रामलीला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ramalila
ravan vadh karate hue ram, ramalila, mathura
vivaran 'ramalila' uttari bharat men paramparagat roop se khela jane vala ram ke charit par adharit natak hai. yah prayah vijay dashami ke avasar par khela jata hai.
mukhy patr ram, sita, lakshman, ravan, meghanad, kunbhakarn, bharat, shatrughn
ayojan tithi sitnbar aur aktoobar mah men dashahara parv ke dauran
mukhy lila sthal (nagar) ayodhya, banaras, mathura, vrindavan (sabhi uttar pradesh), dilli, almoda (uttarakhand) aur madhubani (bihar)
snbndhit lekh ramacharitamanas, vijay dashami, rasalila
any janakari lok naty ke roop men prachalit is ramalila ka desh ke vividh pranton men alag alag tariqon se mnchan kiya jata hai.

ramalila uttari bharat men paramparagat roop se khela jane vala ram ke charit par adharit natak hai. yah prayah vijayadashami ke avasar par khela jata hai. dashahara utsav men ramalila bhi mahatvapoorn hai. ramalila men ram, sita aur lakshman ki jivan ka vrittant ka varnan kiya jata hai. ramalila natak ka mnchan desh ke vibhinn kshetron men hota hai. yah desh men alag-alag tariqe se manaya jata hai. bngal aur madhy bharat ke alava dashahara parv desh ke any rajyon men kshetriy vishamata ke bavajood ek saman utsah aur shauq se manaya jata hai.

itihas

samudr se lekar himalay tak prakhyat ramalila ka adi pravartak kaun hai, yah vivadaspad prashn hai. bhavuk bhakton ki drishti men yah anadi hai. ek kinvadnti ka snket hai ki treta yug men shriramachndr ke vanagamanoparant ayodhyavasiyon ne 14 varsh ki viyogavadhi ram ki bal lilaon ka abhinay kar bitaee thi. tabhi se isaki parnpara ka prachalan hua. ek any janashruti se yah pramanit hota hai ki isake adi pravartak megha bhagat the jo kashi ke katuapur muhalle men sthit phutahe hanuman ke nikat ke nivasi mane jate hain.
dashanan ravan, ramalila, mathura
ek bar purushottam ramachndr ji ne inhen svapn men darshan dekar lila karane ka adesh diya taki bhakt janon ko bhagavanh ke chakshush darshan ho saken. isase satprerana pakar inhonne ramalila snpann karaee. tatparinamasvaroop thik bharat milap ke mngal avasar par aradhy dev ne apani jhalak dekar inaki kamana poorn ki. kuchh logon ke matanusar ramalila ki abhinay parnpara ke pratishthapak gosvami tulasidas hain, inhonne hindi men jan manornjanakari natakon ka abhav pakar isaka shriganesh kiya. inaki prerana se ayodhya aur kashi ke tulasi ghat par pratham bar ramalila huee thi.

ramalila: kitane rng, kitane roop

dakshin-poorv eshiya ke itihas men kuchh aise praman milate hain jisase gyat hota hai ki is kshetr men prachin kal se hi ramalila ka prachalan tha. java ke samrat valitung ke ek shilalekh men ek samaroh ka vivaran hai jisake anusar sijaluk ne uparyukt avasar par nrity aur git ke sath ramayan ka manornjak pradarshan kiya tha. is shilalekh ki tithi 907 ee. hai. thaee naresh boramatrayi (brahmatrayi) lokanath ki rajabhavan niyamavali men ramalila ka ullekh hai jisaki tithi 1458 ee. hai. barma ke raja ne 1767 ee. men syam (thaeelaid) par akraman kiya tha. yuddh men syam parajit ho gaya. vijeta samrat any bahumooly samagriyon ke sath ramalila kalakaron ko bhi barma le gaya. barma ke rajabhavan men thaee kalakaron dvara ramalila ka pradarshan hone laga. maikel saimns ne barma ke rajabhavan men ram natak 1794 ee. men dekha tha. agney eshiya ke vibhinn deshon men ramalila ke anek nam aur roop hain. unhen pradhanat: do vargon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. mukhauta ramalila
  2. chhaya ramalila

