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ओणम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

onam
onam
any nam onam, tiruonam
anuyayi hindoo dharmavalambi
uddeshy keral men phasalon ki kataee ke bad agast-sitambar men manaya jane vala das dinon ka lamba tyauhar hai.
prarambh pauranik
tithi onam malayali kailendar 'kolavarsham' ke pahale mahine 'chhingam' yani agast-sitnbar ke bich manane ki parnpara chali a rahi hai.
utsav ghar ka ek kamara phool ghar banaya jata hai. phoolon ki gathirayan usamen rakhate hain. us kamare ke bahar lip–pot kar ek chauk taiyar kiya jata hai aur usake charon taraf golaee men phool sajae jate hain.
dharmik manyata hindoo dharm
snbndhit lekh dashahara
any janakari keral ki sarakar bhi onam parv ko prayojit karati hai. nauka daud v any mahotsav sarakar ke snrakshan men manae jate hain.
adyatan‎

onam, keral ka ek pramukh tyauhar hai. jis tarah uttari bharat men dashahare ka tyohar badi dhoomadham se manaya jata hai, usi prakar keral men onam ka tyohar manaya jata hai. antar keval itana hai ki dashahare men das din pahale ram lilaon ka ayojan hota hai aur onam se das din pahale gharon ko phoolon se sajane ka karyakram chalata hai.

manane ka samay

onam ko malayali kailendar kolavarsham ke pahale mahine 'chhingam' yani agast-sitnbar ke bich manane ki parnpara chali a rahi hai. onam ke pahale din jise atham kahate hain, se hi ghar-ghar men onam ki taiyariyan prarnbh ho jati hai aur das din ke is utsav ka samapan antim din jise 'thiruonam' ya 'tiruonam' kahate hain, ko hota hai.[1]

onam ka arth

vastav men onam ka arth hai "shravan". shravan ke mahine men mausam bahut khushagavar ho jata hai, charon taraf hariyali chha jati hai, rng–birnge phoolon ki sugandh se sara chaman mahak uthata hai. keral men chay, adarak, ilayachi, kali mirch tatha dhan ki fasal pak kar taiyar ho jati hai. nariyal aur tad ke vrikshon se chhae hue jal se bhare talab bahut sundar lagate hain. logon men nayi–nayi ashaen aur nayi–nayi umngen bhar jati hain. log khushi men bharakar shravan devata aur phoolon ki devi ka poojan karate hain.

taiyariyan

onam ke tyohar se das din pahale bachche pratidin bagon men, jngalon men tatha phulavariyon men phool chunane jate hain aur phoolon ki gathirayan bandh–bandhakar apane ghar late hain. ghar ka ek kamara phool ghar banaya jata hai. phoolon ki gathirayan usamen rakhate hain. us kamare ke bahar lip–pot kar ek chaunk taiyar kiya jata hai aur usake charon taraf golaee men phool sajae jate hain. daravazon, khidakiyon aur sab kamaron ko phoolon ki malaon se sajaya jata hai. jaise - jaise onam ka mukhy tyohar nikat ata hai, vaise - vaise phoolon ki sajavat badhati jati hai.

moorti ki sthapana

is tarah se ath din tak phoolon ki sajavat ka karyakram chalata hai. nauven din har ek ghar men vishnu bhagavan ki moorti sthapit ki jati hai. auraten vishnu bhagavan ki pooja ke git gati hain aur tali bajakar golaee men nachati hain. is nach ko 'thappatikali' kahate hain. bachche vaman avatar ke poojan ke git gate hain. in giton ko 'onam lapn' kahate hain. rat ko har ghar men ganesh ji tatha shravan dev ki moorti sthapit ki jati hai aur unake samane mngaladip jalae jate hain. is din ek vishesh prakar ka pakavan banaya jata hai, jise 'poovad' kahate hain.

mukhy tyohar

dasaven din onam ka mukhy tyohar manaya jata hai. jo ki trayodashi ke din hota hai. is din ghar ke sabhi sadasy subah savere uth kar snan kar lete hain aur ghar ka buzurg sabako naye–naye kapade pahanane ke lie deta hai. ladakiyan ek vishesh prakar ka pakavan, jise 'vallasan' kahate hain, bana kar shravan devata, ganesh ji, vishnu bhagavan, vaman bhagavan tatha phoolon ki devi par chadhati hain aur ladake tir chalakar us chadhaye hue pakavan ko vapas lauta kar prasad ke roop men grahan karate hain.

onam, keral
Onam, Kerala

tiroo onam

tiroo onam ke din pratah nashte men bhoone hue ya bhap men pakae hue kele khae jate hain. is nashte ko 'nendram' kahate hain. yah ek khas kele se taiyar hota hai, jise 'nendram kay' kahate hain. yah kele keval keral men hi paida hote hain. us din ka khana chaval, dal, papad aur kelon se banaya jata hai aur bahut svadisht bhojan banae jate hain aur har ek ghar men poojapath tatha dharmik karyakram hote hain.

