दूध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gilas men doodh

doodh ek aparadarshi safed pey padarth hai jo madaon ke dugdh granthiyon dvara banata hai. navajat shishu tab tak doodh par nirbhar rahata hai jab tak vah any padarthon ka sevan karane men aksham hota hai.

  • doodh ek vijatiy padarth hai jisamen vasa, protin, dugdham, khanij padarth tatha any avayav ya to ghol ya nilamban ya payas ke roop men sadaiv drav avastha men pae jate hain.
  • sadharanataya doodh men 85 pratishat jal hota hai aur shesh bhag men thos tattv yani khanij v vasa hota hai. gay-bhains ke alava bazar men vibhinn knpaniyon ka paikd doodh bhi upalabdh hota hai.
  • doodh protin, kailshiyam aur raibophlevin (vitamin bi -2) yukt hota hai, inake alava isamen vitamin e, di, ke aur ee sahit phaausphoras, maignishiyam, ayodin v kee khanij aur vasa tatha oorja bhi hoti hai. isake alava isamen kee enjaim bhi hote hain. ahar visheshgyon ki manen to ye sab poshak tatv hamari mansapeshiyon aur haddiyon ke gathan men aham bhoomika nibhate hain. protin entibaaudij ke roop men kam karata hai aur hamen inphekshan se bachata hai.
  • doodh men nyoonatam vasa 3.5 pratishat aur vasa rahit thos 8.5 pratishat honi chahiye. doodh ka PH man 6.6 tatha kvathanank 100 se 115 se.gre. hota hai.

mukhy avayav aur bhautik gun

doodh ke vibhinn vishleshanon se pata chalata hai ki isamen vasa, protin, khanij lavan, dugdham adi mukhy avayav hain. in avayavon ki matra vibhinn pashuon tatha ek hi pashu men vibhinn samayon par bhinn-bhinn hota hai.

doodh aur khis ke bhautik gunon ki tulana
gun doodh khis
svad mitha tikha
sugandh samany samany
amlata 0.12 se 0.14 % 0.2 se 0.4 %
himank -0.52 °C se -0.56 °C -0.605 °C
kloraidas 0.14 % 0.149 se 0.156 %
vartanank 1.344 - 1.348 doodh ki apeksha adhik
apekshik ghanatv 1.028 se 1.032 1.04 se 1.08
vidyut snchalakata 0.005 mho doodh ki apeksha adhik
gadhapan 1.5 se 2.0 senti pais doodh ki apeksha adhik
  • ghi athava doodh ka pila rng kairotin ke karan hota hai.
  • shuddh deshi ghi men ek vishesh prakar ki sugandh daiesitil ke karan hoti hai.
  • doodh men kesin, elabyoomin tatha globin, tin pramukh prakar ke protin paye jate hain. isamen kesin ki matra sabase adhik hoti hai.
  • kesin protin se 'lenital' ya lektophil tatha eralok nam ke dhage banaye jate hain.
  • dugdham doodh men paya jane vala mukhy karbohaidret hai.

khis

khis ek prakar ka ksharan hai jo bachcha paida hone ke turnt bad prapt hota hai. yah ksharan navajat shishu ke lie ati avashyak hota hai, kyonki yah shishu ki bahut si bimariyon se raksha karata hai. isaka snghatan samany doodh se alag tarah ka hota hai jo kuchh din ke andar samany doodh men parivartit ho jata hai. khis ka doodh ki tulana men adhik pila hone ke karan usamen kairotin ki adhikata tatha gulabi rng ka karan usamen rakt ka mila hona hai. khis men protin ki matra 11.34% dugdh ki matra 2.19%, rakh ki matra 1% tatha jal ki matra 74.19% hoti hai.

khis rechak tatha rog pratikarak ke roop men mahattvapoorn hai. isake atirikt khis men vitamin e, vitamin bi, triptophen tatha loha evn globyalin (prolin) ki matra adhik hoti hai jo bachchon ko snkramak rogon se bachata hai.

