bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

अमीबा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

amiba atynt saral prakar ka ek prajiv (protozoa) hai jisaki adhikansh jatiyan nadiyon, talabon, mithe pani ki jhilon, pokharon, pani ke gaddhon adi men paee jati hain. kuchh snbndhit jatiyan mahatvapoorn parajivi aur rogakari hain. jivit amiba bahut sookshm prani hai, yadyapi isaki kuchh jatiyon ke sadasy 1/2 mi.mi. se adhik vyas ke ho sakate hain. snrachana men yah jivaras (protoplajm) ke chhote dher jaisa hota hai, jisaka akar nirntar dhire-dhire badalata rahata hai. koshikaras bahar ki or atynt sookshm koshakala (plazmalema) ke avaran se surakshit rahata hai. svayn kosharas ke do spasht star pahachane ja sakate hain-bahar ki or ka svachchh, kanarahit, kanch jaisa, gadha bahy ras tatha usake bhitar ka adhik taral, dhoosarit, kanayukt bhag jise antar ras kahate hain. antar ras men hi ek bada kendrak bhi hota hai. snpoorn antar ras anek chhoti badi annadhaniyon tatha ek ya do snkochi rasadhaniyon se bhara hota hai. pratyek annadhani men bhojanapadarth tatha kuchh taral padarth hota hai. inake bhitar hi pachan ki kriya hoti hai. snkochirasadhani men keval taral padarth hota hai. isaka nirman ek chhoti dhani ke roop men hota hai, kintu dhire-dhire yah badhati hai aur ant men phat jati hai tatha isaka taral bahar nikal jata hai.

180px-amiba.jpg

amiba ki chalanakriya badi rochak hai. isake sharir ke kuchh asthayi pravardh nikalate hain jinako kootapad (nakali pair) kahate hain. pahale chalan ki disha men ek kootapad nikalata hai, phir usi kootapad men dhire-dhire sabhi kosharas bahakar sama jata hai. isake bad hi, ya sath sath, naya kootapad banane lagata hai. haiman, mast adi ke anusar kootapadon ka nirman kosharas men kuchh bhautik parivartanon ke karan hota hai. sharir ke pichhale bhag men kosharas gadhe godn ki avastha (jel sthiti) se taral sthiti men parivartit hota hai aur isake viparit agale bhag men taral sthiti se jel sthiti men. adhik gadha hone ke karan age bananevala jel koshikaras ko apani or khinchata hai.
1. snkochi rasadhani; 2. annadhani; 3. kootapad; 4. kootapad; 5. antar ras; 6. svachchh bahy ras; 7. kootapad; 8. kendrak 9.annadhani.
amiba jivit praniyon ki tarah apana bhojan grahan karata hai. vah har prakar ke karbanik kanon-jivit athava nirjiv-ka bhakshan karata hai. in bhojanakanon ko vah kee kootapadon se gher leta hai; phir kootapadon ke ek doosare se mil jane se bhojan ka kan kuchh taral ke sath annadhani ke roop men kosharas men pahunch jata hai. kosharas se annadhani men pahale aml, phir kshariy pachak yooshon ka srav hota hai, jisase protin to nishchay hi pach jate hain. kuchh logon ke anusar mnd (starch) tatha vasa ka pachan bhi kuchh jatiyon men hota hai. pachan ke bad pachit bhojan ka shoshan ho jata hai aur apachy bhag chalanakriya ke bich kramash: sharir ke pichhale bhag men pahunchata hai aur phir usaka parityag ho jata hai. parityag ke lie koee vishesh ang nahin hota.

amiba ka aharagrahan is chitr men dikhaya gaya hai ki amiba ahar kaise grahan karata hai. sabase baen chitr men amiba ahar ke pas pahunch gaya hai. bad ke chitron men use gherata hua aur antim chitr men apane bhitar lekar pachata hua dikhaya gaya hai. shvasan tatha utsarjan (malatyag) ki kriyaen amiba ke bahm tal par pray: sabhi sthanon par hoti hain. inake lie vishesh angon ki avayakata isalie nahin hoti ki sharir bahut sookshm aur pani se ghira hota hai. koshikaras ki rasakarshan dab (aausamotik preshar) bahar ke jal ki apeksha adhik hone ke karan jal barabar koshakala ko par karata hua kosharas men jama hota hai. isake phalasvaroop sharir phoolakar ant men phat ja sakata hai. at: jal ka yah adhiky ek do chhoti dhaniyon men ekatr hota hai. yah dhani dhire-dhire badhati jati hai tatha ek sima tak badh jane par phat jati hai aur sara jal nikal jata hai. isilie isako snkochi dhani kahate hain. is prakar amiba men rasakarshan niyatrnn hota hai.

amiba ka grahan

prajanan ke pahale amiba golakar ho jata hai, isaka kendrak do kendrakon men bnt jata hai aur phir jivaras bhi bich se khinchakar bnt jata hai. is prakar ek amiba se vibhajan dvara do chhote amibe ban jate hain. snpoorn kriya ek ghnte se kam men hi poorn ho jati hai.

pratikool ritu ane ke pahale amiba annadhaniyon aur snkochi dhani ka parityag kar deta hai aur usake charon or ek kathin puti (sist) ka aveshtan taiyar ho jata hai jisake bhitar vah garami ya sardi men surakshit rahata hai. pani sookh jane par bhi puti ke bhitar ka amiba jivit bana rahata hai. han, is bich usaki sabhi jivanakriyaen lagabhag nahin ke barabar rahati hain. is sthiti ko bahudha sthagit pranikram kahate hain. ubalata pani dalane par bhi puti ke bhitar ka amiba marata nahin. bahudha puti ke bhitar anukool ritu ane par kosharas tatha kendrak ka vibhajan ho jata hai aur jab puti nasht hoti hai to usamen se do ya char nanhen amibe nikalate hain.

manushy ki antadi men chhah prakar ke amibe rah sakate hain. unamen se ek ke karan pravahika (pechish) utpann hoti hai jise amibajany pravahika kahate hain. yah amiba antadi ke oopari star ko chhedakar bhitar ghus jata hai. is prakar antadi men ghav ho jate hain. kabhi kabhi ye amibe yakrit (livar) tak pahunch jate hain aur vahan ghav kar dete hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 205-06 |

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