सिंह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sinh
Lion.jpg
jagat jntu (Animalia)
sngh kaaurdeta (Chordata)
varg stanapayi (Mammalia)
gan karnivora (Carnivora)
kul failidi (Felidae)
jati painthera (Panthera)
prajati liyo (leo)
dvipad nam painthera liyo (Panthera leo)
any janakari sinh bade vidalon men ekamatr aisa janavar hai, jo samooh ya jhund men rahata hai.

sinh (lio ya painthara lio), phailidi kul ka bada aur shaktishali vidal, bagh ke bad doosara bada vidal hai. kahaniyon men jngal ka raja kahalane vala yah janavar prachin kal se hi sabase adhik jana-pahachana jngali pashu raha hai, ab yah mukhyatah afrika men sahara ke dakshini kshetr men paya jata hai. eshiyaee nasl ke kuchh sau sinh bharat ke gujarat rajy ke gir rashtriy udyan men kade snrakshan men rah rahe hain. sinh ke pasndida paryavason men ghas ke khule maidan hain. qaid men sinh ka any vidalon ke sath prajanan karavaya jata hai. sinh aur mada bagh ke varnasnkar ko laigar kahate hain, jabaki bagh aur mada sinh se taiagaaun aur tendue aur mada sinh se liopon paida hote hain. ameriki, maiksiki ya pahadi sinh felisi jati ke nee duniya ke sadasy hain.

roop aur akriti

sinh lnbe sharir, chhote pair, bade sir v mazaboot mansapeshiyon vala vidal hai. isamen nar v mada ke akar-prakar men bhinnata paee jati hai.

nar
  • ek poorn vayask nar lagabhag 1.8 mitar se 2.1 mitar lnba hota hai, jisamen isaki 1 mitar lnbi poonchh shamil nahin hai. kndhe tak isaki oonchaee lagabhag 1.2 mitar aur vazan 170 kilogram se 230 kilogram ke bich hota hai.
  • sinh ki khal ka rng halka pila, narngi-bhoora ya chandi jaise sleti se lekar gadhe bhoore rng ka hota hai aur isaki poonchh ke sir par khal ki tulana men gahare rng ke balon ka guchchha hota hai.
  • nar ki visheshata usake ayal hote hain, jo alag-alag sinhon men bhinn-bhinn prakar ke hote hain. kuchh men ayal bilkul nahin hote, kuchh men chehare par jhalar ki tarah hote hain aur kuchh men ye lnbe aur laharate hue hote hain, jo sir ke pichhe se shuroo hote hue gardan, kndhe ko dhakate hue gale aur chhati se jhalar banate hue pet se jude hote hain. kuchh men ayal aur jhalar atynt gahare rng, lagabhag kale rng ke hote hain. jo sinh ko rajasi andaz pradan karate hain.
mada
  • mada, yani sinhani chhote qad ki hoti hai, jisaki lnbaee 1.5 mitar kndhe tak oonchaee 0.9 mitar se 1 mitar tak aur vazan 120 se 180 kilogram hota hai.
  • sinhani adhikatar bhoori-pili ya retile rng ki hoti hai.

nivas

sinh bade vidalon men ekamatr aisa janavar hai, jo samooh ya jhund men rahata hai. ek samooh athava jhund men kee pidhiyon ki ek-doosare se snbndhit sinhaniyan hoti hain, jinake sath shavak aur ek ya do vayask nar hote hain, jo apani grihakshetr ki sima ki raksha karate hain aur mada ke sath sahavas karate hain. nar sinh parivar men bahar se ate hain, jo parivar ko any bahari naron se bachane ki apani kshamata ke anusar, us parivar men kuchh mahinon se kee sal tak rahate hain. ek parivar men kam se kam 4 se lekar adhikatam 37 sadasy tak ho sakate hain, lekin ausatan isamen 15 sadasy hote hain. pratyek parivar ki apani nirdharit kshetr-sima hoti hai; jahan shikar bahutayat men upalabdh ho, vahan kshetr-sima 20 varg kilomitar tak simit ho sakati hai, lekin shikar ki kami vale kshetron men yah 400 varg kilomitar tak hoti hai. nar shavakon ko tin varsh ka hone par parivar se nishkasit kar diya jata hai aur yah tab tak (panch varsh ki ayu tak) khanabadosh ki tarah ghoomata rahata hai, jab tak vah naye kisi jhund par qabza karane ki kshamata n hasil kar le. lekin kee vayask nar jivanaparynt khanabadosh rahate hain. kuchh mada shavak yaun paripakvata hasil karane par parivar men hi rahati hain, jabaki shesh ko any parivaron men jane ke lie badhy kar diya jata hai. ek parivar ke sadasy din men bhinn-bhinn samoohon men ghoomate hain, lekin shikar ka pichha karane ya shikar khane ke lie ye ikattha ho sakate hain.