paushtik ahar

doodh prakriti ka sabase paushtik ahar hai. isalie ise dharati ka amrit bhi kahate hain. manushy ke lie doodh sarvottam aur snpoorn khady padarth hai. doodh manushy ki adhikansh poshan avashyakataon ki poorti karata hai. doodh vah ahar hai jo stanapayi praniyon ko janm lete hi sabase pahale upalabdh hota hai. manav shishu to prarnbhik 5-6 mah tak evn bad men kuchh mah tak anshik roop se mata ke doodh par hi nirbhar rahata hai. yah nishchit hai ki svasth man ka doodh pine vala balak jitana svasth, sudaul aur hasht-pusht rahata hai, utana khana (bhojan) shuroo karane ke bad nahin rah pata. doodh ek aisa pey padarth jo asani se pach jata hai. doodh men sharirik vriddhi karane vale, sharir ko shakti dene vale sabhi tattv vidyaman rahate hain. doodh shakti, vriddhi, kanti, bal, viry badhane vala hota hai. yah sharir ko thndak dete hue mal ko pravritt karata hai v pachan ko thik banae rakhane men sahayak hota hai. doodh ayu badhakar yauvan ko adhik kal tak banae rakhata hai. doodh men sharir ko shakti dene vale sabhi tatv kafi matra men pa jate hain. shakahariyon ke lie doodh se badhakar koee paushtik vastu nahin hai. yadi mansahari ek kap doodh pie to donon ki shakti saman hoti hai. doodh men kailshiyam evn phasphoras kafi matra men pae jate hain. isase haddiyan, dant, mansapeshiyan mazaboot hoti hain. manushy sirf doodh pikar janm se lekar vriddhavastha tak anndapoorvak jivan nirvah kar sakata hai. isake sevan se kisi prakar ke rog hone ki snbhavana nahin rahati hai. doodh men manushy sharir ke poshak tatv uchit matra men vidyaman rahate hain. doodh ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki yah ek poorn pushtikarak ahar hote hue bhi bahut jaldi hajam ho jata hai. doodh kisi bhi halat men nukasan nahin karata. har halat men gunakari hota hai.[1]

gay ka doodh

gay ke doodh men prati gram 3.14 mili gram kolestraaul hota hai. yogachary surakshit gosvami gay ke taja doodh ko hi uttam manate hain. anekanek chikatsakon ka bhi manana hai ki gay ka doodh bhains ki tulana men dimag ke lie achchha hai, par indiyan spainal injari sentar ke medikal dayarektar daau. ech. es. chhabada ke anusar kuchh stadi batati hain ki gay ke doodh se behatar hai bhains ka doodh. usamen kam kolestraaul hota hai aur minaral zyada hote hain. gay ke doodh men karbohaidret lektej ki matra 4% tatha vasa ki matra 4.5% hoti hai.

bhains ka doodh

doodh duhati mahila

bhains ke doodh men prati gram 0.65 mili gram kolestraaul hota hai. bhains ke doodh men gay ke doodh ki tulana men 92 phisadi kailshiyam, 37 phisadi ayaran aur 118 phisadi phaausphoras zyada hota hai. bhains ke doodh men karbohaidret lektej ki matra 4.9% tatha vasa ki matra 7% hoti hai.[2]

vishisht doodh

tond dugdh

bhains ke doodh men pani milakar vasa tatha vasa rahit thos padarthon ki matra kam kar diya jata hai tatha isamen punah sapreta doodh milakar vasa rahit thos padarthon ko shuddh doodh ke barabar kar diya jata hai. is prakar bane doodh ko tond milk kahate hain.

dabal tond dugdh

yah bhi ek prakar ka tond milk hi hai lekin isamen vasa ki matra 1.5% tatha vasa rahit thos padarth ki matra 10% hoti hai. isamen sapreta doodh ki jagah sapreta doodh choorn ka prayog kiya jata hai.

phlevard dugdh

isamen pashchurikrit doodh men thoda mitha evn sugandh phlevard doodh ka nirman kiya jata hai, tatpashchath ise botalon men bharakar ise bazar men becha jata hai. isaka poshak man pashchurikrit doodh se zyada hota hai kyonki isamen chini evn sugandh donon alag se milaya jata hai.

prabalikrit ya vitamin yukt dugdh

dugdh evn dugdh padarthon men vitamin-di ki matra milakar isaki poshan mahatta adhik ki jati hai. kuchh deshon men shuddh doodh ki jagah sapreta doodh hi bachchon ko pine ko milata hai. aisi dasha men bachchon ke sharir men vitamin e ki bhari kami ho jati hai. sapreta doodh men vitamin e evn vitamin di milakar isaki gunavatta ko badhaya ja sakata hai. is prakar vitaminayukt doodh ko prabalikrit doodh kahate hain.

