कौशल्या

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chitr:Disamb2.jpg kaushalya ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthoan ke lie dekhean:- kaushalya (bahuvikalpi)

tathy

  • kathavastu ki drishti se ram kavy mean kaushalya ka any pramukh patroan ki tulana mean adhik mahattv nahian hai. ve dasharath ki agramahishi evan ram jaise adarsh putr ki mata haian. unaka sarvapratham ullekh valmiki ramayan mean putr-prem ki akaankshini ke roop mean milata hai. valmiki ki parampara mean rachit kavyoan aur natakoan mean kaushalya sarvatr agramahishi ke roop hi chitrit haian, keval anand-ramayan mean dasharath evan kaushalya ke vivah ka varnan vistar se hua hai.
  • gunabhadrakrit 'uttar-puran' mean kaushalya ki mata ka nam subala tatha pushpadatt ke 'pum chariu' mean kaushalya ka doosara nam aparajita diya gaya hai. ramakatha mean avatar ke prabhav ke phalasvaroop puranoan mean kashyap aur aditi ke dasharath aur kaushalya ke roop mean avatar lene ka varnan hua hai.
  • paristhitivash kaushalya jivanabhar du:khi rahati haian. apane vastavik adhikar se vanchit hokar unaka jivan karun aur dayaniy ho jata hai. at: unhean kshinakaya, khinnamana, upavasaparayana, kshamashila, tyagashila, saumy, vinit, ganbhir prashaant, vishalahridaya tatha pati-seva-parayana adarsh mahila ke roop mean chitrit kiya gaya hai. apane niraparadh putr ke vanavas par ve apane in gunoan ka aur bhi adhik vikas karati huee dekhi jati haian. is avasar par anek kaviyoan ne unake matri-hriday ki bhoori-bhoori sarahana ki hai. is anyay ka samachar sunakar valmiki ki kaushalya ka sanyam aur dhairy toot jata hai aur saanketik shabdavali ka prayog karake ve ram ko pita se vidroh karane ke lie prerit karana chahati haian.
  • adhyatmaramayan mean unhean apane adhikaroan ke prati sachesht tatha ram ko van jane se rokate hue chitrit karake unake man ki dvividha ka varnan kiya gaya hai tatha unake hriday mean prem-bhavana aur briddhi ka paraspar sangharsh dikhaya gaya hai parantu tulasidas ne is prasang ke varnan mean kaushalya ke charitr ko bahut ooancha utha diya hai. unhoanne b di kushalata se kaushalya ka antardvandv chitrit karate hue kartavy-karm aur vivek-buddhi ki vijay ka jo chitran kiya hai, vah akela hi tulasidas ki mahatta ko pramanit karane mean saksham hai. is prasang ke atirikt anyatr bhi tulasi ne kaushalya ke charitr ki mahaniyata chitrit ki hai. bharat ko rajamukut dharan karane ka upadesh tatha vanayatra mean bharat-shatrughn se rath par chadhane ka tarkapoorn anurodh unake hriday ki vishalata, bina kisi bhedabhav ke charoan putroan ke prati unake matri-hriday ka sahaj vatsaly tatha sabhi ayodhyavasiyoan ke prati hardik mamatv ka praman deta hai.
  • manas mean kaushalya ke charitr mean uchch buddhimatta ka bhi chitran hua hai. jab ve chitrakoot mean sita ki mata ko visham paristhiti mean dhairy dharan karane ko kahati haian, unake kathan mean ek darshanik drishti ke sath-sath gahari atmanubhooti ke darshan hote haian parantu manas se bhinn 'gitavali' mean tulasi das krishna-kavy ki yashoda ki bhaanti kaushalya ko ek snehamayi mata ke vatsaly-viyog ki karunamoorti ke roop mean chitrit karate haian. manas mean kaushalya ka charitr jitana gambhir aur dhairyanishth hai, gitavali mean utana hi sanvedy aur taral ban jata hai. jab ram aur lakshman vishvamitr ke sath chale jate haian, kaushalya unake lie atyant chintakul hoti haian. unaki vyatha kramash: ram-van-gaman, chitrakoot se lautane tatha vanavasi ki avadhi samapti ke poorv ke avasaroan par karun se karunatar chitrit ki gayi haian.
  • adhunik yug mean kaushalya ke charitr ka matri-paksh manas se kahian adhik vistarapoorvak baladevaprasad mishr ke 'koshal-kishor' mean ubhara hai, kintu vah ram ki yuva avastha tak ki ghatanaoan tak hi simit rah gaya hai. maithili sharan gupt ke 'saket' mean bhi kaushalya ka putr-prem svabhavik roop mean chitrit kiya gaya hai, kintu charitr-chitran ki sampoornata tatha prabhav-samashti usamean nahian milati. unaki tulana mean saketakar ne kaikeyi par adhik dhyan diya hai parantu kaushalya ke charitr mean adikavi se prarambh hokar tulasidas ke dvara jis adarsh ki parinati huee hai, vahi vastut: lokamat mean pratishthit hokar rah gaya hai.[1]

