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केंचुआ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kenchua
kenchua
jagat jntu (Animalia)
sngh ainelida (Annelida)
varg oligokaita (Oligochaeta)
gan haiploteksida (Haplotaxida)
kul lumbrisiedi (Lumbricidae)
jati lumbrikas (Lumbricus)
prajati teresatris (terrestris)
dvipad nam lumbrikas teresatris (Lumbricus terrestris)
any janakari kenchue ke sharir men lagabhag 100 se 120 tak khnd hote hain. isake sharir ke bahari khndikaran ke anuroop bhitari khndikaran bhi hota hai.

kenchua (angrezi:Earthworn) yah ek krimi hai jo lnba, vartulakar, tamravarn ka hota hai aur barasat ke dinon men gili mitti par rengata najar ata hai. kenchua ainelida (Annelida) sngh ka sadasy hai. ainelida vikhnd (Metameric) khndayukt dviparshv samamiti vale (bilatrally symmetrical) prani hain. inake sharir ke khndon par adarshabhoot roop se kaeetin (Chitin) ke bane chhote chhote suee jaise ang hote hai. inhen sita (Seta) kahate hain. sita chamade ke andar thailiyon men pae jate hain aur ye hi thailiyan sita ka nirman bhi karati hain.

rng-roop evn akar

ainelida sngh men khndayukt kide ate hain. inaka sharir lnba hota hai aur kee khndon men bnta rahata hai. oopar se dekhane par uthale khat (Furrows) in khndon ko ek doosare se alag karate hain aur andar inhin khaton ke niche mansapeshiyukt parde hote hain, jinako pat ya bhiktika kah sakate hain. pat sharir ke andar ki jagah ko khndon men bantate hain. pratyek adarshabhoot khnd men bahar upang ka ek joda hota hai aur andar ek jodi tntrikaguchchhika (nerve ganglion) ek jodi utsarjan ang (nephridiya Nephridia), ek joda jananapind (gaaunaids Gonads), tatha raktanalikaon ki jodi aur panchanang evn mansapeshiyan hoti hain. kenchue ke sharir men lagabhag 100 se 120 tak khnd hote hain. isake sharir ke bahari khndikaran ke anuroop bhitari khndikaran bhi hota hai. isake age ke sire men kuchh aise khnd milate hain jo bahari rekhaon dvara do ya tin bhagon men bnte rahate hain. is prakar ek khnd do ya tin upakhndon men bnt jata hai. khndon ko upakhndon men bantane vali rekhaen keval bahar hi paee jati hain. bhitar ke khnd upakhndon men vibhajit nahin hote.
kenchua
kenchue ka mukh sharir ke pahale khnd men paya jata hai. yah dekhane men adhrarchndrakar hota hai. isake samane ek mansal pravardh latakata rahata hai, jisako prostomiyam (Prostomium) kahate hain. pahala khnd, jisamen mukh ghira rahata hai paritund (peristomiyam Peristomium) kahalata hai. sharir ke antim khnd men maladvar ya guda hoti hai. isaliye isaka gudakhnd kahate hain. vayask kenchue men 14ven 15ven aur 16ven khnd ek doosare se mil jate hain aur ek moti patti banate hain, jisako klaitelam (Clitellum) kahate hain. isaki divar men grnthiyan bhi hoti hain, jo vishesh prakar ke ras paida kar sakati hain. inase paida hue ras andon ki raksha ke liye kokoon banate hain. panchave aur chhathe, chhathe aur sataven, sataven aur athaven aur naven ke bichavali antakhndiy khaton men agal bagal chhote chhote chhed hote hain, jinako shukradhani radhrn (Spermathecal pores) kahate hain. inamen laingik snpark ke samay shukr doosare kenchue se akar ekatrit ho jata hai. 14ven khnd ke bich men ek chhota mada janan-chhidr hota hai aur 18ven khnd ke agal bagal nar-janan chhidron ka ek joda hota hai. 17ven aur 19ven khndon par nar janan chhidron ki rekha men hi, unake age aur pichhe ubhare hue, papila (Papillae) hote hain. inako janan papila kahate hain. janan papila ki upasthiti evn banavat bhinn bhinn jati ke ken chuon men bhinn hoti hai. pahale 12 khndon ko chhodakar sab khndon ke bich vali antarkhndiy rekhaon ke bich men chhote chhote chhidr hote hain. choonki ye prishthiy paksh men hote hain, isaliye inhen prishthiy chhidr kahate hain. ye chhidr sharir ki guha ko bahar se snbndhit karate hain. pahala prishthachhidr 12ven aur 13ven khnd ke bich ki khat men paya jata hai. antim khat ko chhodakar baki sabamen ek ek chhed hota hai. pahale do khndon ko chhodakar baki sharir ki divar par anek aniyamit roop se bikhare chhidr hote hain. ye utsarjan ang ke bahari chhidr hain. inako nefaridiyopors (Nephridio-pores) kahate hain.