soyabin doodh

soyabin se bane doodh ko soyabin doodh kahate hain. soyabin protin ka achchha evn sasta srot hai. phalatah soyabin ke doodh men bhi protin ki matra kafi hoti hai. yah doodh paushtikata se paripoorn hota hai.

snghanit doodh

snghanit athava vashpit vah doodh hai jisase jal ka kuchh bhag vashpikaran ke dvara alag kar diya jata hai. jab isamen chini mila di jati hai tab ise snghanit doodh kahate hain. yadi chini n milaee jay to use vashpit doodh ya sada snghanit doodh kahate hain.

doodh ka upayog

doodh ka sabase achchha upayog pina hai. doodh hamesha taja pina chahie. doodh ko 15-20 minat achchhi tarah ubal kar tatha thnda karake pina chahie. doodh ubalane se usake sabhi hanikarak kitanu nasht ho jate hain. doodh pine ka sabase achchha samay rat ko sote samay rahata hai. bhojan karane ke 2-3 ghnte bad rat ko sote samay doodh pina chahie, jo vyakti sharirik roop se kamazor ho, unhen doodh thnda karake shahad dalakar pina chahie. jin vyaktiyon ko kabj ki shikayat rahati hon, unhen doodh men munakka dalakar kuchh der ubalakar pina chahie, isase kabj se chhutakara milata hai. jade ke dinon men ek gilas doodh men ek-do anjir dalakar ubalakar pine se doodh ki paushtikata men vriddhi ho jati hai. [1]

dugdh snsadhan

pasturikaran

yah vah prakriya hai jisamen doodh ko nishchit tapakram par ek nishchit nishchit samay tak rakhakar isamen upasthit prayah sabhi jivanuon ko nasht kar diya jata hai. is bat ka vishesh dhyan rakha jata hai ki doodh ki poshan mahatta tatha krim leyar par koee prabhav n pade. is prakriya men samany taur par doodh ko 600°C par 20 minat tak rakha jay to usake sabhi vyadhijan jivanu nasht ho jate hain. yah vidhi isake khojakarta luee pashchar ke nam par jani jati hai.

nirjivikaran

nirjivikaran ka tatpary doodh ko garm karake jivanu rahit karana hai. isake lie doodh ko 30 minat tak 93.3°C - 94.40°C tapakram par rakhate hain. yadyapi isamen doodh poornataya nirjavikrit to nahin ho pata phir bhi jivanuon ki matra kam ho jati hai. isase doodh ko lambe samay tak sngrahit kar rakha ja sakata hai.

samangikaran

is vidhi men doodh ki vasa golikaon ko chhote-chhote kanon men khandit kar diya jata hai. taki doodh ko sngrah karate samay usake oopar krim leyar ke roop men ekatrit n hon saken aur sare doodh men saman roop se bikhare rah saken. isake lie pahale doodh ko 37.70°C se 480°C tap par garm karane ke bad isaka tapakram 600°C se 650°C kar diya jata hai aur is tap par isako samangikaran yntr dvara 2000 se 2500 paund prati varg inch ka dabav dalate hain. is doodh ko punah 1/10000 inch ke chhidr se bahar nikalate hain phalatah vasa golikaen chhote-chhote kanon men vibhakt ho jati hain.

dugdh utpad

krim

yah ek prakar ka doodh hota hai jisamen vasa ki matra badh jati hai tatha pani ki matra kam ho jati hai. krim men vasa ka koee nirdharit star nahin hota hai phir bhi bazar men beche jane vale krim men vasa ki matra 45% se adhik hoti hai. krim ka rng adhik pila hota hai. isaka karan krim men vasa ki adhikata hona hai. vasa men vitamin e, jo kairotin se prapt hota hai poornatah ghulanashil hota hai isalie kairotin evn jainthophil ke karan krim ka rng pila hota hai. krim ko samany taur par gurutvakarshan vidhi athava apakendri vidhi se doodh se nikala jata hai.

makkhan

makkhan bhi ek prakar ka dugdh utpad hai jo gay- bhains tatha any stanadhari pashuon ke doodh ya krim ko mathane se prapt hota hai. isamen vasa 80% se kam aur 20% se adhik any padarth jaise-pani, namak tatha annanatornjak nahin honi chahie. sath hi pani ki matra 16% se adhik nahin honi chahie.

