कुंठपाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kunthapad (ainblipoda, Amblypoda), khuravale stanapayi praniyon ke do lupt vargon, paintadonta (Pantodonta) tatha dainoserata (Dinocerata), ka snyukt nam. kunthapad stanapayi shreni ka ek pranivarg tha jo ab prithvi se lupt ho chuka hai. isaka avashesh matr hi kinhin-kinhin deshon men paya jata hai.

kunthapad ke pair men panch anguliyan hoti thin jinake sire par nakhoon nahin varanh‌ khur hote the. kunthapad iyosin kal (Eocane Period) men vartaman the aur hathi se kam bade nahin the. is shreni ke avashesh inglaind men pae jate hain, kintu isaka achchha namoona uttari amarika men paya gaya hai. yoorop men is shreni ka pratinidhi koriphodon (Coryphodon) tha.

pahale aisa vishvas kiya jata tha ki paintodonta (Pantodonta) tatha dainoserata (Dinocerata) donon hi vargon ka apas men ghanishth snbndh tha aur ek varg doosare varg ke uttarajivakon se vikasit hua tha; kintu bad men sanh‌ 1940 ee0 ke amariki tatha eshiyaee anveshanon se yah gyat hua ki anek samanataon ke bavajood ye donon varg sarvatha bhinn hain aur donon varg lagabhag ek hi samay men prithakh‌ prithakh‌ vikasit hue. donon varg stanapayi-prani yug ki prachin avastha ke uttarajivak hai. donon hi vargon ka vikas vichitr roop se, tivr gati se hua; unaki akriti vishal ho gee aur ve samay se poorv vikas ki charam sima par pahunch ge. phalasvaroop paintodonta aauligosin (Oligocene) yug men tatha dainoserata iyosin yug men sarvatha lupt ho ge. any khuravale praniyon ki bhanti donon varg sadharanataya atiprachin kaundilarths (Conodylarths) se hi kadachith‌ utpann hue the. inaki nishchit vnsh parnpara ka thik-thik pata nahin hain.

paintadonta pahale paintolaibda (Pantolambda) vnsh (Genus) ke antargat pariganit kie ge the, jo uttari amarika ke madhy pailiyosin (Palaeocene), yug men the. is varg ka achchha udaharan koriphodaaun (Coryphodon) uttari amarika tatha yoorop ke arnbhik iyosin yug se prapt hota hai. uttari amarika ke pailiyosin yug ka namoona bairilainbooda (Barylambda) hain. kshuridant (koriphodaaunCoryphodon) gay ya bhaloo ke map tak vikasit ho chuka tha, kintu isaka dil-daul doosare se bhari tha. isaka sir bada tatha shikhar samatal tha aur dariyaee ghode (hipopaautamas Hippopotamus), ki bhanti isake ubhare chamakile dant the. niche ke charvanak danton ki chndrakriti adbhut thi. mude hue kalngidar (kiritiy Crowned), danton ki avashyakata tatha upayogita jaliy rasile paudhe tatha pattiyan khane ke lie thi. bairilainbada ka bhi pray: yahi ahar tha, parntu apekshakrit asntulit chhota sir tatha slath pashu ke saman bhari poonchh isaki visheshata thi.

dainoserata athava yoointathiris (Uintatheres) iyosin yugiy stanapayi praniyon men sabase bade the aur anek prakar se unaka vishisht sthan tha. pailiosin (Palaeocene), yug ke uttarardh men, uttari amarika tatha mngoliya men ye pashu sing rahit tatha shakahari roop men sooar ke saman mapavale pratham utpann hue. parntu jab iyosin yug aya tab inake uttarajivak, jahan tak gyat ho saka hain, uttari amarika tatha mngoliya ek hi simit rah ge. ve itane vishal ho ge jaise aphriki gainda. inake sir ke oopar do tin haddidar sing ke saman ganthe bhi ubhar aeen. inake oopari shvadnt (Canine), chiton ke bhale jaise danton ke saman, chhure jaise the, yadyapi yoointathiris nishchit roop se shakahari the. sharir sthool hone ke karan inake pair bhi hathi ki bhanti bhari ho ge aur sntulan banae rakhane ke lie pairon men panch khuradar lachili gaddiyan ban geen. jis gati se sharir ke any angon ka vikas hua usi gati se inake mastishk ka vikas nahin hua aur vishal shirasnput (Cranium) karoti (Skull) men apekshakrit chhota hi rah gaya. inake charnavakr dant bhi apekshakrit sadharan rachana ke tatha chhote rah ge jisase aise sthoolakay prani ko paryapt bhojan nahin mil pata tha. inake shighr hi lupt ho jane ke karanon men snbhavat: ek karan yah bhi tha ki inake vikas men samnjasy nahin tha.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 3 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 46 |

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