sahity mean kaushalya

  • kaushalya saral hridaya mata hai. apane putr ka van-gaman usake lie hriday-vidarak raha hai. yadyapi vah apane putr ke kartavy-marg mean badhak nahian banian. ram ke vanavas jane ki khabar sunakar vah kahati hai-

idan tu duahkhan yadanarthakani mean vratani danani ch sanyamashch hi .
tapashch taptan yadapaty kamyaya sunishphalan bij mivot mooshare ॥[2]

  • kaushalya komal matri hridaya thi . bharat ke karan ram ko 14 varsh ka vanavas mila, phir bhi usaka sneh bhav ramavat hi hai . vah bharat mean hi ram ka svaroop pa leti hai aur maan ka adarsh charitr upasthit karati hai, yatha-

khiancha unako, le god, hriday lipataya,
boli tumako pa punah ram ko paya ॥[3]

  • mata kaushalya ne apane putr ko is prakar sanskarit kiya ki vimata kaikeyi ke kubhavoan se bhi ram vichalit nahian hue aur saharsh vanavasi hue . kaushalya shriram ko aisi hi shiksha deti huee kahati hai-

‘jauan keval pitu ayesu tata . tau jani jahu jani b di mata .
jauan pitu matu kaheu ban jana . tau kanan sat abadh samana॥ [4]

  • raja dasharath ke tin raniyaan thian . atah aisi sthiti mean sautiya ahan panapana svabhavik hai par kaushalya saut ko saut n samajhakar bahin sadrish manati hai . kaikeyi ke bare mean vah sumitra se kahati hai-

sithil sanehuan kahai kosila sumitra joo sauan,
maian n lakhi sauti, sakhi! bhagini jyoan seee haian॥[5]

is prakar kaushalya matritv ki jivant pratima hai . daya, maya, mamata ki mandakini hai. tap, tyag, evan balidan ki akath katha hai.[6]vah ram tatha bharat mean bhed nahian samajhati . pati v ram se sneh rakhati hai, par ram ke van-gaman par maun rahakar apane kartavy ka nirvahan bhi karati hai . pati ki mrityu ke uparant vah sati hone ka prastav bhi rakhati hai . usamean shil hai, udattata hai, matritv ki vyanjana hai to nari sulabh sanvedana bhi hai.

kathaoan mean kaushalya

dakshin kosalraj ne apani putri ka vivah ayodhya ke yuvaraj dasharath se sunishchit kiya. achanak ek din rajakumari kaushalya rajabhavan se adrishy ho gayian. udhar ayodhya se maharaj aj prasthan kar chuke the. ve sadal-bal sarayoo nadi ke marg se nauka dvara kosal ki yatra kar rahe thean akasmat bhayanak aandhi ayian bahut-si naukaean doob gayian. maharaj ne dekha ki yuvaraj jis nauka se chal rahe the usaka pata nahian hai. vastav mean ravan ne jab apane bhagy par vichar kiya, tak use pata chala ki dasharath aur kaushalya ke dvara utpann putr usaka vadh karega. isaliye usane kaushalya ka haran karake aur unhean petika mean band karake dakshin sagar mean apane ek parichit mahamatsy ko de diya tha. mahamatsy petika ko apane mukh mean rakhata tha. akasmat doosare mahamatsy ne us par akraman kiya. isaliye matsy ne vah petika gangasagar ke kinare bhoomi par chho d di. bhitar se kaushalya ji petika kholakar bahar a gayian. sanyog se dasharath ji bhi bahate hue vahian pahuanche. vahian unaka kaushalya ji se sakshatkar hua. paraspar parichay ke bad unhoanne agni prajvalit karake kaushalya ji se vivah kar liya aur ayodhya laut aye.