mukhauta ramalila

dashahara, ramalila maidan mathura

mukhota ramalila ke antargat indoneshiya aur maleshiya ke 'lakhon', knpoochiya ke 'lkhonakhol' tatha barma ke 'yamapve' ka pramukh sthan hai. indoneshiya aur maleshiya men 'lakhon' ke madhyam se ramayan ke anek prasngon ko mnchit kiya jata hai. knpoochiya men ramalila ka abhinay lkhonakhol ke madhyam ke hota hai. 'lkhon' indoneshaee mool ka shabd hai jisaka arth natak hai. knpoochiya ki bhasha khamer men khol ka arth bndar hota hai. isalie 'lkhonakhol' ko bndaron ka natak ya hasy natak kaha ja sakata hai. 'lkhonakhol' vastut: ek prakar ka nrity natak hai jisamen kalakar vibhinn prakar ke mukhaute lagakar apani-apani bhoomika nibhate hain. isake abhinay men mukhy roop se gramy parivesh ke logon ki bhagidari hota hai. knpoochiya ke rajabhavan men ramayan ke pramukh prasngon ka abhinay hota tha.

mukhauta natak ke madhyam se pradarshit ki jane vali ramalila ko thaeelaind men 'khaun' kaha jata hai. isamen snvad ke atirikt nrity, git evn hav-bhav pradarshan ki pradhanata hoti hai. 'khaun' ka nrity bahut kathin aur samay sadhy hai. isamen git aur snvad ka prasaran parde ke pichhe se hota hai. keval vidooshak apana snvad svayn bolata hai. mukhauta keval danav aur bndar-bhaloo ki bhoomika nibhane vale abhineta hi lagate hain. devata aur manav patr mukhaute dharan nahin karate.
ram janm,ramalila, mathura

barma ki mukhauta ramalila ko 'yamapve' kaha jata hai. barma ki ramalila syam se ayi thi. isalie isake git, vady aur nrity par syami prabhav ko nakara nahin ja sakata, kintu vastavikata yah hai ki barma ane ke bad yah syam ki ramalila nahin rah gayi, balki yah poori tarah barma ke rng men doob gayi. barma ke log hasyaras ke premi hote hain. isalie yamapve men vidooshak ki pradhanata hoti hai. aisi sthiti bahut kam hoti hai, jab vidooshak rngamnch par upasthit n ho. ramalila arnbh hone ke poorv ek-do ghnte tak has-parihas aur nrity-git ka karyakram chalata rahata hai.

chhaya ramalila

vividhata aur vichitrata ke karan chhaya natak ke madhyam se pradarshit ki jane vali ramalila mukhauta ramalila se bhi nirali hai. isamen java tatha maleshiya ke 'veyang' aur thaeelaind ke 'nng' ka vishisht sthan hai. japani bhasha men 'veyang' ka arth chhaya hai. isalie yah angrezi men 'shaidople' aur hindi men 'chhaya natak' ke nam se vikhyat hai. isake antargat safed parde ko prakashit kiya jata hai aur usake samane chamade ki putaliyon ko is prakar nachaya jata hai ki usaki chhaya parde par pade. chhaya natak ke madhyam se ramalila ka pradarshan pahale tibbat aur mngoliya men bhi hota tha. thaeelaind men chhaya-ramalila ko 'nng' kaha jata hai. nng ke do roop hai-

  1. 'nngayaee'
  2. 'nngatulung'.

nng ka arth charm ya chamada aur yaee ka arth bada hai. 'nngayaee' ka tatpary chamade ki badi putaliyon se hai. isaka akar ek se do mitar lnba hota hai. isamen do dnde lage hote hain. nat donon hathon se dnde ko pakadakar putaliyon ke oopar uthakar nachata hai. isaka prachalan ab lagabhag samapt ho gaya hai.
'nng tulung' dakshini thaeelaind men manornjan ka lokapriy sadhan hai. isaki charm putaliyan nngayaee ki apeksha bahut chhoti hoti hain. nng tulung ke madhyam se mukhy roop se thaee ramayan ramakiyen ka pradarshan hota hai. thaeelaind ke 'nng tulung' aur java tatha maleshiya ke 'veyang kulit' men bahut samanata hai. veyang kulit ko veyng poorva athava veyang jav bhi kaha jata hai. yatharth yah hai ki thaeelaind, malayeshiya aur indoneshiya men vibhinn namon se isaka pradarshan hota hai.

ravan dahan, ramalila, mathura

veyang

veyang pradarshit karane vale mukhy kalakar ko 'dalang' kaha jata hai. vah natak ka kendr bindu hota hai. vah baje ki dhvani par putaliyon ko nachata hai. isake atirikt vah gata bhi hai. vah avaz badal-badal kar bari-bari se vibhinn patron ke snvadon ko bhi bolata hai, kintu jab putaliyan bolati rahati hain, baje bnd rahate hain. veyang men dalang ke atirikt samanyat: barah vyakti hote hain, kintu vyavahar men inaki snkhya nau ya das hoti hai. 'veyang' men samanyat: 148 putaliyan hoti hain jinamen semar ka sthan sarvochch hai. semar eeshvar ka pratik hai aur usi ki tarah aparibhashit aur varnanatit bhi. usaki gol akriti is tathy ka soochak hai ki usaka n adi hai aur n ant. usake nari ki tarah stan aur purush ki tarah moonchh hain. is prakar vah arddhanarishvar ka pratik hai. java men semar ko shiv ka bada bhaee mana jata hai. vah kabhi kayangan (svarg lok) men nivas karata tha, jahan usaka nam eesamay tha. veyang ka snbndh keval manornjan se hi nahin, pratyut adhyatmik sadhana se bhi hai.[1]

parnpara aur shailiyan

ram ki katha ko natak ke roop men mnch par pradarshit karane vali ramalila bhi 'hari annt hari katha annta' ki tarz par vash‍tav men kitani vividh shailiyon vali hai, isaka khulasa inh‍duja avash‍thi ne apane shodh-prabndh 'ramalila : parnpara aur shailiyan' men bade vish‍tar se kiya hai. induja avash‍thi ke is shodh prabndh ki visheshata yah hai ki yah shodh push‍takalayon men baithakar n likha jakar vishay ke anuroop (ramalila) maidanon men ghoom-ghoom kar likha gaya hai. ramakatha to khh‍yat katha hai, kintu jis prakar vah bharat bhar ki vibhinh‍n bhashaon men abhivh‍yakh‍t huee hai to us bhasha, us sh‍than aur us samaj ki kuchh niji vishishh‍tataen bhi usamen anayas hi samahit ho gee hain - rnganath ramayan aur kritivas ya bhavarth ramayan aur asamiya ramayan ki mool katha ek hote hue bhi apane-apane bhasha-bhashi samaj ki 'ramakathaen' ban gee hain.
ravan, ramalila, mathura
samooche uttar bharat men aj ramalila ka jo sh‍varoop vikasit hua hai usake janak gosh‍vami tulasidas hi mane jate hain, aur yah bhi sach hai ki in sabhi ramalilaon men ramacharitamanas ka gayan, usake snvad aur prasngon ki ek tarah se pramukhata rahati hai. baboo shh‍yamasundar das hon, kunvar chndraprakash sinh hon ya phir achary vishh‍vanathaprasad mishr sabhi ki yah manh‍yata hai ki ramalila ke vartaman sh‍varoop ke udghatak, pravartak aur prasarak mahath‍ma tulasidas hain. kintu yah bhi sach nahin hai ki tulasi ke poorv ramalila thi hi nahin, han yah avashh‍y hai ki gosh‍vami tulasidas ke ramacharitamanas ke pashh‍chath phir ramalilaon ka adhar yahi ramacharitamanas hi ho gaya. ram ki barat nikalane par us pranh‍tar ke sabhi nivasi manon raja janak ke puravasi banakar doolh‍he ka sath‍kar karate hain, ram-vanagaman ke samay ram-lakshman aur sita ke pichhe ashru-vilagit janata apane ko ayodhh‍yavasi samajhati huee ansoo bahati chalati hai. yah nishchit roop se kaha ja sakata hai ki chahe ram-katha ki mahati snkalh‍pana ke karan ho, chahe ramacharitamanas ki lok pratishh‍tha ke karan ho, ramalila men darshakon ka jitana snpoorn sahayog hota hai utana aur kisi bhi natyaroop men mil pana kathin hi hai, aur yah tathh‍y is lila natak ko ek abhootapoorv aur sashakh‍t ayam deta hai.[2]