dahi

dahi ek prakar ka dugdh utpad hai jo doodh ke samany kinvan se prapt hota hai. samany kinvan men doodh ko ubalakar 21 tap tak thanda karake usamen uchit matra men jaman milakar prapt kiya jata hai. jaman ka tatpary doodh men dahi jamane ke lie jaman milane se hai. jaman ek prakar ki doodh se bani huee vastu hai jisamen keval vahi jivanu hote hain jinako ham dahi men paida karana chahate hain. dahi men vahi jivanu hone chahie jo doodh men dugdhaml utpann karate hain. ye jivanu prayah streptokokas athava amlaragi hote hain. dahi men prayah vah sabhi tattv milate hain jo ki sadharan doodh men hote hain. keval antar yah hota hai ki dahi men pani evn dugdham ki matra sadharan doodh ki apeksha kam hoti hai aur sath-sath dahi men dugdhaml ki matra kafi badh jati hai.

chhena

chhena ek prakar ka dugdh utpad hai jo ubalate doodh ko aml dvara phadakar taiyar kiya jata hai. doodh ko phadane ke lie dugdhaml ya saitrik aml athava saitrik phalon ka ras prayog men laya jata hai. chhena taiyar hone ke bad ise jal se alag kar liya jata hai.

aisakrim

yah ek prakar ka kashavat evn himikrit khady utpad hai jisako dugdh utpad ke mishran se banaya jata hai. isamen dugdh, vasa, vasa rahit thos padarth evn chini ki ek ichchhit pratishat matra hoti hai. isake atirikt isamen rnjak padarth bhi milaya jata hai.

panir

panir bhi chhena ki hi tarah dugdh utpad hai tatha ise banane ki vidhi bhi lagabhag chhena ki tarah hai. ise bhi aml dvara phadakar banaya jata hai parntu panir ko panir jal se alag karane ke bad lakadi ke sanche men bharakar 2 kigra. prati varg semi. ka dabav dalakar shesh jal ko panir se alag kiya jata hai. phir ise avashyakata anusar tukadon men katakar 2-3 ghante tak thande jal men dubo kar rakha jata hai.

ghi

ghi bhi ek prakar ka dugdh utpad hi hai. yah makkhan tatha krim ko ek nishchit tap par garm karake prapt kiya jata hai. isamen dugdh vasa ki matra 99% se adhik hoti hai. shesh jal aur chhachh ka hota hai. shuddh ghi men daiesitil ki upasthiti ke karan ek vishesh prakar ki suvas hoti hai. uttar pradesh, rajasthan tatha pnjab ghi utpadan ke lie vishesh roop se jane jate hain.

khova

doodh ko garm karake usake pani ko anshik roop se sukhakar taiyar kiya gaya utpad khova kahalata hai. yah vishuddh roop se bharatiy dugdh utpad hai. yah mool roop se mithaee adi banane ke kam ata hai. is prakar khova ya mava ek anshik shoshit dugdh padarth hai jo doodh ko ek khule bartan men garm karake taiyar kiya jata hai.

dugdh choorn

doodh ko poorn vashpit karake banaya gaya vah dugdh padarth jisamen namin ansh adhikatam 3% ho, dugdh choorn kahalata hai. jab yah snpoorn doodh aur sapreta doodh se banaya jata hai to ise kramashah snpoorn doogdh choorn aur skimd dugdh choorn kahate hain.

dugdh udyog

bharat men dugdh utpadan varshavar vivaran
varsh dugdh utpadan (lakh tan men) varshik vriddhi % men
1950-1951 170 -
1960-1961 200 17.65%*[3]
1970-1971 212 0.6.00%*
1980-1981 316 32.91%*
1990-1991 539 70.56%*
1991-1992 557 03.33%+[4]
1992-1993 580 04.12%+
1993-1994 606 04.48%+
1994-1995 638 05.28%+
1995-1996 662 03.60%+
1996-1997 691 04.38% +
1997-1998 721 04.34%+
1998-1999 754 04.57%+
1998-1999 754 04.57%+
1999-2000 783 03.84%+
2000-2001 808 03.19%+
2001-2002 844 04.45%+
2002-2003 867 02.75%+
2003-2004 881 01.61%+
2004-2005 92.5 04.99%+
2005-2006 971 04.97%+
2006-2007 1009 03.92%+
2007-2008 1020 01.09%

