bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

उष्ट्रगण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ushtragan (tailopoda) pagur karanevale khuravale pashu hain. inake pairon men ungaliyan keval do hoti hain aur pair ke niche gaddi hoti hai. inake sing nahin hote, gardan labi aur poonchh chhoti hoti hai.

ushtr mukhyat: do prakar ke hote hain. ek prakar men merudnd ke oopar ek athava do koobad hote hain. ye eshiya tatha aphrika men vas karate hain. doosare prakar men koobad nahin hota. ye dakshin amarika men pae jate hain.

koobadavale ushtr marusthal ke nivasi hote hain. inamen ek koobadavale ushtr pradhanat: arab desh men aur poorab ki or irak, eeran tatha baloochistan hote hue bharat men rajasthan tak milate hain tatha aphrika men sahara marusthal aur usake uttar ke pranton men phaile hue hain. ye kahin bhi jngali nahin hote. inake sharir par chhote aur bhoore rng ke bal hote hain. poonchh ke kinare bal adhik lnbe hote hain. inake kan chhote hote hain aur griva tin phut lnbi hoti hai. kndha bhoomi se sat phut ooncha hota hai. angreji bhasha men inako 'draaumidari' kahate hain.

do koobadavale ushtr visheshat: madhy eshiya ke marusthal men vas karate hain. ye pashchim men kalasagar se poorab ki or sare chin men aur himalay parvatashreni ke uttar se saibiriya ki sima tak vistrit hain. kuchh yoorop men spen desh ki pahadi anchalon men pae jate hain. ye shitapradhan desh ke nivasi hain aur pahadiyon tatha chattanon par rahate hain. is karan inake pair ki gaddi adhik kathor hoti hai. inake bal bhoore rng ke tatha bade-bade hote hain. angreji bhasha men inako 'baiktriyan kaimel' kahate hain. ye bhi jngali nahin hote, par chin ke pashchimi pranton men kuchh aise jngali ushtr pae jate hain. bhootatvavidon ka siddhant hai ki in jngali ushtron ke sharir ki gathan yoorop ki ek prachin tatha lupt ushtr jati se bahut milati-julati hai.

eshiyaee ushtron ke karnachhidr lnbe balon se dhake rahate hain aur palakon ke bal bhi lnbe hote hain. muhn lnba hota hai aur donon oshth kuchh latake rahate hain. vakshasthal ke niche ubhada hua kathor charm hota hai jisapar sharir ka bhar rakhakar ushtr bhootal par baithata hai. aisa hi kathor charm charon pairon ke ghutanon par bhi hota hai. inake pratyek pair ke niche keval ek gaddi hoti hai.

marunivasi hone ke karan eshiyaee ushtron men kuchh visheshataen hoti hain, jinake karan ve aise sthan men vas karane yogy hote hain. inake amashay ke do vishesh koshthon men chhoti chhoti thailiyan bani hoti hain jinaka muhn mansapeshiyon dvara ichchhanusar prasarit ya snkuchit kiya ja sakata hai. ushtr in thailiyon men pray: do gailan atirikt jal bhar hota hai aur char-panch dinon tak usi par jivan dharan karane men samarth hota hai. palakon ke bade bal udati huee baloo ko ankhon men jane se rokate hain. kan ke bade bal bhi isi prakar upayogi hote hain. nasika ka chhidr bahut patala aur ardhachndrakar hota hai. andhi ke samay ushtr bhoomi par baith jata hai, mastak nicha karake bhoomi par phaila deta hai tatha nasika ke chhidron ko bnd kar leta hai. inaki dhranashakti prabal hoti hai. bahut door se hi inako jalashay ka pata lag jata hai. mastak ki oonchaee ke karan inaki drishti bahut door tak pahunchati hai, aur bhoomi ke tap ka prabhav mastak par kam padata hai. sahasron varsh se marusthal men rahane ke karan inake sharir ka vidhan itana bhinn ho gaya hai ki bngal jaise adhik jalasikt sthan ki jalavayu ko ye sahan nahin kar sakate. vahan shighr hi inaki mrityu ho jati hai.

marunivasi manushy ushtron ki in visheshataon se poora labh uthate hain. vahan koee bhi parivahanasadhan sulabh nahin hota, keval ushtr hi manushy ki sahayata kar pata hai. ushtron ki shakti aur sahanashilata sarahaniy hai. ye 15-20 man ka bhar saralatapoorvak vahan karate hain. drishtant se gyat hai ki ek ushtr ek yatri tatha chhah man se adhik bhar lekar tayunisiya se 600 mil door tripoli tak keval char din men pahuncha. sat-ath dinon tak ye 135-150 mil prati din ki gati se chalate hain. isi karan angrejon ne inhen 'marusthal ke jahaj' ka nam diya hai. aitihasik yug se adhunik yug tak marupradeshon men vanijy tatha vyavasay ushtron ke hi dvara hota hai. in pradeshon men bail ki bhanti ushtr hal men jote jate aur kuen se jal khinchate hain. inake mal ko sukhakar eedhnn ke roop men vyavahrit kiya jata hai. isake atirikt ushtr manushy ke bhojan ke bhi sadhan hain. inaka doodh manushy sevan karate hain aur inake mans ka bhi ruchipoorvak ahar karate hain. inake bal se chitrakaron ki toolika, knbal tatha ooni kapade banate hain. asthiyon se anek prakar ki avashyak vastuen banati hain. baiktriya ka do koobadavala oont

ushtr poornat: shakahari pashu hai. marusthal men upaje ped paudhon ka hi ye bhojan karate hain. sharir bada hote hue bhi ushtr bahut alpabhoji hote hain. inake merudnd ke oopar ka koobad keval ek prakar ki snchit charbi hai. bhojan n milane par yah charbi rakt dvara shoshit hoti rahati hai or us kal men koobad dhila aur snkuchit ho jata hai.

