गन्ना  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ganne

ganna sare vishv men paida hone vali ek pumukh fasal hai. bharat ko ganne ka 'janm sthan' mana jata hai, jahan aj bhi vishv men ganne ke antargat sarvadhik kshetraphal 35 pratishat kshetr paya jata hai. vartaman men ganna utpadan men 'bharat ka vishv men pratham sthan' hai. yadyapi brajil evn kyooba bhi bharat ke lagabhag barabar hi ganna paida karate hain. desh men rnimit sabhi mukhy mithakarakon ke lie ganna ek mukhy kachcha mal hai. isaka upayog do pramukh kutir udyogon mukhyat: gud tatha khndasari udyogon men bhi kiya jata hai. in donon udyogon se lagabhag 10 miliyan tan mithakarakon[1] ka utpadan hota hai, jisamen desh men hue ganne ke utpadan ka lagabhag 28-35% ganne ka upayog hota hai.

vanijyik fasal

aj vartaman samay men ganna desh ki ek pramukh vanijyik fasal hai aur lagabhag 4.36 miliyan hekteyar kshetr men isaki kheti ki jati hai. 2002-2003 men ganne ka varshik utpadan 281.6 miliyan tan tha. ganne ki kheti kul krishi kshetr ke lagabhag 3.0% bhag men ki jati hai. yah pramukh nakadi fasalon men se ek hai, jisaka desh men krishi utpadan ka sakal mooly lagabhag 7.5% hai. lagabhag 50 miliyan kisan apani jivika ke lie ganne ki kheti par nirbhar hain aur itane hi khetihar mazadoor hain, jo ganne ke kheton men kam karake apani jivika kamate hain.

ganne ki upalabdhata

bharat men ganne ki kheti ka mukhy bhag ardh-ushnakatibndhiy bhag hai. is kshetr men uttar pradesh, uttaranchal, bihar, pnjab, hariyana mukhy ganna utpadak rajy hain. madhy pradesh, pashchim bngal, rajasthan aur asam ke bhi kuchh kshetron men ganna paida kiya jata hai, lekin in rajyon men utpadakata bahut hi kam hai. ganne ki kheti vyapak rup se ushnakatibndhiy kshetr men ki jati hai, jisamen maharashtr, andhr pradesh, tamilanadu aur gujarat rajy shamil hain. choonki ganna, jo ek ushnakatibndhiy fasal hai, ke lie in rajyon men anukoolatam krishi jalavayu sthit hai. ardh-ooshn-katibndhiy kshetron ki tulana men ooshnakatibndhiy kshetr men paidavar apekshakrit adhik hai.

bhaugolik dashaen

ganna mukhyatah ayanavrittiy paudha hai. bharat men isaki kheti 8° uttari akshansh se 32° uttari akshansh tak ki jati hai. isake lie nimn dashaon ki avashyakata hoti hai-

tapaman

bharat men ganne ki fasal ko taiyar hone men lagabhag ek varsh ka samay lag jata hai. ankur nikalane ke samay 20° sentigred ka tapaman labhadayak rahata hai, kintu badhane ke lie 20° sentigred se 30° sentigred ke tapaman ki avashyakata padati hai. 30° sentigred se adhik aur 16° sentigred se niche ke tapaman men yah paida nahin hota hai. atyadhik shit aur pala fasal ke lie hanikarak hota hai. sadharanatah isake lie lambi aur tapayukt garmiyan hi anukool rahati hain.

ganne

varsha

ganna 100 se 200 sentimitar varsha vale bhagon men bhali prakar paida kiya ja sakata hai. kee kshetron men to 150 se 250 sentimitar ki varsha vale bhagon men bhi yah paida hota hai. yadi varsha ki matra kam hoti hai to paudhe ko sinchaee ke sahare paida kiya jata hai. garmi men paudhe ko kam se kam char bar sinchane aur godane se ek-ek podhen men kee ankur nikal ate hain aur vah bhoomi men bhali prakar jam jata hai. kheton men fasal taiyar hote samay lambe samay tak pani bhara rahane se ganne men sharkara pratishat men kami ane lagati hai.

