दाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dalen
Lentils

dal arahar, moong, udad, chana, masoor, khesari adi anajon ko dalane se prapt hoti hai. yah anaj dalahan kahalate hain. ye sabhi anaj vanaspati shastr ke ligyoominosi (Leguminosae) gan ke antargat hain. dalen protin ki avashyakata ki poorti karane ka pramukh srot hain. in anajon ke atirikt kuchh aur bij hain, jaise- soyabin, sem ityadi, jinase kahin-kahin dalen banati hain.

poshak tattv

hamare bhojan ka mukhy ang karbohaidret hai, jo hamen chaval, gehoon ityadi annon se starch ke roop men tatha phalon se sharkara ke roop men prapt hota hai. karbohaidret ka pachan saralata se hota hai aur isase oorja prapt hoti hai, kintu mansapeshi banane, sharir ki vriddhi tatha purane ootakon ka navajivan pradan karane men karbohaidret se koee sahayata nahin milati hai. in karyon ke lie protin ki avayakata padati hai. mansahari jivon ko mans se tatha shakahariyon ko vanaspatiyon se protin prapt hota hai. dalen shakahariyon ke protin prapt karane ki pramukh srot hain. ek vayask vyakti ke sntulit bhojan men dedh chhatank dal ka hona avashyak hai.

prakar

bhojan men prayukt hone vali pramukh dalen nimnalikhit hain -

arahar (Cajanus Indicus)

yah poorvi uttar pradesh tatha bihar men sarvadhik khaee janevali dal hai. any rajyon men bhi yah dal hai. any rajyon men bhi yah dal janapriy hai. arahar men protin 27.67 pratishat, vasa 2.31 pratishat, karbohaidret 57.27 pratishat, lavan 5.50 pratishat tatha jal 10.08 pratishat rahata hai. isamen vitamin bi paya jata hai.

moong (Phaseolus mungo)

isamen protin 23.62 pratishat, vasa 2.69 pratishat, karbohaidret 53.45 pratishat, lavan 6.57 pratishat tatha jal 10.87 pratishat rahata hai. isamen vitamin bi milata hai. any dalon ki apeksha yah shighr pachati hai. at: rogiyon ko pathy ke roop men bhi di jati hai.

udad (Phaseolus radiatus)

isi ko mash bhi kahate hain. isamen protin 25.5 pratishat, vasa 1.7 pratishat, karbohaidret 53.4 pratishat, lavan 3.3 pratishat evn jal 13.1 pratishat hota hai. is dal ka pnjab, rajasthan, pashchimi uttar pradesh, madras evn madhy pradesh men atyadhik prachalan hai. dal ke atirikt bada, kachaudi, imirati, idali aur dose ityadi ke banan men udad ki dal ka hi vishesh upayog hota hai.

masoor (Lentil)

itali, gris aur eshiya ka deshaj hai. bharat men uttarapradesh, madras, bngal evn maharashtr men isaka vyavahar atyadhik hata hai aur ise paushtik ahar samajha jata hai. isamen 25.5 pratishat protin, 1.9 pratishat tel, 52.2 pratishat karbohaidret, 3.4 pratishat raphej evn 2.8 pratishat loha hota hai. isaki rakh men potash evn phaausphet adhik matra men rahata hai.

matar (Pisum arvense)

poorvi yoorop ka deshaj hai. isaki doosari jati pisam saitivam (Pisum sativum) hai, jo eshiya ka deshaj hai. isamen 22.5 pratishat protin, 1.6 pratishat tel, 53.7 pratishat karbohaidret, 5.4 pratishat raphej tatha 2.9 pratishat rakh rahati hai. lagabhag sabh rajyon men isaka upayog hota hai. hari phali se nikali matar sabji ke ka ati hai aur pak jane par dal ke liy isaka upayog hota hai.

chana (Chick pea or cicer arietinum)

isaka prayog bharat men lagabhag sabhi pradeshon men samany roop se hata hai. yah sabhi dalahanon men sarvadhik paushtik padarth hai. palatoo ghode ko bhi yah khilaya jata hai. ghode ko khilaya janevala chana angreji men haaurs gram (Horse gram) kahalata hai. isaka vanaspatik nam daaulikos baiphloras (Dolichos biflorus) hai. isamen vitamin si paryapt matra men rahata hai. chane ka besan pakaudi, besani, kadhi tatha mithaee banane ke kam men ata hai. hara chana sabji banane evn talakar khane ke kam men ata hai.

