakshmi ji ki pooja ki jati hai aur tisare din pashu dhan ki pooja ki jati hai. pongal manane ke lie snan karake khule angan men mitti ke bartan men khir banaee jati hai, jise pongal kahate hain. isake bad soory dev ko naivaidy chadhaya jata hai. usake bad khir ko prasad ke roop men sabhi grahan karate hain. asam men makar snkranti ko magh-bihoo ya bhogali-bihoo ke nam se manate hain. rajasthan men is parv par suhagan mahilaen apani sas ko vayana dekar ashirvad leti hain. sath hi mahilaen kisi bhi saubhagyasoochak vastu ka chaudah ki snkhya men poojan v snkalp kar chaudah brahmanon ko dan deti hain. any bharatiy tyoharon ki tarah makar snkranti par bhi logon men vishesh utsah dekhane ko milata hai.

makar snkranti par khan-pan

til ke laddoo

makar snkranti men soory ka dakshinayan se uttarayan men ane ka svagat kiya jata hai. shishir ritu ki vidaee aur basnt ka abhivadan tatha agahani fasal ke kat kar ghar men ane ka utsav manaya jata hai. utsav ka ayojan hone par sabase pahale khan-pan ki charcha hoti hai. makar snkranti parv jis prakar desh bhar men alag-alag tariqe aur nam se manaya jata hai, usi prakar khan-pan men bhi vividhata rahati hai. kintu ek vishesh tathy yah hai ki makar snkrati ke nam, tariqe aur khan-pan men antar ke bavajood sabhi men ek samanata hai ki isamen vynjan to alag-alag hote hain, kintu unamen prayog hone vali samagri ek-si hoti hai.[49] yah mahattvapoorn parv magh mas men manaya jata hai. bharat men magh mahine men sabase adhik sardi padati hai, at: sharir ko andar se garm rakhane ke lie til, chaval, udad ki dal evn gud ka sevan kiya jata hai. makar snkranti men in khady padarthon ke sevan ka yah bhautik adhar hai. in khadyon ke sevan ka dharmik adhar bhi hai. shastron men likha hai ki magh mas men jo vyakti pratidin vishnu bhagavan ki pooja til se karata hai aur til ka sevan karata hai, usake kee janmon ke pap kat jate hain. agar vyakti til ka sevan nahin kar pata hai to sirph til-til jap karane se bhi puny ki prapti hoti hai. til ka mahatv makar snkranti men is karan bhi hai ki soory devata dhanu rashi se nikalakar makar rashi men pravesh karate hain. makar rashi ke svami shani dev hain, jo soory ke putr hone ke bavajood soory se shatru bhav rakhate hain. at: shani dev ke ghar men soory ki upasthiti ke dauran shani unhen kasht n den, isalie til ka dan v sevan makar snkranti men kiya jata hai. chaval, gud evn udad khane ka dharmik adhar yah hai ki is samay ye fasalen taiyar hokar ghar men ati hain. in fasalon ko soory devata ko arpit karake unhen dhanyavad diya jata hai ki "he dev! apaki kripa se yah fasal prapt huee hai. at: pahale ap ise grahan karen tatpashchath prasad svaroop men hamen pradan karen, jo hamare sharir ko ushma, bal aur pushtata pradan kare."

any rajyon ka khan-pan

makar snkranti par bharat ke vibhinn rajyon men apana-apana khan-pan hai-

bihar tatha uttar pradesh

bihar evn uttar pradesh men khan-pan lagabhag ek jaisa hota hai. donon hi prant men is din agahani dhan se prapt chaval aur udad ki dal se khichadi banaee jati hai. kul devata ko isaka bhog lagaya jata hai. log ek-doosare ke ghar khichadi ke sath vibhinn prakar ke any vynjanon ka adan-pradan karate hain. bihar aur uttar pradesh ke log makar snkrati ko "khichadi parv" ke nam se bhi pukarate hain. is prant men makar snkrati ke din log chooda-dahi, gud evn til ke laddoo bhi khate hain. choode evn muramure ki laee bhi banaee jati hai.

