मक्का  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

makka ki fasal

makka, 'gramini' kul ki lnbi ugane vali ekavarshi ghas hai. isaki jaden tntuvat prakar ki hoti hain. tana mota, gol tatha jatiyon ke anusar 4 se 10 fut tak lnba hota hai. paudhe men shakhaen nahin hotin. tane men parvasndhi moti evn parv thos hote hain. pattiyan lnbi, rekhiy tatha chaudi hoti hain. yah ekaling pushpi paudha hai, jisake nar-mada pushp ek hi paudhe ke vibhinn bhagon par hote hain. nar pushp sire par ek guchchhe men hote hain, jinhen 'jhabba' kahate hain. tane ke ek or se pattiyon ke kaksh se baliyan ya bhutte nikalate hain, jo ek se char tak prati paudhe men ho sakate hain. in baliyon men mada koshikaen paee jati hain, jinhen 'rajakan' kahate hain. ye ek lnbi kukshinal dvara judi hoti hain. yah vayu dvara nishechit paudha hai. makke ki kheti uttari amarika men sab deshon se adhik hoti hai. vahan lagabhag ath karod ekad bhoomi men ath karod tan makka paida hoti hai, jabaki bharat ke 87,62,000 ekad men 30,64,000 tan hi makka paida hoti hai.

bhaugolik visheshataen

bharat men apekshakrit shushk bhagon men makka ka upayog pramukh khadyann ke roop men kiya jata hai. isake lie lamba garmi ka mausam, khula, akash tatha achchhi varsha avashyak hoti hai. 250 sen. se 300 sen. tapaman aur 50 semi. se 80 semi. tak varsha vale kshetr tatha naitrojan yukt gahari domat mitti men isaki achchhi krishi ki jati hai.

utpadak kshetr

aitihasik sakshyon se pata chalata hai ki aj se das hazar varshon poorv sarvapratham, maiksiko men bharatiyon dvara hi isaki upaj paida ki gee thi. bharat men gehoon ke bad makke ka utpadan sarvadhik hota hai. makka bharat ke arddh athava sinchit bhagon ka mukhy khadyann hai. arddh-shushk v asinchit bhagon men yah varsha kal men hi paida kiya ja sakata hai. ise kee fasalon ke sath milakar boya jata hain. vishv ka keval 1.5 pratishat makka bharat men paida hota hai. yah desh ke kul krishi kshetr ke 4 pratishat bhag par ugaya jata hai. amerika makka ka sarvadhik niryat karane vala desh hai. makka ka dana gol, chapata, tashtari ki bhanti tatha kee rng ka, jaise pila, lal, narngi, baingani tatha makkhan sadrish safed hota hai. bharat men varsha ke prarnbh hone ke sath sath khariph men adhikatar 'sphat makka' boya jata hai. makka adhikatar ushn katibndh ke pradeshon men hi boya jata hai, parntu shit katibndh men bhi ugane vali jatiyan hoti hain. makka ke liye adhik upajaoo, bhali prakar jalotsarit tatha halki domat bhoomi ki avashyakata hoti hai. makka ki niraee tatha gudaee ati avashyak hain. isaki ropaee nahin ki ja sakati. paudhon tatha pnktiyon ki doori vibhinn jatiyon par nirbhar hai.

bharat men utpadak rajy

bhutte

bharat men makka mukhyatah uttar bharat men paida kiya jata hai. oopari gnga ki ghati, uttar poorvi pnjab, dakshin-pashchim kashmir, dakshin rajasthan men yah ugaya jata hai. makka utpadak mukhy rajy andhr pradesh, bihar, gujarat, madhy pradesh, pnjab, hariyana, rajasthan, jammoo kashmir, uttar pradesh arai himachal pradesh hain. yahan makka kul kshetraphal ka 95 pratishat paya jata hain. shesh makka udisa aur pashchim bngal me paida hota hai. vibhinn rajyon men makka ka utpadan is prakar hai-

  1. uttar pradesh - bulandashahar, merath, farrookhabad, baharaich, gonda, jaunapur, kanapur, gajiyabad, eta aur mainapuri, uttar pradesh ke pramukh zile hain, jahan makka paida hota hai.
  2. pnjab - pnjab men ludhiyana, jalandhar, sngaroor, hoshiyarapur, amritasar, ropad, firojapur, aur patiyala zile makka ke pramukh utpadak zile hain.
  3. bihar - bihar ke munger, mujaphpharapur zila, bhagalapur, darabhnga, saran, champaran aur palamoo zilon men makka ugaya jata hai.
  4. rajasthan - udayapur, doongarapur, bansavada, bhilavada, rajasamnd, bharatapur, dhaulapur aur chittaudagadh, rajasthan ke khas zile hain, jinamen makka ki kheti ki jati hai.
  5. madhy pradesh - madhy pradesh ke ujjain, mndasaur, chhindavada, dhar, guna, rajagadh, ratalam aur indaur zile makka utpadan ke mahattvapoorn kendr hain.
  6. andhr pradesh - vishakhapattanam, nijamabad, varngal, karimanagar, adilabad tatha poorvi aur pashchimi-poorvi godavari aur khambh zilon men bhi makka boya jata hai.
  7. jammoo kashmir - oodhamapur, jammoo aur kathua zile tatha himachal pradesh men mandi aur mahasoo zile makka utpadan men pramukh hain.