upasthiti ki ghoshana

sinh apani garjana aur gndh ke nishan se apane kshetr ki ghoshana karata hai. sinh ki vikhyat garjana amataur par rat ke shikar se pahate sham ko tatha phir prabhat hone par uthane se pahale hoti hai. nar sinh jhadiyon, pedon aur maudan par peshab dvara tikhi gndh chhodakar bhi apani upasthiti ki ghoshana karata hai. jhadiyon se sharir ragadane aur malatyag dvara bhi gndh chhodi jati hai.

shikar

sinh chhote barahasinga aur baboon se lekar bhains aur dariyaee ghode jaise bade jntuon tak, kee tarah ke janavaron ka shikar karata hai, lekin vah madhyam se bade akar ke khuravale janavaron, jaise vildarabist, zebra, inpala aur any mrigon ka shikar karana pasnd karata hai. sinh kisi bhi prakar ke prapt mans ko kha leta hai, chahe vah sada ho ya taza, jise vah bal prayog kar ya darakar lakadabagghe se hasil kar leta hai. jhund ke lie adhikansh shikar sinhani karati hai. shikar karate samay sinh hava ki disha ka dhyan nahin rakhata, jo isake shikar tak isaki gndh pahuncha deti hai. sinh thoda sa bhagakar thak jata hai, isilie shikar men ise adhikatar asaphalata milati hai. isilie sinhani ya sinh, har upalabdh avaran ka istemal karate hue dhairyapoorvak shikar ka pichha karate hain aur phir achanak chhoti kintu tez daud se shikar par jhapat padate hain. shikar par koodane ke bad sinhani usaki gardan par jhapatakar usaka dam ghutane tak dant gadae rahati hai. itane men parivar ke any sadasy shikar khane ke lie ghera bana lete hain. shikar ke mans ke lie hone vali jhadapon men nar ko sarvadhik aur shavakon ko kam ya kuchh bhi nahin milata. sinhaniyan kee bar samooh men shikar karati hain. samooh ke sadasy viparit dishaon se shikar pashuon ke jhund ko gherakar bhagadad men shikar ka prayas karate hain.

sinh aur sinhani pet bhar shikar ka mans kha lete hain aur phir usake bad isake samip hi kee dinon tak aram karate hain. ek bar men 34 kilogram se adhik mans khane ke bad ek vayask nar dubara shikar ki khoj men jane se pahale ek saptah tak vishram kar sakata hai. yadi kshetr men shikar bahutayak men hai, to nar aur mada, donon ek din men do ya tin ghnte hi shikar ki khoj men nikalate hain, jabaki qarib 20 ghnte vishram karane, sone aur baithane men guzar dete hain.

parivarik ikaee

nar aur mada, donon bahugami hote hain aur varsh bhar prajanan kar sakate hain, lekin mada amataur par parivar ke ek ya do naron se hi maithun karati hai. qaid men sinh adhikatr har varsh prajanan karate hain, lekin jngal men ye do varshon men ek se adhik bar prajanan nahin karate. garbhavadhi lagabhag 108 dinon ki hoti hai aur ek bar men ek se chhah shavak janm le sakate hain. halanki ausatan do se char shavak hi janm lete hain. navajat shishu asahay aur bnd ankhon vala hota hai aur isaki moti tvacha par gahare nishan hote hain, jo umr ke sath-sath mit jate hain. tin mahine ki umr se shavak apani man ka anusaran karane yogy ho jata hain aur chhah se sat mahine ka hone par man ka doodh pina chhod deta hai. 11 mahine ka hone tak vah shikar men bhag lene lagata hai. lekin snbhavatah do sal ka hone tak vah apane boote jivanayapan nahin kar sakata hai. usamen yaun paripakvata tin se char varsh ke bich ati hai. shavakon men mrityudar adhik hoti hai aur vayask ath se das varsh ke adhik nahin jite, jisaka mukhy karan hai insanon aur any sinhon dvara in par hamala tatha inake shikar dvara pratiraksha men chubhae ge sing aur pairon ki mar, lekin bndi avastha men sinh 25 varsh ya isase bhi adhik jivit rah sakata hai.

sinh

vilupt

abhinootan yug, (plaistosin 16 lakh se 10 hazar varsh poorv) ke dauran sinhon ka bhaugolik vistar vyapak tha. snpoorn uttari amerika, afrika, balkan ke adhikansh bhagon, anatoliya aur madhy-poorv se lekar bharat tak inaka avas tha. lagabhag 10 hazar varsh poorv ve uttari amerika se vilupt ho ge, lagabhag 2 hazar varsh poorv balkan se aur eesaeeyon ke dharmayuddh ke dauran ve filistin se bhi vilupt ho ge. 20vin sadi ke ant me inaki snkhya ghatakar 10 hazar hi rah gee. rashtriy udyanon ke bahar sthit inake paryavas ke kshetr krishi men kam ane lage. tnzaniya ke serengeti aur any rashtriy udyanon men paryatako ke akarshan ka kendr hone ke karan inaka snrakshan surakshit pratit hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah