मटर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

matar

matar bharat men sardiyon ke mausam men ugayi jane vali fasalon men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhati hai. isamen n keval protin tattv prachur matra men paye jate hain, apitu isamen vitamin, phasphoras tatha lauh tattv bhi kafi matra men upasthit hote hain. desh bhar men matar ki kheti vyaparik star par ki jati hai. uttar bharat ki pahadiyon men matar ki garmi aur patajhad ritu vali fasalen bhi ugayi jati hain. isake sath hi in mausamon men ugayi gee matar ka kuchh bhag aprail se navambar ke mahinon men maidani ilakon men bhi paya jata hai.

bhaugolik sthitiyan

matar ki fasal sirf bharat ki hi nahin, balki sare vishv ki pramukh fasalon men gini jati hai. aj sare vishv men matar ki kee qismen ugayi jati hain. matar ki phasal ko ugane ke lie nimnalikhit bhaugolik sthitiyon ki avashyakata hoti hai.

mitti

matar ki fasal halki baluee domat mitti se lekar matiyar domat mitti tak ki vibhinn prakar ki mitti men ugayi ja sakati hai. halanki matar ke lie upayukt bhoomi achchhe jal nikas vali domat mitti hoti hai, kintu kshariy mitti men isaki paidavar achchhi nahin hoti. matar ke lie sabase upayukt pi.ech. man 6.0 se 7.5 hota hai.

jalavayu

matar ke lie thndi jalavayu ki avashyakata hoti hai aur grishm ritu ke dauran bhari garmi padane par isaki fasal achchhi nahin hoti. yah mausam jhurridar bij vali qismon ke lie bilkul anupayukt hota hai. jab fasal paryapt thndi jalavayu men pakati hai, tab hari phaliyon ki paidavar adhik hoti hai. isake phool aur phaliyan pale se adhik prabhavit hote hain. halanki pale ka prabhav paudhon ki pattiyon aur tanon par bhi ho sakata hai. bij ankuran ke liy tapaman 5 digri selsiyam nyoonatam aur 22 digri selsiyam adhikatam hona avashyak hai.

prakar

matar ki nimn qismen adhikanshat: ugayi jati hain-
arkel - yah jhurridar bij vali qism hai. isamen paudhe baune aur hare rng ke mazaboot hote hain. paudhe ki unchaee 35-45 semi. tak hoti hai. phool safed rng ke v phaliyon ka rng akarshak gahara hara hota hai. phaliyan 8 semi. tak lambi hoti hain. inamen 7-8 gahare rng ke mithe dane bhare hote hain. bij jab poori tarah pak jate hain, tab halke hare rng ke hote hain. isaki bubaee ke 55 se 60 din ke bad phaliyon ko pahali bar chuna jata hai. hari phaliyon ki paidavar prati hektear 100 se 130 kuntal tak hoti hai. bij ki paidavar 15 kuntal prati hektear hoti hai.
bonavile - yah madhyam lambaee vali, dohari phaliyon se yukt, jharridar bij vali qism hai. isamen 57 se 60 dinon men phal a jate hain. phaliyan halke hare rng ki, sidhi aur lagabhag 9 senmi. tak lambi hoti hain. dane mithe aur gahare hare rng ke hote hain. bubaee ke 85-90 dinon ke adnr matar ki fasal taiyar ho jati hai. phaliyon ki upaj 100 se 120 kuntal prati haikteyar hoti hai, jabaki bij ki matra 12 se 15 kuntal prati hekteyar hoti hai.
linkan - is prakar ki qism ke paudhe baune, mazaboot aur pattiyan gahare hare rng ki hoti hain. phaliyan gahare hare rng ki lambi hoti hain aur sath hi sire par halki-si mudi huee hoti hain. isaki phaliyon men achchhe dane hote hain. phaliyon men 8 se 10 dane hote hain aur ye mithe hote hain. is prakar ki qism pahadi ilakon men bone ke lie adhik upayukt hai. isaki pahali tudaee bubaee ke 85 se 90 dinon ke bad ki jati hai.

bij ki buaee

matar

pachheti qismon ke lie 70 se 75 kigra. aur ageti qismon ke lie 100 kigra. prati hektear tak bij ki avashyakata hoti hai, kintu arkel jaisi qismon ke lie 125 kigra. prati hektear bij ki avashyakata hoti hai. bijon ko bote samay ageti qismon men katar ki doori 30 senmi. aur madhy mausami aur pachheti qismon ke lie 45 senmi. ki doori rakhi jati hai, jo ki bahut avashyak hai. ageti qismen, jaise- arkel madhy aktoobar se navambar ke pratham saptah tak boee ja sakati hai. madhy mausami qismen, jaise- bonavile aur linkan aktoobar ke antim saptah se navambar ke madhy tak boee ja sakati hai. pachheti qism navambar ke ant tak boee jati hai.

urvarakon ka prayog

phaliyon ke shighrata se vikas evn badhane ke lie naitrojan se yukt urvarak ki kuchh matra labhadayak hoti hai. faausfet ke prayog se matar ki gunavatta evn paidavar donon men labh hota hai. usi prakar pauteshiyam khadon ke upayog se paidavar par achchha prabhav padata hai. kheti ki taiyari karate samay gobar ki khad 20 tan prati hekteyar aur kisan khad, si.e.en. 125 kigra. prati hekteyar athava uttam vir yooriya 60 se 65 kigra. prati hekteyar ki avashyakata hoti hai. isake sath-sath 420 kigra. supar faausfet tatha 100 kigra. myuret aauf potash prati hektear ki dar se dena chahie.

sinchaee

uchit jamav ke lie paleva ki salah di jati hai. isake pashchath shushk mausam men 10 se 15 dinon ke atnral par halki sinchaee bhi karani chahie. phool evn phaliyon ki shuruat ke samay ek ya do sinchaee karana avashk hai. vikasit hote hue phalon evn phaliyon ki pale se raksha karane ke lie pale mausam men paryapt sinchaee ki avashyakata hoti hai.

kharapatavar niyntran

adhikatar bagiche vali matar kataron men boee jati hai, atah yntron ki sahayata se kharapatavaron ko niyntrit karana kathin ho jata hai. adhikashn sadabahar kharapatavaron ki rokatham ke lie rasayanon ka upayog kiya jata hai. fasal ki bubaee se pahale aur bad men paudhe ugane se pahale 900 litar pani men 1.5 kigra. prati hektear ki dar se linyooran chhidakane se sabhi sadabahar ghason evn kharapatavaron ki rokatham ho jati hai. is upachar ke bad tin se char saptah tak sinchaee nahin karani chahie. em.si.i.; topotaks athava 2-4 di., emyutaauks 0.84 kigra. prati hektear ka chhidakav karane se sadabar chaudi patti vale kharapatavaron par kaboo paya ja sakata hai. chhidakav dhoop vale din hi jab hava n chal rahi ho, kiya jana chahie. is upachar ke 10-12 dinon bad tak fasal ki sinchaee nahin karani chahie.

hanikarak kit

kuchh kit matar ki fasal ko nukasan bhi pahunchate hain- matar ka patti bedhak, mahoo kutarane vale kide, kat vamarsaddh tatha matar ka phali bedhak, fasal ko bahut nukasan pahunchate hain. matar ki pattiyon par isake larva ka akraman hone se pattiyon par safed rng ki tedhi-medhi naliyan ban jati hain aur paudhon ka vikas poori tarah se ruk jata hai.

rokatham
matar ka paudha

0.05 pratishat 'mithail parathon' ka chhidakav karane se is kit ki rokatham ki ja sakati hai. yadi isaka prakop dubara dikhaee pade to is upachar ko 15-20 din bad doharana chahie.

mahoo kit

yah kit pattiyon tatha rasadar sthanon se ras choosata hai. isake badale men ye chipachipe taral padarth ka bhari matra men shrav karata hain, jisase kali phaphoondi akarshit hoti hai. isake karan prakash snshleshan kriya buri tarah prabhavit hoti hai. matar ki fasal par mahoo kit ka akraman janavari ke bad hota hai.

rokatham

mahoo ka prakop hon par hi 0.05 pratishat maitasiktaks ka ghol chhidakana avashyak hai. 15-20 dinon ke bad yadi avashyak ho to dobara chhidakav karana chahie.

phali bedhak

illiyan phaliyon men chhed karake andar pravesh kar jati hain tatha isake bijon aur danon ko nasht kar deti hain. phaliyon par chhote-chhote chhidron se isake hone ka pata lag jata hai. isase fasal ka bahut nukasan hota hai aur paidavar bhi kam hoti hai. isilie isaki rokatham avashyak hai.

rokatham

fasal par 0.25 pratishat karbaril ka chhidakav karake is bedhak ki rokatham ki ja sakati hai. is bat ka savadhani poorvak dhyan rakhana chahie ki phaliyan is chhidakav se pahale tod li jayen ya phir chhidakav ke 10 din bad hi todi jayen.

rog

matar ki fasal par kee rogon ka bhi hamala hota hai. 'choornit asita' aur 'paudari mildayoo' rog men pattiyan, tane ki shakhaen tatha phaliyan bukani jaise padarth se dhak jati hain. isaka bhishan asar us mausam men hota hai, jabaki din aur rat ke tapaman men kafi atnr hota hai. bhari os girati hai. yah bimari pachheti pakane vali qismon ko adhik prabhavit karati hai. isaki rokatham ka upay yah hai ki jaise hi bimari dikhaee pade, fasal par prati hektear 0.3 pratishat vale 3 gram gndhak ke phaphoondi nashak ko ek litar pani men gholakar chhidakav kar de aur har sat din bad yah chhidakav doharana chahie. doosare phaphoondinashak, jaise kairathen, bavistin ka chhidakav bhi prati litar pani men 1 gram ki dar se kiya ja sakata hai.

'jhulasa' (vilt) rog keval jadon par akraman karata hai. isake prabhav se jaden se kali pad jati hain. isake karan paudha turnt jhulas jata hai aur mar jata hai. ageti qism isase jyada prabhavit hoti hai. isake rokatham ka upay hai ki fasal ko aktoobar ke antim saptah men ya navambar men boya jaye, kyonki is samay boee gee fasal sadharanat: jhulase ke akraman se bach jati hain. sitambar ya aktoobar ke shuroo men boee gee fasal ko is bimari se sabase adhik pahunchata hai.

utaraee

sabji ke uddeshy se phaliyon ke upayog ke anusar hi matar ko utara jata hai. jab phaliyon ka rng gahare hare se halke hare rng men badal jaye tatha ve achchhi prakar danon se bhar gee hon aur ve sakht n ho, tabhi unhen toda jana chahie. phaliyan todane ke dauran paudhe ko savadhani se pakadana chahie, jisase isamen aur phaliyan lag saken. yadi phaliyan todate samay belen toot gee, to shesh phaliyan samuchit roop se vikasit nahin ho payengi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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