putr ram ka janm

arambh se hi kaushalya ji dharmik thian. ve nirantar bhagavan ki pooja karati thian, anek vrat rakhati thian aur nity brahmanoan ko dan deti thian. maharaj dasharath ne anek vivah kiye. sabase chhoti maharani kaikeyi ne unhean atyadhik akarshit kiya. maharshi vasishth ke adesh se shrriangi rrishi amantrit hue. putreshti yajn mean prakat hokar agnidev ne charoo pradan kiya. charoo ka adha bhag kaushalya ji ko prapt hua. pativraty, dharm, sadhuseva, bhagavadaradhana sab ek sath saphal huee. bhagavan ram ne mata kaushalya ki god ko vishv ke liye vandaniy bana diya. bhagavan ki vishvamohini moorti ke darshan se unake sare kasht paramanand mean badal gaye.

rajatilak

'mera ram aj yuvaraj hoga' mata kaushalya ka hriday yah sochakar prasannata se uchhal raha tha. unhoanne poori rat bhagavan ki aradhana mean vyatit ki. prat: brahm mahoort mean uthakar ve bhagavanu ki pooja mean lag gayian. pooja ke bad unhoanne pushpaanjali arpit kar bhagavan ko pranam kiya. isi samay raghunath ne akar mata ke charanoan mean mastak jhukaya. kaushalya ji ne shri ram ko uthakar hriday se lagaya aur kaha- 'beta! kuchh kaleoo to kar lo. abhishek mean abhi bahut vilamb hoga.'

vanavas

'mera abhishek to ho gaya maan! pitaji ne mujhe chaudah varsh ke liye van ka rajy diya hai.' shriram ne kaha. 'ram! tum parihas to nahian kar rahe ho. maharaj tumhean pranoan se bhi adhik priy manate haian. kis aparadh se unhoanne tumhean van diya hai? maian tumhean adesh deti hooan ki tum van nahian jaoange, kyoanki mata pita se das guna b di hai; parantu yadi isamean chhoti mata kaikeyi ki bhi ichchha sammilit hai to van ka rajy tumhare liye saik doan ayodhya ke rajy se bhi badhakar hai.' mata kaushalya ne hriday par patthar rakhakar raghavendr ko van jane ka adesh diya. unake du:kh ka koee par nahian tha.

pita ka duahkh

'kausalye! maian tumhara aparadhi hooan, apane pati ko kshama kar do.' maharaj dasharath ne karun svar mean kaha. 'mere dev mujhe kshama karean.' pati ke din vachan sunakar kaushalya ji unake charanoan mean gir p dian. 'svami dinatapoorvak jis stri se prarthana karata hai, us stri ke dharm ka nash hota hai. pati hi stri ke liye lok aur paralok ka ekamatr svami hai.' is tarah kaushalya ji ne maharaj ko anek prakar se santvana di. shriram ke viyog mean maharaj dasharath ne sharir tyag diya. mata kaushalya sati hona chahati thian, kintu shri bharat ke sneh ne unhean rok diya. chaudah varsh ka samay ek-ek pal yug ki bhaanti bit gaya. shriram aye. aj bhi vah maan ke liye shishu hi to the.


tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. sahayak granth- ramakatha: d aau. kamil bulke tatha tulasidas: d aau. mataprasad gupt, hindi parishad, vishvavidyalay, ilahabad.
  2. valmiki ramayan, uddhrit bharatiy sanskriti, d aau. devaraj, pri. 31
  3. saket- sant d aau. baladev prasad mishr, tritiy sarg, pri 51
  4. ramacharit manas, ayodhyakaand 56/1-2
  5. kavitavali, tulasidas pri. 2-3
  6. kavivar maithilisharan gupt aur saket, d aau. brajamohan sharma, pri. 116

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