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dhan ki fasal

dhan (angrezi : Paddy) sampoorn vishv men paida hone vali pramukh fasalon men se ek hai. pramukh khadyann chaval isi se prapt hota hai. dhan bharat sahit eshiya aur vishv ke adhikansh deshon ka mukhy khady hai. makka ke bad dhan ki fasal hi mukhy roop se vishv men bade paimane par utpann ki jati hai. kisi any khadyann ki apeksha dhan ki khapat vishv men sarvadhik hai. chin ke bad bharat ka chaval ke utpadan men vishv men doosara sthan hai. dhan ki achchhi upaj ke lie 100 se.mi. varsha ki avashyak hoti hai. dhan bharat ek pramukh phasal hai, jisase chaval nikala jata hai.  yah bharat sahit eshiya evn vishv ke bahut se deshon ka mukhy bhojan hai. vishv men makka ke bad dhan hi sabase adhik utpann hone vala anaj hai.

itihas

dhan ki kheti 1500-800 eesa poorv se hoti a rahi hai aur yajurved men bhi isaka ulh‍lekh milata hai. itihasakaron ke anusar barma, thailaind, laos, viyatanam aur dakshin chin ke rash‍te uttar bharat men poorvi himalay ki chhoti pahadiyon par chaval ki kheti ki jati thi. dhan bharat ke sath-sath adhe vishh‍v ke bhojan ka mukhh‍y anh‍n hai. bharat saphed chaval ke utpadan men vishv ke agrani utpadakon men se ek hai, jisamen samagr utpadan ka 20 pratishat ka utpadan hota hai. chaval bharat ki ek mahatvapoorn phasal hai aur desh ke poorvi aur dakshini bhag ki janasnkhya ke bhojan ka ek mukhy padarth hai. desh men chaval ki kheti ke lie sabase adhik upajaoo bhoomi hai.

bharat men dhan ki krishi

dhan ek sarvavh‍yapi phasal hai aur antarkatika ko chhodakar sabhi mahadvipon men isaki kheti ki jati hai. 3.83 tan/hekh‍teyar ke ausat uth‍padan ki dar se 150 miliyan hekh‍teyar kshetr men 573 miliyan tan dhan ka uth‍padan hota hai. eshiya ki khady raksha ke lie isaka uth‍padan ath‍ynt mahath‍vapoorn hai, jahan vishh‍v bhar ka 90 pratishat dhan ka uth‍padan hota hai aur upabhog kiya jata hai. bharat men dhan mukhy roop se pashchim bngal, uttar pradesh, andhr pradesh, pnjab, hariyana aur tamilanadu adi men ugaya jata hai. bharat men jharakhand rajy ki bahusnkhyak abadi ka pramukh ahar chaval hai. is kshetr men dhan 71 pratishat bhoomi men ugaya jata hai. parantu isaki utpadakata any vikasit rajyon ki tulana men bahut kam hai. at: yah avashyak hai ki utpadakata badhane ke liye dhan ki unnat krishi takanik ka gyan kisanon ko karaya jaye. dhan ki utpadakata ko prabhavit karane ke vibhinn karanon men bhoomi ke anusar kismon ka chunav pramukh hai. sadharanataya oonchi jamin men 80-100 dinon tak ki avaghi vali kism, madhyam bhoomi men 100 dinon se adhik evn 135 dinon tak ki avaghi vali kismon evn nichi jamin men 135 dinon tak ki avaghi vali kismon ki anushnsa ki jati hai.

dhan utpadan

dhan ki kheti bharat men pichhale saikadon varsho se hoti rahi hai. bharat tatha pakistan ko dhan ka janak mana jata hai. harit kranti ke bad bharat men khadyann ki atmanirbharata prapt karake dhan ki vishv men maaug tatha bhavishy men isake niryat ki atyadhik snbhavanaon ko dekhate hue isaki vaigyanik kheti kafi mahatvapoorn ho gayi hai. kisi bhi phasal ke adhik utpadan ke sath sath achchhi gunavatta men fasal ki kismon ka atyadhik mahatv hai. basamati chaval men vishishti sugndh evn svad hone ke karan isaki vibhinn kismon ka alag alag mahatv hai. dhan ki parasparik prajatiyaau  prakash snvedanashil, lambi avadhi tatha apekshakrit adhik oochaee vali hoti hai jisase dhan ki upaj kafi kam hoti hai parantu basamati dhan ki nayi unnat kismen apekshakrit kam oonchaee, adhik khad evn urvarak chahane vali tatha adhik upaj dene vali hai. 