mitti

ganne ke lie upajaoo domat mitti tatha nami se poorn bhoomi, visheshatah gahari aur chikani domat mitti, upayukt hoti hai. dakshin ki lava se yukt bhoomi men bhi ganna paida kiya jata hai. ganne ke paudhe ko paryapt khad ki avashyakata hoti hai. atah sadharanatah ganna tin-varshiy her-pher ke sath boya jata hai. gobar, kampost athava any prakar ki pranij khadon aur sanee, dhencha adi hari khad, amoniyam salphet aur suparaphaausphet adi ka bhi khad ke roop men paryapt prayog kiya jata hai.

shram

ganne ko ropane, niraee-gudaee karane aur katakar bandal banane tatha samay-samay par sinchaee karane ke lie paryapt matra men saste shramikon ki avashyakata padati hai.

  • ganna samudrik vayu ke sampark se bahut achchhe aur adhik ras vala banata hai. is prakar ki anukool avasthaen bharat ke tatiy kshetr men paee jati hai. isi karan dakshin bharat men prati hektear utpadan bhi uttar bharat ki apeksha adhik hota hai.

ganne ki krishi

ganna sadharanatah madhy disambar se march tak boya jata hai tatha agami disambar se march ke madhy tak kat liya jata hai. gujarat, maharashtr aur karnatak men adasali fasal joon se julaee tak boyi jati hai, jabaki nayi paudh janavari men ugaee jati hai.
ganne
tamilanadu men paudh lagane ka samay march se sitambar tak hota hai. bharat men ek bar ka boya paudha tin varshon tak achchhi fasal deta hai. upajaoo bhoomi, achchhi sinchaee aur upayukt tapaman men ganne ka paudha achchhi tarah panapata hai. kabhi kabhi to yah 7.5 mitar tak ooncha ho jata hai. vishv ke any deshon, java, kyooba, maaurishas, brajil aur phiji adi men ganne ki fasal 20 se 24 mah pashchath kati jati hai. atah vahan ki upaj bahut adhik hoti hai. bharat men jalavayu sambandhi bhinnataon ke karan dakshini bharat men adhik sharkara vala mota ganna utpann hota hai evn jyon-jyon uttar ki or badhate hain tyon tyon gannen men reshe ka ansh badhata jata hai aur mithas ki matra bhi kam ho jati hai. bihar v pashchim bngal men patali kism ka ganna paida hota hai. uttari bharat men shushk ritu adhik lnbi hoti hai, phalasvaroop ganne ka ras sookhane lagata hai, jabaki dakshin bharat ki ardr samudri jalavayu ke karan ganne men ras ki matra adhik hoti hai.

utpadak kshetr

uttari bharat se desh ke utpadan ka 50 pratishat ganna milata hai, kintu isaka prati hektear utpadan dakshin bharat ki apeksha kam hai, jahan karnatak men yah utpadan 84,361 kilogram, tamilanadu men 1,06778 kilogram, andhr pradesh men 65,756 kilogram hai, vahin rajasthan men keval 41,578 kilogram, pnjab men 60,000 kilogram prati hektear hi hai. bharat men utpadit ganne ka 40 pratishat gud evn 50 pratishat chini banane men prayukt hota hai.

yadyapi ganne ki krishi ke lie uttari bharat ki apeksha dakshin bharat bhaugolik suvidhaon ki drishti se adhik anukool hai, tathapi adhik ganna uttari bharat men hi paida kiya jata raha hai. akela uttar pradesh desh ki upaj ka 35.81 pratishat, maharashtr 25.4 pratishat, tamilanadu 10.93 pratishat paida karate hain arthath ye tinon rajy desh ke kul ganna utpadan ka 72 pratishat utpadan karate hain. idhar pichhale do dashakon se dakshin ke rajyon men ganne ki upaj men paryapt vriddhi ki gayi hai. 1970 ke pashchath dakshin bharat ke ganne ke utpadan men vriddhi huee hai. varsh 2008-2009 men desh men 4.4 miliyan hektear kshetr men ganna boya gaya, jisamen 173.9 miliyan tan ganne ka utpadan hua. varsh 2008-2009 men ganne ka prati hektear utpadan 62 tan raha. dakshini rajyon men andhr pradesh, karnatak, maharashtr evn tamilanadu men ganne ka utpadan adhik hota hai. in rajyon men prati hektear ganne ki upaj bhi uttar bharat ki tulana men adhik hoti hai. yahi karan hai ki adhikansh nayi chini milon ki sthapana in rajyon men huee hai.