prachin paramparayen

yah hast nakshatr se shuroo hokar shravan nakshatr tak ka das divasiy tyohar hai. har ghar ke angan men mahabali ki mitti ki trikonatmak moorti, jis ko 'trikkakarakarai appan' kahate hain, bani rahati hai. isake charon or vividh rngon ke phoolon ke vritt chitr banae jate hain. pratham din jitane vritt rache jate hain, usake dogune–tigune tatha ant men dasaven din das gune tak vritt rache jate hain. keral ke logon ke lie yah utsav bnsatotsav se kam nahin hai. yah utsav keral men madhumas lekar ata hai. yah din sajane–dhajane ke sath–sath duahkh–dard bhoolakar khushiyan manane ka hota hai. aisi manyata hai ki tiruvonam ke tisare din mahabali patal lok laut jate hain. jitani bhi kalakritiyan banaee jati hain, ve mahabali ke chale ke bad hi hataee jati hain. yah tyohar keralavasiyon ke sath purani parampara ke roop men juda hai. onam vastavik roop men fasal katane ka tyohar hai, par ab isaki vyapak manyata hai.

pauranik akhyan

kaha jata hai ki jab parashuramaji ne sari prithvi ko kshatriyon se jit kar brahmanon ko dan kar di thi, tab unake pas rahane ke lie koee bhi sthan nahin raha, tab unhonne sahyadri parvat ki gufa men baith kar jal devata varun ki tapasya ki. varun devata ne tapasya se khush hokar parashuram ji ko darshan die aur kaha ki tum apana pharasa samudr men phainko. jahan tak tumhara pharasa samudr men jakar girega, vahin tak samudr ka jal sookhakar prithvi ban jaegi. vah sab prithvi tumhari hi hogi aur usaka nam parashu kshetr hoga. parashuram ji ne vaisa hi kiya aur jo bhoomi unako samudr men mili, usi ko vartaman ko 'keral ya malayalam' kahate hain. parashuram ji ne samudr se bhoomi prapt karake vahan par ek vishnu bhagavan ka mandir banavaya tha. vahi mandir ab bhi 'tirookkakar appan' ke nam se prasiddh hai aur jis din parashuram ji ne mandir men moorti sthapit ki thi, us din shravan shukl ki triyodashi thi. isalie us din 'onam' ka tyohar manaya jata hai. har ek ghar men vishnu bhagavan ki moorti sthapit karake usaki pooja ki jati hai.

vaman katha

onam
Onam

rakshas naresh mahabali, vishnu bhagavan ke bhakt prahlad ka pautr tha. vah udar shasak aur mahaparakrami tha. rakshasi pravritti ke karan mahabali ne devataon ke rajy ko balapoorvak chhin liya tha. duragrahi v garv–darp se bhare raja bali ne devataon ko kasht men dal diya. tab pareshan devataon ne bhagavan vishnu se sahayata ki guhar lagaee. prarthana sun bhagavan shri vishnu ne vaman, arthath baune ke roop men maharshi kashyap v unaki patni aditi ke ghar janm liya. ek din vaman mahabali ki sabha men pahunche. is ojasvi, brahmachari navayuvak ko dekhakar ekaek mahabali unaki or akarshit ho gaya. mahabali ne shraddha se is navayuvak ka svagat kiya aur jo chahe mangane ko kaha.

shri vaman ne shuddhikaran hetu apane laghu pairon ke tin qadam jitani bhoomi dene ka agrah kiya. udar mahabali ne yah svikar kar liya. kintu jaise hi mahabali ne yah bhent shrivaman ko di, vaman ka akar ekaek badhata hi chala gaya. vaman ne tab ek qadam se poori prithvi ko hi nap dala tatha doosare qadam se akash ko. ab tisara qadam to rakhane ko sthan bacha hi nahin tha. jab vaman ne bali se tisara qadam rakhane ke lie sthan manga, tab usane namrata se apana mastak hi prastut kar diya. vaman ne apana tisara qadam mastak par rakh mahabali ko patal lok men pahuncha diya. bali ne yah badi udarata aur namrata se svikar kiya. choonki bali ki praja usase bahut hi sneh rakhati thi, isilie shrivishnu ne bali ko varadan diya ki vah apani praja ko varsh men ek bar avashy mil sakega. atah jis din mahabali keral ate hain, vahi din onam ke roop men manaya jata hai. is tyohar ko keral ke sabhi dharmon ke log manate hain.

bali ki keral yatra ka mahotsav

aj bhi keralavasi mahabali ki yatra ko onam ke roop men manate hain. poora prant mahotsav ke rng men rng jata hai. am ke patton ko ek dori men bandha jata hai tatha ghar ke dvaron par tang diya jata hai. rng–birnge jhad–phanoos v nariyal gharon ki shobha ko badhate hain. mitti ke bartan ke kon (shnkoo) ko bali ka pratik manakar ghar ke age rakha jata hai tatha ise chandan v sindoor se sajaya jata hai. anganon men rng–birngi rngoli ke vibhinn akar banae jate hain.