desh men varsh 2008-2009 men 82 lakh hektear men makka boya gaya, jisamen kul 193 lakh tan makka ka utpadan hua. desh men varsh 2007-2008 men makka ke utpadan men andhr pradesh ka sthan pratham, karnatak ka doosara sthan tatha rajasthan ka tisara sthan hai. bharat men isaka upayog visheshatah khane men kiya jata hai. isase pashu ahar, starch, aur glookoz bhi banaya jata hai. isaka niryat vyapar bahut hi thoda hota hai.

poshak tattv

garibon ka bhojan makka ab apane paushtik gunon ke karan amiron ke mej ki shan badhane laga hai. pahale bharat men yah keval nimn varg dvara hi khaya jata tha. ab kaaurnaphlaik ke roop men amiron ke nashte aur madhyam varg dvara soop, daliya, roti aur n jane kin-kin roopon men upayog kiya jane laga hai. protin aur vitaminon se bharapoor makka jahan sharir ko oorja pradan karata hai, vahin yah behad supachy bhi hai. isaki khasiyat yah hai ki har roop men isamen poshak tatv vidyaman rahate hain. kachche aur pake roop men to yah fayademnd hota hi hai. jab isamen vidyaman tel nikal liya jata hai aur yah sookhe roop men rah jata hai, tab bhi isake avashisht men vasa ko chhodakar shesh poshak tatv vitamin, protin ityadi vidyaman rahate hain. bachchon ke sarvangin vikas men makke ka prayog sahayak hota hai.[1]

upayog

makka vibhinn roopon men prayog men laya jata hai. sardiyon men makke ke ate se roti banaee jati hai. pnjab ki makke ki roti aur sarason ka sag keval uttar bharatiyon dvara hi nahin, balki poore bharatavasiyon dvara shauq se khaya jata hai. bade-bade hotalon aur restaran men yah sardiyon ki khas dish ban jati hai. makke ke ate men mooli ya methi goondhakar banaee gee roti makkhan aur dahi ke sath atynt svadisht lagati hai. makke ke ate se pavaroti, biskut tatha tost bhi banae jate hain. kachche makke ko sukhakar use daradara pisakar daliya banaya jata hai. yah daliya doodh men pakakar khane se susvadu hone ke sath paushtik bhi hota hai.[1]

makka ke dane

vibhinn vastuon ka nirman

barasat ke mausam men bhoona hua bhutta chhote-bade sabhi ke man ko bhata hai. log bhutte ke alava paaupakarn, bhune hue makee ke pakke dane ke bhi divane hote hain, jo sadharan se bhadabhooje se lekar badi-badi kampaniyon dvara beche jate hain. paka bhutta ubalakar imali ki chatani ke sath khane men atynt svadisht lagata hai. makke ka garam-garam soop pina har mausam men svasthyavardhak hota hai aur svit karn soop ka to javab nahin. makka sharbat, murabba mithaiyon aur banavati makkhan banane men prayukt hota hai aur isake reshe mitti ke bartan, davaiyan, rngarogan, kagaz ki chizen aur kapade banane ke kam ate hain. pashuon ke lie khali ke roop men bhi yah prayukt hota hai. hriday rog visheshgy makke ke tel ko khady-padarthon men prayukt karane ki salah dete hain. ek kism ki sharab aur biyar banane men bhi isaka prayog kiya jata hai.

audyogik upayog

ajakal makka ka unnatishil bij 'makka varnasnkar' bij ke nam se utpann kiya jata hai. ise 'ant:prajat vnshakram' ke snkaran se taiyar kiya jata hai. ye bij bahut adhik paidavar dete hain. makka ka audyogik upayog bhi adhik hai. bahut si vastuen isase banaee jati hain, jaise mnd, chasani ya sharabat, ailkohaaul (spirit), siraka, glookoz, kagaz, reyan, plastik, kritrim rabar, rezin, pavar ailkohaaul adi.

manav rog nivarak

yah pet ke alsar aur gaistrik alsar ke chhutakara dilane men sahayak hai, sath hi yah vazan ghatane men bhi sahayak hota hai. kamazori men yah behatar oorja pradan karata hai aur bachchon ke sookhe ke rog men atynt fayademnd hai. yah mootr pranali par niyntran rakhata hai, dant mazaboot rakhata hai, aur karnaphleks ke roop men lene se hriday rog men bhi labhadayak hota hai.[1]

bhaugolik dashaen

bhutte

sadharanataya makka ke lie 4 se 6 mahine lambi garmi ka mausam, jisamen pala ya sardi na ho aur din evn rat men samany roop se garmi rahe, hona avashyak hai. isake atirikt svachchh akash aur upaj kal men 50 se 80 sentimitar varsha, jo ruk-ruk kar hoti hai, adarsh mani jati hai. 100 sentimitar se adhik varsha makka ki fasal ke lie hanikarak hai. isake lie 25° sentigret se 30° sentigret tapaman upayukt hai, kintu 12° sentigret se 25° sentigret tapaman vale kshetr men bhi yah paida hota hai. 12° sentigret se kam tatha 35° sentigret se adhik tapaman men yah bhali-bhanti nahin ugati. samanyatah 50 se 100 sentimitar varsha vale bhagon men achchhi paida ki jati hai. 50 sentimitar ki varsha rekha isaki pashchimi sima aur 80 sentimitar ki varsha rekha poorvi sima nirdharit karati hai. isake lie natrajanayukt gahari domat mitti aur dhaloo bhoomi achchhi rahati hai, jisase jal ka pravah uchit roop se ho saken.