gnga ki ghati men utpadan

gnga ki oopari v madhyavarti ghati men hi sarvadhik ganna paida kiya jata raha hai, kyonki-

  1. yahan prativarsh badh ke samay kheton men kachhari mitti phail jati hai.
  2. jal kam giraee par mil jata hai, jisase sinchaee asani se ho jati hai.
  3. varsha bhi 100 sentimitar tak ho jati hai.
  4. prayah yahan par pale ka abhav rahata hai.
  5. ghani janasnkhya hone ke karan mazadoor saste aur asani se mil jate hai.
  6. samatal maidan hone ke karan kheti saralatapoorvak ki ja sakati hai.
  7. tapaman lagabhag 27° sentigred tak rahata hai, jabaki dakshini bharat ki lava ki chikani mitti lagatar oonche tapaman evn avashyak sinchaee dvara jal evn unnat krishi takanik sabhi ne is kshetr ko ganne ke lie adarsh kshetr bana diya hai.
  • ganna utpadan ki drishti se bharat men uttar pradesh ka pratham sthan hai. ganne ke antargat kshetr ka lagabhag ek tihaee bhag keval uttar pradesh men hai. yahan ganne ke do pramukh kshetr hai. pahala taraee pradesh se sambaddh hai aur ramapur se prarambh hokar bareli, pilibhit, sitapur, lakhimapur khiri, muradabad, gonda, phaijabad, ajamagadh, jaunapur, basti, baliya, devariya, aur gorakhapur hota hua bihar ke saran tatha champaran tak phaila hua hai. is kshetr ka kendr gorakhapur, devariya kaha ja sakata hai, jahan kee chini ki mile hain.
  • doosara kshetr gnga aur yamuna nadiyon ke doab men sthit hai. yah merath se varanasi hota hua ilahabad tak vistrit hai. is kshetr ke pramukh utpadak zile saharanapur, bulandashahar, aligadh, muradabad aur merath hain. is kshetr ka kendr merath men hai. merath ka ganna uttam koti ka ooncha, mota tatha ras vala hota hai. isase gud adhik banaya jata hai. yahan ka varshik utpadan lagabhag 8.3 karod tan hai. yahan desh ka ek tihaee ganna paida hota hai.

andhr pradesh men ganne ki krishi godavari tatha krishna nadiyon ke deltaon men sarvadhik hoti hai, kyonki is pradesh men upayukt nadiyon ke delton men naharon dvara sinchaee karane ki vishesh suvidha prapt hai. poorvi aur pashchimi godavari, krishna, vishakhapattanam, shrikakulam, trichoor aur nijamabad pramukh utpadak zile hain.

ganne ki joos ki dukan

tamilanadu men koyambatoor, ramanathapuramh, tiruchirapalli, uttari aur dakshini arkat evn madurai zilon men ganne ki krishi vishesh roop se hoti hai. koyambatoor men ganne ki anusandhanashala bhi hai, jisase ganne ki krishi ke unnat upayon aur nayi kismon ke anusandhan men sahayata milati hai. desh men ganna utpadan men isaka tisara sthan hai.