is parv ka ek aur vishesh karyakram hai, pushpon ko golakar roop men sajakar rakhana. ise hi 'attam ya onam' kaha jata hai. pratidin nana prakar ke pushp gobar ke sookhe knde par lagae jate hain tatha inhen ghar ke age rakha jata hai. attam ke saundary v isake vibhinn akaron ki spardha bhi hoti hai. striyan samavet svar men 'kaee, ket, kali' v 'kummi' layabaddh hokar gati hain. ghar ka mukhiya parivar ke sadasyon men navavastr bantata hai. is veshabhoosha ko 'onappann' kahate hain. purane samay men keral ki striyan shvet sadiyan pahanati thin. in sadiyon ke charon or svarnim boote lagae jate the. kamar se oopar ka sharir ek aur chhoti dhoti 'melamud' se dhaka hota tha. adhunik samay men keral ki striyan bhi any kshetron bhanti sadiyan ya salavar kamiz pahanati hain.

manabhavan vynjan

tiruonam ke din pratah hi snan adi karake sab log naye–naye kapade pahanate hain. bade log chhoton ko anappudava arthath–onam ke kapade pradan karate hain. ganv ke yuvak gend khelate hain. striyan ikatthi hokar taliyan bajakar gati hain. gharon men kele ke pakavan jise 'palanuranaku' kahate hain, banae jate hain. tiruonam ke pahale hi nayi fasal ke anajon se khalihan bhar jate hain. sukh-samriddhi ke is avasar par onam ka tyohar poori khushi ke sath manaya jata hai.

onam, keral
Onam, Kerala

'onasadaya' namak bhoj is samaroh ka sabase akarshak karyakram hai. nana prakar ke vynjanon men vibhinn prakar ki shak-sabjiyon ka prayog kiya jata hai. bhojan ko kadali ke patton men parosa jata hai. nana prakar ke bhojy padarthon tatha tarakariyan jinhen 'pachadi-pachadi kallam, ollam, dav, ghi, sanbhar' ityadi kaha jata hai. papad v kele ke chips bhi banae jate hain. doodh ki khir jise 'payasam' kahate hain, onam ka vishesh bhojan hai.

ye sabhi pak vynjan 'namboodari' brahmanon ki pak kala ki shreshthata ko darshate hain tatha unaki snskriti ke vistar men ahm bhoomika nibhate hain. kahate hain ki keral men atharah prakar ke dugdh pakavan hain. inhen ritu phalon jaise kela, am adi se banaya jata hai. isake atirikt kee prakar ki dalen jaise moong v chana ke ate ka prayog bhi vibhinn vynjanon men kiya jata hai.

nauka daud

onam ke avasar par yahan sarpanauka daud pratiyogita ka ayojan kiya jata hai. ise sarp nauka daud isalie kaha jata hai ki ye naukaen sarpakar patali hoti hain. inaki lambaee 50 phit tak hoti hai aur bich ka bhag bahut patala hota hai. kali lakadi ki bani yah naukaen pani par is tarah se tairati hain, manon koee bada sanp reng raha ho.

isake atirikt nauka daud bhi hoti hai. nauka chalane vale ek khas qism ka git gate hain. jise 'vanchi pattakkal' yani ki 'nav ka git' kahate hain. nauka ki daud ko 'vallamukali' kahate hain. is tarah se onam ka tyohar manakar sndhya ke samay vishnu bhagavan, ganesh ji, shravan dev tatha vaman dev aur phoolon ki devi ki moortiyon ko ek takhte par rakhakar unaka poojan kiya jata hai aur phir adar sahit kisi talab ya nadi men le jakar unhen jal men pravahit kar diya jata hai.

paryatan saptah

keral ki sarakar bhi onam parv ko prayojit karati hai. nauka daud v any mahotsav sarakar ke snrakshan men manae jate hain. sarakar onam se sambandhit paryatan saptah bhi ayojit karati hai. jisamen keral ki sanskritik dharohar dekhate hi banati hai. onam ke avasar par samoocha keral navaspardha, nrity, sngit, mahabhoj adi karyakramon se jivnt ho uthata hai. yah tyohar keralavasiyon ke jivan ke saunndary ko saharsh angikar karane ka pratik hai. sab ke sab ek hi rng men rnge hote hain. keral sarakar ke atirikt nausena bhi samay–samay par bot resing ayojit karati hai. aranmula namak sthan par navon ki spardha dekhane ke lie hazaron logon ki snkhya ekatrit hoti hai. keral men kee sthanon par 'katthak nrity' ka ayojan bhi kiya jata hai. is mahotsav ko apar janasamooh apasi bhaeechare ke sath manata hai. yah parv adabhut chhata bikherata hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. onam parv par saji rngoliyan (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 9 sitnbar, 2011.

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