sharirik snrachana

kenchue ka lagabhag tin chauthaee bhag sharir ki divar ke andar gada hota hai aur thoda sa hi bhag bahar nikala rahata hai. ye pahale aur antim khndon ko chhodakar sab khndon ke bich men pae jate hain. pray: ye khndon ke bich men ubhari huee spasht rekha si bana lete hain. ek khnd men lagabhag 200 sita hote hain. inako yadi nikal kar dekha jay to inaka rng halka pila hoga. yadi sita ke oopar aur niche ke siron ko khinch diya jae, jaisa chitr men dikhaya gaya hai, to akar men sita angreji akshar S se milata hai. pratyek sita ek thaile men sthit rahata hai. vah thaila bahari divar ke dhns jane se banata hai aur yahi thaila sita ka nirman karata hai. sita apani lnbaee ke lagabhag bich men kuchh phool jata hai. in ganthon ko nodyool (Nodules) nam diya jata hai. sita visheshakar kenchue ko chalane men sahayata karate hain. in khndon ke anuroop pat ya bhittiyan hoti hain, jo sharir ki guha ko khndon men bantati hain. kenchua ke pachanang lnbi, patali divaravali nali ke roop men hote hain, jo mukh se guda tak phaili rahati hain, kenchue ka kendriy tntr spasht hota hai aur isaki mukhy tntrika anton ke niche sharir ke pratiprishth bhag se hoti huee jati hai. pratyek khnd men tntrika phoolakar guchchhika banati hain. isase anek tntrikaen nikalakar sharir ke vibhinn angon men jati hain. kenchue ka ek chhota sa mastishk bhi hota hai. isaka akar sadharan hota hai aur yah anton ke agale bhag men sthit rahata hai. isake alava sharir men kee samantar raktanalikaen hoti hain. inamen rakt ka snchar karane ke liye char badi badi spndanashil nalikaen rahati hain. ye sikudati aur phailati rahati hain. isase rakt ka snchar hota rahata hai. jahan tak prajanan angon ka snbndh hai, ek hi kenchue men donon lingon ke ang pae jate hain isiliye inhen dvilingiy (hermaphrodite) kahate hain. kintu unamen svasnsechan snbhav nahin hain; parasnsechan hi hota hai. do kenchue ek doosare se snpark men ate hain aur snsechan karate hain.
kenchua

avas

kenchue prithvi ke andar lagabhag 1 ya 1.5 phut ki gaharaee tak rahate hain. yah adhikatar prithvi par paee jane vali sadi patti bij, chhote kidon ke dinbh (larve), ande ityadi khate hain. ye sab padarth mitti men mile rahate hain. inhen grahan karane ke liye kenchue ko poori mitti nigal jani padati hai. ye prithvi ke bhitar bil banakar rahane vale jntu hain. inake bil kabhi kabhi chhah ya sat phut ki gaharaee tak chale jate hain. varsha ritu men, jab bil pani se bhar jate hain, kenchue bahar nikal ate hain. inaka bil banane ka tarika rochak hai. ye kisi sthan men mitti khana prarnmbh karate hain aur sir ko andar ghusedate hue mitti khate jate hain. mitti ke andar jo poshak vastuen hoti hain unhen inaki anten grahan kar leti hain. shesh mitti maladvar se bahar nikalati jati hain. kenchue ke mal, jo adhikatar mitti ka bana hota hai, moti senvee ki akriti ka hota hai. isako varm kasting (worm casting) kahate hain. pray: barasat ke pashchath pedon ke niche, charagahon aur kheton men, varm kasting ke dher adhik snkhya men dikhaee padate hain. kenchue rat men kary karan vale prani hai. bhojan aur prajanan ke liye ve rat men hi bahar nikalate hain; din men chhipe rahate hain. sadharanat: sharir ko bil ke bahar nikalane ke pashchath ye apana pichhala hissa bil ke andar hi rakhate hain, jisamen tanik bhi snkat ane par yah turnt bil ke andar ghus jaen. pheritaima (Pheretima) jati ke kenchue prithvi ke bahar bahut kam nikalate hain. inaki sari kriyaen prithvi ke andar hi hoti hai. kenchue machhaliyon ka priy bhojan hai. machhali pakadane vale kante men kenchue ko laga dete hain, jisako khane ke karan ve kante men phns jati hain.

kenchuon ki jatiyan

kenchua

bharat men kee jatiyon ke kenchue pae jate hain. inamen se keval do aise hain jo asani se prapt hote hain. ek hai pheritaima aur doosara hai yootaiphiyas. pheritaima paausathyooma (Pheretima Posthuma) sare bharatavarsh men milata hai. uparyukt kenchue ka varnan isi ka hai. pheritaima aur yootaiphiyas keval sharir rachana men hi bhinn nahin hote, varanh‌ inaki varm kasting bhi bhinn prakar ki hoti hai. pheritaima ki varm kasting mitti ki prithakh‌ goliyon ke chhote dher jaisi hoti hai aur yootaiphiyas ki kasting mitti ki uthi huee rekhaon ke saman hoti hai. kenchue ki kuchh jatiyan prakash dene vali hoti hain. inake chamade ki bahari jhilli prakash ko din men grahan kar leti hai aur ratri men chamakati rahati hai.

kisanon ke sachche mitr

kenchue kisanon ke sachche mitr aur sahayak hain. inaka mitti khane ka dhng labhadayak hai. ye prithvi ko ek prakar se jotakar kisanon ke liye upajaoo banate hain. varm kasting ki oopari mitti sookh jati hai, phir barik hokar prithvi ki satah par phail jati hai. is tarah jahan kenchue rahate hain vahan ki mitti poli ho jati hai, jisase pani aur hava prithvi ki bhitar sugamata se pravesh kar sakati hai. is prakar kenchue hal ke saman kary karate hain. daravin ne bataya hai ki ek ekad men 10,000 se oopar kenchue rahate hain. ye kenchue ek varsh men 14 se 18 tan, ya 400 se 500 man mitti prithvi ke niche se lakar satah par ekatrit kar dete hain. isase prithvi ki satah 1/5 inch oonchi ho jati hai. yah mitti kenchuon ke pachan ang se hokar ati hai, isaliye isamen naitrojanayukt padarth bhi mil jate hain aur yah khad ka kary karati hain. is prakar ve manushy ke liye prithvi ko upajaoo banate rahate hain. yadi inako poorn roop se prithvi se hata diya jae to krishi ke liye samasya utpann ho jayagi.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kenchua (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 31 disambar, 2013.

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