kumaoonni ramalila

sita haran, ramalila, mathura

bhagavan ram ki katha par adharit ramalila natak ke mnchan ki parnpara bharat men yugon se chali ayi hai. lok naty ke roop men prachalit is ramalila ka desh ke vividh pranton men alag alag tariqon se mnchan kiya jata hai. uttarakhand khasakar kumayoon anchal men ramalila mukhyat: git-naty shaili men prastut ki jati hai. vastutah poorv men yahan ki ramalila vishuddh maukhik parnpara par adharit thi, jo pidhi dar pidhi lok manas men rachati-basati rahi. shastriy sngit ke tamam pakshon ka gyan n hote hue bhi log sunakar hi in par adharit giton ko sahajata se yad kar lete the. poorv men tab aj ke saman suvidhaen n ke barabar thin sthaniy bujurg logon ke anusar us samay ki ramalila mashal, lalaten v paitromaiks ki roshani men mnchit ki jati thi. kumayoon men ramalila natak ke mnchan ki shuruat atharahavin sadi ke madhyakal ke bad ho chuki thi. bataya jata hai ki kumayoon men pahali ramalila 1860 men almoda nagar ke badreshvar mandir men huee. jisaka shrey tatkalin dipti kalaiktar sv. devidatt joshi ko jata hai. bad men nainital, bageshvar v pithauragadh men kramashah 1880, 1890 v 1902 men ramalila natak ka mnchan prarambh hua. almoda nagar men 1940-41 men vikhyat nrity samrat pndit uday shnkar ne chhaya chitron ke madhyam se ramalila men navinata lane ka prayas kiya. halanki pndit uday shnkar dvara prastut ramalila yahan ki parnparagat ramalila se kee mayanon men bhinn thi lekin unake chhayabhinay, utkrisht sngit v nrity ki chhap yahan ki ramalila par avashy padi.

visheshata

kumayoon ki ramalila men bole jane vale snvadon, dhun, lay, tal v suron men parasi thiyetar ki chhap dikhayi deti hai, sath hi sath braj ke lok giton aur nautnki ki jhalak bhi. snvadon men akarshan v prabhavotpadakata lane ke liye kahin-kahin par nepali bhasha v urdoo ki gazal ka sammishran bhi hua hai. kumayoon ki ramalila men snvadon men sthaniy bolachal ke saral shabdon ka bhi prayog hota hai. ravan kul ke drishyon men hone vale nrity v giton men adhikanshatah kumayoonni shaili ka prayog kiya jata hai. ramalila ke gey snvado men prayukt git dadar, kaharuva, chanchar v roopak talon men nibaddh rahate hain. haramoniyam ki surili dhun aur tabale ki gamakati goonj men patron ka gayan karnapriy lagata hai. snvadon men ramacharitamanas ke dohon v chaupaeeyon ke alava kee jagahon par gady roop men snvadon ka prayog hota hai. yahan ki ramalila men gayan ko abhinay ki apeksha adhik tarajih di jati hai. ramalila men vachak abhinay adhik hota hai, jisamen patr ek hi sthan par khade़ hokar hav-bhav pradarshit kar gayan karate hain. natak mnchan ke dauran nepathy se gayan bhi hota hai. vividh drishyon men akashavani ki udghoshana bhi ki jati hai. ramalila prarambh hone ke poorv samoohik svar men ramavandana “shri ramachandr kripalu bhajaman“ ka gayan kiya jata hai. natak mnchan men drishy parivartan ke dauran jo samay khali rahata hai usamen vidooshak (jokar) apane hasy giton v abhinay se ramalila ke darshakon ka manornjan bhi karata hai. kumayoon ki ramalila ki ek any khas visheshata yah bhi hai ki isamen abhinay karane vale sabhi patr purush hote hain. adhunik badalav men ab kuchh jagah ki ramalilaon men koras gayan, nrity ke alava kuchh mahila patron men ladakiyon ko bhi shamil kiya jane laga hai.[3]

vithika ramalila

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ramalila: kitane rng, kitane roop (hindi) ignca. abhigaman tithi: 5 aktoobar, 2013.
  2. avasthi, daau. induja. ramalila parnpara aur shailiyan (shodhagrnth) (hindi) abhivyakti. abhigaman tithi: 5 aktoobar, 2013.
  3. tivari, chandr shekhar. uttarakhand ki ek virasat hai kumaoonni ramalila (hindi) mera pahad. abhigaman tithi: 5 aktoobar, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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