khet taiyar karana

dhan ki kheti ke lie grishm ki jutaee karane ke bad 2-3 jutaiyan aur karake khet ko taiyar karana chahie. isake sath hi majaboot medabanh‍di bhi honi chahie, jisase khet men varsha ka pani adhik samay tak snchit kiya ja sake. hari khad ke roop men yadi dhaicha ya sanee ka prayog kar rahe hain to dhan ki buvaee ke samay hi faausforas ka prayog bhi kar lena chahie. dhan ki ropaee ke lie ek saptah poorv hi khet ki sinchaee kar den, jisase ki kharapatavar n ugane payen. isake bad ropaee ke samay khet men pani bhar kar jutaee karana chahie.[1]

bij shodhan

dhan ki narsari banane se pahale bijon ka bhali prakar se shodhan avashy karen. isake lie jahan par jivanu jhulasa ya jivanudhari rog ki samasya ho, vahan 25 kigra. bij ke lie 4 gram streptosaklin ya 40 gram plantomaisin ko milakar bijon ko pani men rat bhar bhigokar rakh dena chahie. agale din bijon ko chhaya men sukhakar narsari dalani chahie. yadi shakanu jhulasa ki samasya kshetron men nahin hai to 25 kigra. bij ko ratabhar pani men bhigone ke bad agale din nikalakar atirikt pani nikal jane ke bad 75 gram thiram ya 50 gram karbendajim ko 8-10 litar pani men gholakar bij me mila den. isake bad bijon ko chhaya men ankurit karake narsari men dalen.

paudhon ki ropaee

paudhon ko ropane ke lie skrapar ki sahayata se paudhe is prakar nikale jayen, jisase ki chhani huee mitti ki motaee tak ka hissa uthakar aye. in paudhon ko paidi transaplantar ki tre men rakhen. mashin men lage hatthe ko zamin ki or halke jhatake ke sath dabayen.
dhan ki baliyan
aisa karane se tre men rakhi paudh ki slais 6 pikar katakar 6 sthanon par khet men laga den. isake bad hatthe ko apani or khinch kar pichhe ki or kadam badhakar mashin ko utana khinchana chahie, jitana paudhe se paudhe ki doori rakhana chahate hain. samanyat: yah doori 10 semi. honi chahie. phir se hatthe ko zamin ki or halke jhatake se dabana chahie. is prakar hi paudhon ko ropit karate jayen. paudhe rope jane ke bad jo paudhe mar jayen, unake sthan par jald hi doosare paudhon ko laga dena chahie, jisase prati ikaee paudhon ki snkhya kam n ho paye. dhan ki achchhi paidavar ke lie upaj ke prati varg mitar men 250 se 300 baliyan avashy honi chahie.[1]

sinchaee

uttar pradesh men sinchaee ki kshamata ke achchhe avasar maujood hain, phir bhi dhan ka lagabhag 60-62 pratishat kshetr hi sinchit hai, jabaki dhan ki fasal ke lie sabase adhik pani ki avashyakata hoti hai. fasal ki kuchh vishesh avasthaon men ropaee ke bad ek saptah tak kille phootane, bali nikalane, phool khilane tatha dana bharate samay khet men pani bana rahana chahie. phool khilane ki avastha paudhe ke lie ati snvedanashil hoti hai. parikshanon ke adhar par yah paya gaya hai ki dhan ki adhik upaj lene ke lie lagatar pani bhara rahana avashyak nahin hai. isake lie khet ki satah se pani adrishy hone ke ek din bad 5 se 7 semi. sinchaee karana achchha rahata hai. khet men pani rahane se faausforas, loha tatha mainganij adi tatvon ki upalabdhata badh jati hai aur kharapatavar bhi kam ugate hain.

rog

dhan ki fasal ko kee rogon se hani pahunchati hai, jinake nam nimnalikhit hain-

  1. safed rog
  2. pattiyon ka bhoora rog
  3. jivanu jhulasa rog
  4. shith jhulasa rog
  5. jivanudhari rog
  6. jhonka rog

rog se bachav ke upay

dhan ki fasal ko pramukh rogon ke prabhav se bachane ke lie nimn upaye apanaye ja sakate hain-

  1. garmi men gahari jutaee evn medon tatha khet ke as-pas ke kshetr ko kharapatavar se sadaiv mukt rakhana chahiye.
  2. samay-samay par rog pratirodh prajatiyon ke manak bijon ki buvaee karani chahiye.
  3. narsari dalane se pahale kshetr vishesh ki samayanusar bij shodhan avashy kar lena chahiye.
  4. jivanu jhulasa ki samasya vale kshetron men 25 kigra. bij ke lie 38 gram ee.em.si. tatha 4 gram streptosaiklin ko 45 litar pani men rat bhar bhigo den. doosare din chhaya men sukhakar narsari dalen.
  5. taraee evn pahadi vale kshetron men bij ko 3 gram thairas, 1.5 gram /karbendajim mishran se upacharit karana chahiye.
  6. narsari, sidhi buvaee athava ropaee ke bad khair rog ke lie ek surakshatmak chhidakav 5 kigra. zink salfet ko 20 kigra. yooriya aur 1000 litar pani men sath milakar prati hektar ki dar se hafte bad chhidakav karana chahiye.
  7. bade kshetr men rog ki mahamari se bachane ke lie ekadhik prajatiyon ko lagana chahie.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 dhan ki kheti (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 sitambar, 2012.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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