maharashtr men ganne ka kshetr nasik ke dakshin men godavari ki oopari ghati men sthit hai. sangali, satara, ahamadanagar, nasik, pune aur sholapur pramukh utpadak zile hain. yahan ganne ki sinchaee ke lie anek yojanaen banayi gayi hain. tapaman varsh bhar sam rahata hai, jisase ganne se adhik ras ki prapti hoti hai. ganne ke utpadan ki drishti se yah bharat ka doosara mahattvapoorn rajy hai. rashtriy utpadan men isaka dvitiy sthan hai. yahan ka varshik utpadan yadyapi 2.5 se 3.0 karod tan hi hai, kintu adhikansh ganne se shakkar banaee jati hai. utpadakata arthath prati hektear upaj desh men sarvadhik hai aur chini ki prapti adhik hai.

karnatak men ganne ka utpadak tungabhadra, kaveri aur krishnaraj sagar bandh se nikali gayi naharon ke sahare shivamogga, rayachoor, kolar, mndya, bellari aur pashchimi belagami zilon men kiya jata hai.

hariyana bhi mahattvapoorn ganna utpadak rajy hai, jahan sinchaee ki sahayata se ganna utpann kiya jata hai. yahan ke pramukh ganna utpadak zile gudaganv, hisar, rohatak, karanal tatha ambala hain. pnjab men sngaroor, patiyala, jalandhar, phirojapur, guradasapur evn amritasar pramukh utpadak zile hain.

pashchimi bngal men ativrishti joot ki apeksha ganna ke lie kam upayogi hai, phir bhi joot ki mang ghatane evn ganne ki fasal se adhik labh milane ke karan ab vahan ganna mahattvapoorn fasal hai. atah vartaman men damodar, bangli aur padma nadiyon ki ghati men yah paida kiya jata hai. varddhaman, virabhoom, hugali, murshidabad, chaubis paragana aur nadiya zilon ki adhi pratishat se 1 pratishat krishi yogy bhoomi par ganne ki kheti ki jati hai.

bihar men ganna utpadak kshetr uttar pradesh ki taraee vale kshetr se sambaddh hai. champaran, gaya, saran, shahabad, darabhnga, mujaphpharapur, poorniya aur bhagalapur aur pramukh utpadak zilen hain. 1970 ke pashchath yahan ka utpadan nirantar kam hota ja raha hai.

rajasthan men ganne ka utpadan shrignganagar, kota, boondi, chittaudagadh, udayapur aur bhilavada zilon men hota hai.

madhy pradesh men ujjain, gvaliyar, muraina, javara aur shivapuri tatha chhattisagadh rajy men rayapur aur bilasapur pramukh ganna utpadak kshetr hai.

gujarat men ganna soorat, bhavanagar, rajakot, banasakanta, jamanagar aur joonagadh men paida kiya jata hai.

samasyaen

bharat men ganne ki krishi se sambandhit kuchh pramukh samasyaen nimnalikhit hain-

  1. ganne ki adarsh dashaen dakshin bharat men milati hain, kintu ab isaki adhikatar kheti uttar bharat me ki jati hai, jahan shushk ritu adhik lambi hone ke karan ganna adhik samay tak khet men nahin rah pata. yah patala aur kam ras vala hota hai.
  2. desh men ganne ka utpadan prati hektear isaki krishi unnat takanik ke vishishti prayog ke abhav men bahut hi kam hai. idhar pichhale kuchh varshon se isamen sudhar hua hai. san 1960-1961 men ganne ka prati hektear utpadan 46 tan tha, jo badhatrakar 2008-2009 men 62 tan ho gaya.

koyambatoor men 'kendriy anusandhan kendr' se prasarit ab ganne ki kee kismen boyi jane lagi hain, jaise- sio 410, sio 419, sio 431, sio 312, sio 212, sio 290, sio 205 adi. at: prati-hektear isaka utpadan badh raha hai. pradeshik krishi anusandhanashalaon se bhi navin kismen vikasit ki ja rahi hain. lakhanoo men 'kendriy ganna anusandhan kendr', shahajahanpur, devariya v mujaphpharanagar men 'rajy ganna anusandhan kendr' sthapit hain. bharat men jitana ganna paida hota hai, usaka 40 pratishat gudh banane men, 50 pratishat saphed chini banane men, boora v salphar sugar banane men aur shesh choosane tatha bij ke roop men kam men laya jata hai.