madhy pradesh aur chhattisagadh

madhy pradesh aur chhattisagadh men makar snkranti ke din bihar aur uttar pradesh ki hi tarah khichadi aur til khane ki parampara hai. yahan ke log is din gujiya bhi banate hain.

dakshin bharat

dakshin bharatiy pranton men makar snkrati ke din gud, chaval evn dal se pongal banaya jata hai. vibhinn prakar ki kachchi sabjiyon ko lekar mishrit sabzi banaee jati hai. inhen soory dev ko arpit karane ke pashchath sabhi log prasad roop men ise grahan karate hain. is din ganna khane ki bhi parampara hai.

pnjab evn hariyana

pnjab evn hariyana men is parv men vibhinn prakar ke vynjanon men makke ki roti evn sarason ke sag ko vishesh taur par shamil kiya jata hai. is din pnjab evn hariyana ke logon men tilakoot, revadi aur gajak khane ki bhi parampara hai. makke ka lava, moongaphali evn mithaeeyan bhi log khate hain.[49]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bihar rajy ka ek vynjan, jo chooda chaval se banaya jata hai.
  2. rave: snkramann rashau snkrantiriti kathyate. snanadanatap:shraddhahomadishu mahaphala.. nagarakhnd (hemadri, kal, prishth 410); meshadishu dvadasharashishu kramen sancharat: sooryasy poorvasmadrasheruttararashau snkramann pravesh: snkranti. atastadrashinamapur:sarn sa snkrantirvyapadishyate. kal nirnay, prishth 331.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 dharmashastr ka itihas, chaturth bhag |lekhak: daau. pandurng vaman kane |prakashak: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan |prishth snkhya: 79-84 |
  4. shatapath brahman, 2|1|3|1, 3 evn 4; chhandogyopanishad, 4|15|5, evn 5|10|1-2). rigved (3|33|7
  5. (ashvalayan grihyasootr, 1|4|1-2; kaushitaki grihy, 1|5; jai. 6|8|23; apastambh grihyasootr 1|1|2)
  6. yagyvalkyasmriti 1|80, susthe indau
  7. rave: snkramann rashau snkrantiriti kathyate. snanadanatap:shraddhahomadishu mahaphala.. nagarakhnd (hemadri, kal, prishth 410); meshadishu dvadasharashishu kramen sancharat: sooryasy poorvasmadrasheruttararashau snkramann pravesh: snkranti. atastadrashinamapur:sarn sa snkrantirvyapadishyate. kal nirnay, prishth 331.
  8. matsyapuran, adhyay 98
  9. matsyapuran, 98|17
  10. snkrantyan pakshayorante grahane chandrasooryayo:. gngasnato nar: kamadh brahman: sadann vrajeth.. bhavishyapuran (varsh kriya kaumadi., prishth 415).
  11. (kal vivek, prishth 380 kal nirnay, prishth 333 adi men uddhrit
  12. (kal nirnay, prishth 345)
  13. hemadri, kal, prishth 437
  14. kal nirnay, prishth 345
  15. (kal nirnay, prishth 333)
  16. isamen adhikatam punyakal 60 ghatikaon ka hai
  17. jahan 16 ghatikaon ki idhar-udhar chhoot hai
  18. (kal, prishth 436-437)
  19. hemadri, kal, prishth 417, kal vivek, prishth 382; krityakalpataru., naiyatakal, prishth 361-362 evn 365
  20. krityakalpataru., naiyatakal, prishth 360; hemadri, kal, prishth 418; samay mayookh, prishth 167
  21. tithitattv, prishth 144-145
  22. dharmasindhu, prishth 2-3
  23. prishth 531
