जीवाणु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jivanu
Bacteria

jivanu ek ekakoshikiy jiv hai. isaka akar kuchh mimi tak hi hota hai. inaki akriti gol ya mukt-chakrakar se lekar chhana, adi akar ki ho sakati hai. ye prokairiyotik, koshika bhittiyukt, ekakoshakiy saral jiv hain jo prayah sarvatr paye jate hain. ye prithvi par mitti men, amliy garm jal-dharaon men, nabhikiy padarthon men jal men, bhoo-papadi men, yahan tak ki karbanik padarthon men tatha paudhaun evn jantuon ke sharir ke bhitar bhi paye jate hain. sadharanatah ek gram mitti men 4 karod jivanu kosh tatha 1 mililitar jal men 10 lakh jivanu pae jate hain. snpoorn prithvi par anumanatah lagabhag 5X1030 jivanu pae jate hain. ye kee tatvon ke chakr men bahut mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada karate hain, jaise ki vayumndaliy naitrojan ke sthirikaran men. hanlaki bahut sare vnsh ke jivanuon ka shreni vibhajan bhi nahin hua hai tathapi lagabhag adhe jatiyon ko kisi n kisi prayogashala men ugaya ja chuka hai. jivanuon ka adhyayan baiktiriyoloji ke antargat kiya jata hai jo ki sookshmajaiviki ki hi ek shakha hai.

parichay

manav sharir men jitani manav koshikaen hai, usaki lagabhag 10 guna adhik to jivanu kosh hai. inamen se adhikansh jivanu tvacha tatha aharanal men pae jate hain. hanikarak jivanu immayun tntr ke rakshak prabhav ke karan sharir ko nuqasan nahin pahuncha pate hain. kuchh jivanu labhadayak bhi hote hain. anek prakar ke parajivi jivanu kee rog utpann karate hain, jaise - haija, miyadi bukhar, nimaniya, tapedik ya kshayarog, pleg ityadi. sirf kshay rog se prativarsh lagabhag 20 lakh log marate hain jinamen se adhikansh up-sahara kshetr ke hote hain. vikasit deshon men jivanuon ke snkraman ka upachar karane ke lie tatha krishi karyon men pratijaivik ka upayog hota hai, isalie jivanuon men in pratijaivik davaon ke prati pratirodhak shakti vikasit hoti ja rahi hai. audyogik kshetr men jivanuon ke kinvan kriya dvara dahi, panir ityadi vastuon ka nirman hota hai. inaka upayog pratijaiviki tatha aur rasayanon ke nirman men tatha jaivapraudyogiki ke kshetr men hota hai.

pahale jivanuon ko paudha mana jata tha parntu ab unaka vargikaran prokairiyots ke roop men hota hai. doosare jantu koshikon tatha yookairiyots ki bhanti jivanu kosh men poorn vikasit kendrak ka sarvatha abhav hota hai jabaki dohari jhilli yukt koshikang yada kada hi pae jate hain. parnparik roop se jivanu shabd ka prayog sabhi sajivon ke lie hota tha, parntu yah vaigyanik vargikaran 1990 men hue ek khoj ke bad badal gaya jisamen pata chala ki prokairiyotik sajiv vastav men do bhinn samooh ke jivon se bane hai jinaka kram vikas ek hi poorvaj se hua. in do prakar ke jivon ko jivanu evn arkiya kaha jata hai.

itihas

koksiela barneti jivanu
Coxiella burnetti Bacteria

jivanuon ko sabase pahale dach vaigyanik entani vann lyoovonahook ne 1676 ee. men apane hi banae ekal lens sookshmadarshi yntr se dekha par us samay usane inhen jntuk samajha tha. usane rayal sosaiti ko apane avalokanon ki pushti ke lie kee patr likhe. 1683 ee. men lyoovenahaauk ne jivanu ka chitran kar apane mat ki pushti ki. 1864 ee. men phrans nivasi looee pashchar tatha 1890 ee. men koch ne yah mat vyakt kiya ki in jivanuon se rog phailate hain. pashchar ne 1989 men prayongo dvara dikhaya ki kinvan ki rasayanik kriya sookshmajivon dvara hoti hai. koch sookshmajaiviki ke kshetr men yugapurush mane jate hain, inhonne kaaulera, ainthreks tatha kshay rogon par gahan adhyayan kiya. antatah koch ne yah siddh kar diya ki kee rog sookshmajivon ke karan hote hain. isake lie 1905 ee. men unhen nobel puraskar se sammanit kiya gaya. koch ne rogon evn unake karak jivon ka pata lagane ke lie kuchh parikalpanaen ki thi jo aj bhi istemal hoti hain. jivanu kee rogon ke karak hain yah 19vin shatabdi tak sabhi jan gen parantu phir bhi koee prabhavi pratijaiviki ki khoj nahin ho saki. sabase pahale pratijaiviki ka avishkar 1910 men paaul eharich ne kiya. jisase siphalis rog ki chikitsa snbhav ho saki. isake lie 1908 ee. men unhen chikitsashastr men nobel puraskar pradan kiya gaya. inhonne jivanuon ko abhirnjit karane ki karagar vidhiyan khoj nikali, jinake adhar par gram sten ki rachana snbhav huee.

utpatti evn kramavikas

adhunik jivanuon ke poorvaj ve ek koshikiy sookshmajiv the jinaki utpatti 40 karod varshon poorv prithvi par jivan ke pratham roop men huee. lagabhag 30 karod varshon tak prithvi par jivan ke nam par sookshmajiv hi the. inamen jivanu tatha arkiya mukhy the. strometolaits jaise jivanuon ke jivashm paye ge hain parantu inaki aspasht bahy snrachana ke karan jivanuon ko samajhanen men inase koee khas madad nahin mili.

nissnkramak

roganuon, jivanuon aur sookshmanuon ko mar dalane ke lie nissnkramakon ka prayog hota hai. isase snkramak rogon ko rokane men sahayata milati hai.


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