deyari pharming ya dugdh udyog ke lie pala jane vala mukhy pashu gay hai. vishv men adhikansh gay pashchimi yoorop men vishesh roop se briten, nidaralaind aur svitjaralaind men payi jati hai. garnasi aur aladarno gayon men garnasi chhete dvip aur aladarno inglish chainal men sthit dvip samoohon v uttari-poorvi phrans ke nadi tat par payi jati hai. jarsi dugdh utpadan prajati ki sabase chhoti gay hoti hai. isake doodh men atyadhik uchch star par makkhan paya jata hai. phrisiyan prajati ki gay dugdh utpadan ki sabase badi gay hai. dugdhotpadak pashuon men yah sarvadhik dugdh dene vali nasl hai. ise haaulsatin bhi kaha jata hai. gay ki ek any prajati svis braun hai. isake doodh ka upayog svitjaralaind ke prasiddh chaaukaleton men kiya jata hai. pashchimi yoorop, snyukt rajy amerika aur dakshini mahadesh ke shitoshn bhag atyadhik dugdh utpadak kshetr hai. isake atirikt baltik rajy, belaroos, roos aur kazakistan any pramukh dugdh utpadan kshetr hai. sn.ra. amerika doodh, makkhan aur panir utpadan ka pramukh utpadan desh hai. vartaman men bharat sabase bada utpadak desh ban gaya hai. nidaralaind kndesd aur paudar doodh ka sabase bada niryatak desh hai. nyoojilaind makkhan ka sabase bada utpadak desh hai.

bharat men dugdh udyog

doodh tatha usase sambandhit utpadon ke udyog ke nam se jana jata hain tatha dugdh udyog ke vikas ke chal rahe karyon ka adhyayan dugdh vigyan ke tahat karate hain. deri udyog ka mahatv sirf doodh aur isase banane vale padarthon tak simit nahin hai. isase lakhon chhote/majhole kisanon tatha khetihar mazadooron ko poorak rozagar tatha ay ka niyamit srot prapt hota hai. bharat men aj bhi krishi rashtriy ay ka ek mukhy srot hai. desh men badhate audyogikaran ke karan desh ki rashtriy ay men krishi ay nakaratmak parivartan raha hai. varsh 1982-1983, 1988-1989, 1989-1990- evn 1990-1991 men kul rashtriy ay men krishi ka hissa kramashah 36.47, 31%, 30.4% evn 31.6% tha. varsh 2006-2007 men yah bhagidari ghatakar 18.57% rah gayi hai. krishi ay ka ek mukhy srot deri udyog hai. kul rashtriy krishi utpad ka bhari hissa dugdh udyog se prapt hota hai.

vishv men dugdh utpadan ke kshetr men bharat varsh 2000 men pahale sthan par pahunch gaya. parntu prati vyakti dugdh upalabdhata 246 gram prati din (2007-08) anumanit hai jo ki nyoonatam anivaryata 210 gram se thoda adhik hai. 2006-07 ke dauran kul dugdh utpadan 1009 lakh tan hua jabaki 2007-08 ke dauran doodh ka kul utpadan 1020 lakh tan hone ki pratyasha hai. bharat men sabase adhik dugdh utpadan uttar pradesh men hota hai. doosare, tisare aur chauthe nambar par kramashah pnjab, rajasthan tatha andhr pradesh v bihar ate hain.

varsh 2005 ke bad prati varsh do karod tan doodh ki kami ki ashnka vyakt ki gayi hai. ek gair-sarakari sngathan inisietiv ne apani riport men kaha hai ki varsh 2005 ke bad bharat men prati varsh 2 karod tan doodh ki kami rahegi. munbee ke is sngathan ki ek riport hvait rieliti men kaha gaya hai ki pichhale varshon ke anusar sarakar ki niti shahari doodh upabhoktaon par kendrit hai, jahan doodh asani se upalabdh hain. ganvon men prati vyakti doodh upalabdhata sirf 121 gram prati din hai jo usaki poshahar anupat ka sirf 50 pratishat hai. vishv dugdh utpadan ka kul vyapar das hazar miliyan daaular hai, jisamen bharat ki hissedari sirf 10 miliyan daaular hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 doodh ek paushtik ahar (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) ranchi eksapres. abhigaman tithi: 13 march, 2011.
  2. doodh ke bare men sabakuchh... (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 janavari, 2011.
  3. *=dashakiy vriddhi
  4. + =varshik vriddhi

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