  24. panchasiddhantika (3|23-24, prishth 9) ne paribhasha di hai- 'meshatuladau vishuvath shadashitimukhn tuladibhageshu. shadashitimukheshu rave: pitridivasa yeavashesha: syu:.. shadashitimukhn kanyachaturdasheashtadashe ch mithunasy. minasy dvarvishe shadavishe karmukasyanshe.. tula adiryasya: sa tuladi: kanya. dvadashaiv bhavantyeshan dvij namani me shrrinu. ekn vishnupadn nam shadashitimukhn tatha.. vishuvn ch tritiyn ch anye dve dakshinottare.. kumbhaligoharishu vishnupadn vadanti strichapaminamithune shadashitivaktramh. arkasy saumyamayann shashidhamni yamyamrikshe jhashe vishuvati tvajataulino: syath.. brahmavaivart (hemadri, kal, prishth 407) . kuchh shabdon ki vyakhya avashyak hai- ali vrishchik, go vrishabh, hari sinh, stri kanya, chap dhanu:, shashidhamni shashigrih karkatak, saumyayan uttarayan, yamy dakshinayan (yam dakshin ka adhipati hai), jhash makar, aj mesh, tauli (jo tarajoo pakade rahata hai) tula.'
  25. dekhie brihatsnhita, 98|6-11; krityakalpataru, naiyatakal, prishth 361; hemadri, kal., prishth 409; kal nirnay, prishth 341-342; samay mayookh, prishth 137. brihatsnhita 98|9 evn krityakalpataru, naiyat ne laghu dal men vibhajit ka ullekh nahin kiya hai
  26. (hemadri, kal, prishth 409-410 evn varsh kriya kaumadi., prishth 210 jahan devipuran ki uktiyan uddhrit hain)
  27. hemadri, kal, prishth 418-419; krity ratnakar, prishth 614-165 evn krityakalp, prishth 361-361
  28. mesh evn tula
  29. makar evn karkat snkranti
  30. parashar (12|20; smritichndrika 1, prishth 120)
  31. (hemadri, kal, prishth 433; kal nirnay, prishth 339)
  32. (hemadri, kal, prishth 415-416, nirnay sindhu, prishth 218)
  33. (hemadri, kal, prishth 413; krityakalpataru., naiyatakal, prishth 366-367)
  34. skande-dhenun tilamayin rajanh dadyadyashchottarayane. sarvanh kamanavapnoti vindate paramn sukham.. vishnudharmottare-uttare tvayane vipra vastradann mahaphalamh. tilapoorvamanadvahn dattv. rogai: pramuchyate.. shivarahasye. pura makarasnkrantau shnkaro gosave krite. tilanutpadayamas triptaye sarvadehinamh. tasmattasyan tilai: snann kary chodvartann budhai:. devatanan viprinan ch sodakaistarpann tilai:. tila deyashch viprebhy: sarvadaivottarayane. tilanshch bhakshayetpunyanh hotavyashch tatha tila:. tasyan tathau tilairhutva yearchayanti dvijottamanh. tridive te virajante gosahastrapradayin:. tilatailen dipashch deya: shivagrihe shubha:. satilaistandulairdevn poojayedvidhivadh dvijamh.. hemadri (kal, prishth 415-416); nirnay sindhu (prishth 218). gosahastr 16 mahadanon men ek hai. dekhie is mahagrnth ka khand 2. 'tridive te virajante' ke sath milaie ri. (10|107|2): 'uchcha divi dakshinavanto asthurye ashvada srah te sooryen.'
  35. soory ke uttarayan ya dakshinayan
  36. vriddhavasishth, hemadri, kal, prishth 412; varsh kriya kaumadi., prishth 91
  37. varsh kriya kaumadi., prishth 214; kal vivek, prishth 382
  38. a ashadh, ka kartik, ma magh, vai vaishakh
  39. vishnu dharm sootr, 3|319|38-45
  40. vishnu dharm sootr, 77|1-2
  41. vivah, putr janm ke
  42. nirnayasindhu, prishth 6
  43. vishnupuran, 3|11|118-119, krity ratnakar, prishth 547 evn varsh kriya kaumadi., prishth 216
  44. jahan ka bhojan mal-mootr hota hai
  45. (varsh kriya kaumadi, prishth 216)
  46. pitaron ko
  47. tilodvarti tilasnayi shachirnityn tilodaki. hota data ch bhokta v shattili navasidati.. shatatap.
  48. makar snkranti aj ya kal, jyotishiyon men bhi ek ray nahin (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 15 janavari, 2012.
  49. 49.0 49.1 makar snkranti khan-pan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 12 janavari, 2013.

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