ganne ka upayog

ganne ka ras

bharat men 300 miliyan tan ke ganne utpadan ki lagabhag 35% matra gud aur khndasari ke vinirman aur choosane ke prayojan ke lie upayog ki jati hai. gud aur khndasari ka vinirman karnatak, tamilanadu aur uttar pradesh men mukhy rup se kiya jata hai par kafi adhik matra men gud aur khndasari andhr pradesh, hariyana aur pnjab men bhi taiyar kiya jata hai. 1996-2002 ki avadhi ke dauran in rajyon men ganne se chini, gud aur khndasari ke utpadan ke lie upayog men lae jane vali ganne ki matra ka byaura talika 3.2 men diya gaya hai.

kam utpadakata ke mukhy karan

  • hal hi men ganne ki kheti ke adhin kshetr aur usaki paidavar men kafi kami huee hai jisaka mukhy karan lagabhag poore ushnakatibndhiy aur up-ushnakatibndhiy kshetron men pada sookha hai. hal men sookhe, ganne ke mooly ka vilamb se bhugatan aur kam chini moolyon ke asar se ganna utpadan men kami aee hai aur kuchh chini milen bnd huee hain.
  • ganne par vooli ephid nam ke ek ne kit ke grasan ki ghatana agast, 2002 men belagam zile men samane aee aur bhadra nahar kshetron aur dakshini karnatak ke kaveri ghati men bhi dhire-dhire isaki pahunch ho gee. isake prabhav aur phailane ki badhati dar aur tivrata ne kaveri ghati men ganna kisanon ke bich khauph paida kar diya hai jinhonne pahale se hi pichhale varshon ke dauran sookhe ke karan bhari nuqasan uthaya tha.

jal snrakshan

  • desh men kul sinchit kshetr men se lagabhag 58% nalakoopon evn any kuon dvara, 32% naharon dvara, 5% talabon dvara tatha shesh 5% any sroton dvara sinchit hai. jal snrakshan ke lie, ganne ke adhin kuen se sabhi sinchit kshetr ko draps (drip) sinchaee ke adhin lane ki avashyakata hai. draps sinchaee se utpadan men vriddhi karane tatha urvarakon evn any poshak tatvon ke anukoolatam upayog men madad milegi.
  • paristhiti ki men kit ke bare men paryapt janakari ki kami tatha praudyogikiyon men is sthiti se nipatane ke lie taiyari ke bare men janakari ki kami prabhavi prabndhan karyon ka sujhav dene men pramukh chinta ka vishay rahi hai. adhikanshatah ushnakatibndhiy eshiyaee kshetr men, thnde evn meghachchhit mausam (19-35 digri selsiyas) ke sath-sath uchch sapeksh ardrata (85%) men jntubadha teji se hoti hai. atah kit ki jaiv paristhitikiy ko dhyan men rakhate hue isake prasar evn bure prabhav ko kam karane ke lie kuchh krishi vaigyanik paddhatiyon ka vikas kiya jana avashyak hai. vasntadada shugar institayoot ne prakritik pratirodhakon yatha trichagrama, kraisopera, inakarsiya, aiso-tomiya, dayapha adi ka vikas karana tatha muhaiya karakar rogon par niyntran rakhane ke lie apani seva di hain.

vaikalpik upayog

  • nirvat patr chini phaiktriyan keval planteshan vhait shugar ka hi utpadan karane ke lie badhy hain. samiti ke samaksh prastut kie ge kuchh abhyavedanon men yah sujhav diya gaya ki is pratibndh ko hataya ja sakata hai tatha chini phaiktriyon ko unaki ichchhanusar gud tatha khndasari jaise any mithakarakon ke utpadan ki chhoot di ja sakati hai.
  • samiti ne chini milon ko chini ke alava any mithakarakon ke vinirman, yadi avashyak hon, ke lie anumati dene ke vichar par bhi charcha ki. samiti ne not kiya ki vhait shugar ke alava any utpadon ke vinirman ke lie ganne ke upayog ki vanijyik tatha vaidhanik rup se janch ki jani chahie.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gud aur khndasari

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