khesari (Lathyrus sativum)

yah atynt nimnakoti ka dalahan hai. pashuon ke khilane aur kheton men hari khad ke lie isaka upayog adhik hota hai. yah alp matra men hi dal ke roop men khaee jati hai. isake adhik seban se kuchh rog ho jane ki soochana mili hai.

soyabin (Glycinemax)

yah poorvi eshiya ka deshaj hai. isaki phaliyan chhoti, roendar hoti hain, jinamen do se char tak bij hote hain. isamen 66-71 pratishat jal, 5.5 pratishat rakh, 14 se 19 pratishat vasa, 4.5 se 5.5 pratishat raphej, 5 s 6 pratishat naitrojan, 1.5 se 3 pratishat starch, 8 se 9.5 pratishat hemiselooloz, 4 se 5 pratishat pentosan rahata hai. inake atirikt kailsiyam, maignishiyam aur phaausphoras rahate hain.

sem (Bean)

yah kee prakar ki hoti hai, jisamen lal aur saphed adhik prachalit hai. isamen protin 15 se 20 pratishat, rakh 6 se 7 pratishat, sharkara 21 se 29 pratishat, starch aur deksatrin 14 se 23 pratishat hemiseloolaj 8.5 se 11 pratishat tatha pentosan lagabhag 7 pratishat rahata hai. isake protin bina pakae shighr nahin pachate.

shasyachakr paddhati

sabhi dalahanon ke lie domat mitti ki avashyakata padati hai. sabhi dalahan varshik paudhe hain. inake lie samashitoshn jalavayu aur halaki varsha avashyak hoti hai. dalahan ke paudhon ki jadon men vayumndal se naitrojan grahan karane vale jivanu rahate hain, jo bhoomi men naitrojan ka sngrah karake bhoomi ki urvara shakti ki vriddhi karate hain. isaliy kheton ki urvara shakti ki vriddhi karane ke lie shasyachakr ki paddhati apanaee jati hai; jaise- jin kheton men dhan ki phasal ugaee gee thi unamen chane ki phasal ugaee jati hai.

dalahan krishi

bharat men rabi evn kharib donon phasalon ke antargat dalon ki krishi ki jati hai. rabi ki phasal ke samay boee jane vali pramukh dalahani phasalen hain - arahar, chana, matar, masoor, adi jabaki moong, udad, lobiya adi ki krishi khariph ke samay ki jati hai. dalahani phasalon ki drishti se hamare desh ki pramukh visheshata yah hai ki inaki krishi anupajaoo mitti evn varsha ki kami vale kshetron men hi ki jati rahi hai. chane ki krishi gnga tatha sataluj nadiyon ki oopari ghati evn usake samipavarti madhy pradesh rajy tak hi simit hai. isaka sabase saghan kshetr uttar pradesh men agara tatha mirjapur zilon ke bich paya jata hai jabaki pnjab, hariyana, rajasthan, gujarat adi pramukh utpadak rajy hai. 2007-08 men kul 148 lakh tan ka utpadan hua, jo 1990-91 ki tulana men 0.76 pratishat ki varshik vriddhi ko darshata hai.

dalahan se dal banana

dalahan se dal chhilakedar tatha bina chhilake ki banaee jati hai. ab to dalahan ko dal milon men bhejakar dal banavana vyavasayik drishti se labhaprad ho gaya hai. gharon men bhi dalahan se dal banaee jati hai. chhilakedar dal banane ke lie jis dalahan ki dal banani ho use chakki dvara dal lete hain. bina chhilake ki dal do prakar se banati hai, pani men bhigokar athava moyakar. dalahan ko dalakar pani men do tin ghnte tak bhigo dete hain. isake bad dal ko pani se nikalakar hath se khoob masalakar chhilaka alag karate hain aur is masali huee dal ko pani men dal dete hain, jisase chhilaka pani ke oopar a jata hai aur dal niche baith jati hai. chhilake ko pani ke oopar se hatakar, dal ko do tin bar masalane aur dhone se dal pray: bilkul chhilake rahit ho jati hai is chhilake rahit dal ko dhoop men sukhakar rakh liya jata hai.

chhilake rahit dal banane ki doosari vidhi hai, pahale dalahan ko dhoop men khoob sukha lete hain. ek ser dalahan ke lie pani men ek bhar tel milakar, rat men dalahan ko moyakar, ratabhar dhakakar rakh dete hain aur subah dhoop men sukhate hain. is sookhe dalahan ko chakki men dalakar okhali men chhant lete hain, jisase chhilaka alag ho jata hai. dal ko chhantane men vishesh yogyata ki avashyakata hoti hai, jisase dal toote nahin.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

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