makka mee se julaee tak boee jati hai aur navambar tak kat li jati hai. ab makka ki anek sudhari huee kismen boee jane lagi hain, jinaka prati hektear utpadan 4,500 se 7,000 ki.gra. hota hai. ye kismen 'gnga 101', 'gnga 3', 'gnga shvet 3', 'ranajit', 'dakkan 103', 'himalay-123', 'haee starch', 'javahar', 'sona', 'vijay basti', 'vikram' aur 'udayapur' chayanit hain. vishesh unnat kism ki shitakalin makka ka bhi vanijyik fasal ke roop men bhi kahin-kahi utpadan hone laga hai.

kharapatavar niyntran

makke men rabi ya khariph ritoo ke lagabhag sabhi kharapatavaron ki samasya ati hain, jinhen samay-samay par niraee-gudaee karake nikalate rahana chahie. niraee gudaee dvara kharapatavar niyntran ke sath hi mrida men aksijan ka snchar hota hai , jisase vah door- r tak phailakar bhojy padarthon ko ekatr kar paudhon ko deti hai. pahali niraee jamav ke 15 din bad kar deni chahie aur doosari niraee 35-40 din bad karani chahie.

makke men lagane vale pramukh kit

  1. (kalama kit) bhoondali - is kit ki gidaren pattiyon ko bahut tezi se khati hai aur fasal ko kafi hani pahunchati hain. isake sharir par roen hote hain.
  2. patti lapetak kit - is kit ki sundiyan patti ke donon kinaron ko resham jaise soot se lapetakar andar se kha leti hain.
  3. tana chhedak - is kit ki sundiyan tanon men chhed karake andar hi andar khati rahati hain, jisase maratgob banata hai aur hava chalane par tana bich se toot jata hai.
  4. tiddha - is kit ke shishu tatha praudh donon hi pattiyon ko khate hain aur hani pahunchate hain.

kit niyntran

  • 5 litar deshi gay ka matha lekar usame 15 chane ke barabar hing pisakar ghol den. is ghol ko bijon par dalakar bij bhigo den tatha 2 ghnte tak rakha rahane den. usake bad bovaee karen. yah ghol 1 ekad ke bij ki bovani ke lie paryapt hai.
  • 5 litar deshi gay ke gomootr men bij bhigokar unaki bovaee karen.isase ogara aur dimak se paudha surakshit rahega.
makka ke khet
  • ogara ya dimak se bachav hetu bovaee karane se pahale bijon ko kerosin se bhi upacharit kar sakate hain.
  • 250 mili nim pani ko 25 mili maikro jhaim ke sath prati pamp achchhi tarah milakar tar-batar kar chhidakav karen.
  • 500 gram lahasun, 500 gram tikhi chatapati hari mirch lekar barik pisakar 150-200 litar pani men gholakar fasalon par chhidakav karen. isase illi jaise ras choosak kide niyntrit honge.

pramukh rog

  1. pattiyon ka jhulasa rog - is rog men pattiyon par bade lambe athava kuchh andakar bhoore rng ke dhabbe pad jate hain, jisase rog ke ugr hone par pattiyan jhulasakar sookh jati hain.
  2. tulasita rog - is rog men pattiyon par pili dhariyan pad jati hain, pattiyon ke niche ki satah par safed ruee ke saman phaphoondi dikhaee deti hain. ye dhabbe bad men gahare athava lal-bhoore pad jate hain. rogi paudhe men bhutte kam padate hain ya banate hi nahin hain.
  3. tana sadan rog - yah rog adhik varsha vale kshetron men lagata hai. isamen tane ki poriyon par jaliy dhabbe dikhaee dete hain, jo shighr hi sadane lagate hain, aur unase durgandh ati hai. pattiyan pili padakar sookh jati hain.

rog se bachav

rog ane par upachar karane se achchha hai ki rog ane hi n diya jae. isalie kisan ko fasal men 15 din bad nim pani maikro jhaim milakar chhidakav karate rahana chahie. agar rog a hi gaya hai, to us fasal ko tatkal ukhadakar jala dena chahie, aur tatkal har haphte nim pani aur jhaim ka chhidakav karate rahana chahie. jab tak fasal rogamukt n ho jae. vishamukt, rogamukt aur tndurust bij ki bovaee karana chahie. agar kisan oragenik kheti kar raha hai, to uparokt bimariyan ane ka avasar hi nahin hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 madhur makka (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.). . abhigaman tithi: 17 joon, 2011.

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