yadyapi adim kal se ushtr manushy ke adhin hai, tathapi inaki manasik vrittiyon ka koee vikas nahin hua. ye n to apane malik ya rakhavale se koee premabhav rakhate hain aur n buddhi ka hi koee parichay dete hain. chalate samay ek hi disha men chalate rahenge. yadi khady padarth se akrisht hokar disha badal di to usi disha men chalate rahenge. nivasasthan se koee snbndh nahin hota. inaki prakriti ugr hoti hai.

eshiyaee ushtr do prakar ke hone par bhi apas men sntanotpadan karate hain. aisi sntan men koobad ek hi hota hai, par bal lnbe hote hain. mata pita ki apeksha aisi sntan adhik parishrami hoti hai.

ushtron ki ayu 40-50 varsh hoti hai. sadharanat: do varsh men inako ek bachcha paida hota hai aur sare jivan men ek ushtr ko pray: 12 bachche hote hain. garbh 11 mahine ka hota hai. ek din ka bachcha ghoomane phirane lagata hai. ek saptah matr men bachcha tin phut uncha ho jata hai. tin varsh ki avastha hone par manushy unhen shiksha dene lagate hain. 16-17 varsh men ye poorn vriddhi prapt karate hain.

koobadavihin ushtr akar men chhote hote hain. ye oonchaee men tin phut aur lnbaee men char phut ke hote hain. inaki gardan pray: do phut lnbi hoti hai. inake pratyek pair ke niche do prithakh‌ prithakh‌ gaddiyan hoti hain. inake kan kuchh lnbe aur nokile hote hain. inake amashay men jalakosh nahin hota. poonchh adhik se adhik chhah inch lnbi hoti hai.

amariki ushtr bhi do prakar ke hote hain. ek prakar ke ushtr dakshini amarika ke paitagoniya aur tiyera-dil-phiugon pranton ke pahadi anchalon men vas karate hain. inake bal halke lal rng ke hote hain. ye jngali pashu hain, par manushy ne inhen pakadakar palatoo bana liya hai. inako angreji bhasha men 'guanako' kahate hain. palatoo guanako ke bhi do bhed hain. ek prakar ke guanako bade hote hain, jinako vahan ke deshavasi lama kahate hain. ye manushy ki savari ke lie tatha bharavahak roop men prayukt hote hain. inake bal shvet rng ke hote hain aur inaki prakriti namr hoti hai. shatru dvara akrant hone par lama khady padarth ugalakar shatru ke munh par phenkata hai.

doosare prakar ke guanako kuchh chhote hote hain. inake bal ghane, lnbe aur shvet rng ke hote hain. vahan ke deshavasi inako 'alapaka' kahate hain. ye keval oon ke lie pale jate hain.

lama aur alapaka apas men sntanotpadan karate hain, par aisi sntanon men utpadan shakti nahin hoti.

doosare prakar ke amariki ushtr ke lie 'vikuniya' nam prachalit hai. ye guanako ki apeksha chhote hote hain. ye dakshini amarika ke pashchimi tat par eekvedar, chili, peroo tatha boliviya pranton ki andij parvatashreni ke uchch shikhar par vas karate hain. shikari log inaka shikar karate hain. ye poornat: jngali pashu hain. inake bal halke badami rng ke hote hain.

eshiyaee ushtron ki bhanti amariki ushtr bhi shakahari hote hain. inaka bhi doodh aur mans manushy khate hain. chamade se joota ityadi banata hai aur balon se ooni kapade.

bhoovaigyanikon ne pata lagaya hai ki pray: do karod varsh poorv ushtr vnsh ka janm uttari amarika men hua. us samay inaka akar panch ungaliyon se yukt kharagosh ke barabar tha. kramanusar vikas dvara lagabhag ek lakh varsh poorv ye adhunik akar ke do ungalivale pashu bane. is bich inake akar men bahut parivartan hua. in vibhinn vnshajon ke knkal amarika ki chattanon men mile hain. adhunik akar ke ushtron ke knkal yoorop tatha eshiya men pae ge hain.

ek lakh varsh poorv ushtron ki janmabhoomi amarika ke bhookhnd men bhari parivartan hua. vahan ki jalavayu men bahut antar ho gaya. is karan ushtragan apani janmbhoomi ko tyagakar uttar aur dakshin disha me phail ge. inaki ek shakha uttar pashchim pranton se hoti huee eshiya, yoorop tatha aphrika pahunchi aur doosari shakha panama ke sthal-damaroo-madhy hoti huee dakshin amarika pahunchi.

adhunik yug men lama ko yoorop tatha astreliya men palane ka prayatn kiya gaya, par saphalata nahin mili. isi prakar eshiyaee ushtron ko amarika men palane ka prayas kiya gaya, par amarika nivasiyon ne is yojana ko protsahan nahin diya. vastut: amarika jais pradesh men ushtron ki koee avashyakata nahin hain.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 149 |

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