कौशल्या  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg kaushalya ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- kaushalya (bahuvikalpi)

tathy

  • kathavastu ki drishti se ram kavy men kaushalya ka any pramukh patron ki tulana men adhik mahattv nahin hai. ve dasharath ki agramahishi evn ram jaise adarsh putr ki mata hain. unaka sarvapratham ullekh valmiki ramayan men putr-prem ki akankshini ke roop men milata hai. valmiki ki parampara men rachit kavyon aur natakon men kaushalya sarvatr agramahishi ke roop hi chitrit hain, keval anand-ramayan men dasharath evn kaushalya ke vivah ka varnan vistar se hua hai.
  • gunabhadrakrit 'uttar-puran' men kaushalya ki mata ka nam subala tatha pushpadatt ke 'pum chariu' men kaushalya ka doosara nam aparajita diya gaya hai. ramakatha men avatar ke prabhav ke phalasvaroop puranon men kashyap aur aditi ke dasharath aur kaushalya ke roop men avatar lene ka varnan hua hai.
  • paristhitivash kaushalya jivanabhar du:khi rahati hain. apane vastavik adhikar se vnchit hokar unaka jivan karun aur dayaniy ho jata hai. at: unhen kshinakaya, khinnamana, upavasaparayana, kshamashila, tyagashila, saumy, vinit, gnbhir prashant, vishalahridaya tatha pati-seva-parayana adarsh mahila ke roop men chitrit kiya gaya hai. apane niraparadh putr ke vanavas par ve apane in gunon ka aur bhi adhik vikas karati huee dekhi jati hain. is avasar par anek kaviyon ne unake matri-hriday ki bhoori-bhoori sarahana ki hai. is anyay ka samachar sunakar valmiki ki kaushalya ka snyam aur dhairy toot jata hai aur sanketik shabdavali ka prayog karake ve ram ko pita se vidroh karane ke lie prerit karana chahati hain.
  • adhyatmaramayan men unhen apane adhikaron ke prati sachesht tatha ram ko van jane se rokate hue chitrit karake unake man ki dvividha ka varnan kiya gaya hai tatha unake hriday men prem-bhavana aur briddhi ka paraspar sngharsh dikhaya gaya hai parantu tulasidas ne is prasng ke varnan men kaushalya ke charitr ko bahut ooncha utha diya hai. unhonne badi kushalata se kaushalya ka antardvandv chitrit karate hue kartavy-karm aur vivek-buddhi ki vijay ka jo chitran kiya hai, vah akela hi tulasidas ki mahatta ko pramanit karane men saksham hai. is prasng ke atirikt anyatr bhi tulasi ne kaushalya ke charitr ki mahaniyata chitrit ki hai. bharat ko rajamukut dharan karane ka upadesh tatha vanayatra men bharat-shatrughn se rath par chadhane ka tarkapoorn anurodh unake hriday ki vishalata, bina kisi bhedabhav ke charon putron ke prati unake matri-hriday ka sahaj vatsaly tatha sabhi ayodhyavasiyon ke prati hardik mamatv ka praman deta hai.
  • manas men kaushalya ke charitr men uchch buddhimatta ka bhi chitran hua hai. jab ve chitrakoot men sita ki mata ko visham paristhiti men dhairy dharan karane ko kahati hain, unake kathan men ek darshanik drishti ke sath-sath gahari atmanubhooti ke darshan hote hain parantu manas se bhinn 'gitavali' men tulasi das krishn-kavy ki yashoda ki bhanti kaushalya ko ek snehamayi mata ke vatsaly-viyog ki karunamoorti ke roop men chitrit karate hain. manas men kaushalya ka charitr jitana gambhir aur dhairyanishth hai, gitavali men utana hi snvedy aur taral ban jata hai. jab ram aur lakshman vishvamitr ke sath chale jate hain, kaushalya unake lie atynt chintakul hoti hain. unaki vyatha kramash: ram-van-gaman, chitrakoot se lautane tatha vanavasi ki avadhi samapti ke poorv ke avasaron par karun se karunatar chitrit ki gayi hain.
  • adhunik yug men kaushalya ke charitr ka matri-paksh manas se kahin adhik vistarapoorvak baladevaprasad mishr ke 'koshal-kishor' men ubhara hai, kintu vah ram ki yuva avastha tak ki ghatanaon tak hi simit rah gaya hai. maithili sharan gupt ke 'saket' men bhi kaushalya ka putr-prem svabhavik roop men chitrit kiya gaya hai, kintu charitr-chitran ki sampoornata tatha prabhav-samashti usamen nahin milati. unaki tulana men saketakar ne kaikeyi par adhik dhyan diya hai parantu kaushalya ke charitr men adikavi se prarambh hokar tulasidas ke dvara jis adarsh ki parinati huee hai, vahi vastut: lokamat men pratishthit hokar rah gaya hai.[1]

sahity men kaushalya

  • kaushalya saral hridaya mata hai. apane putr ka van-gaman usake lie hriday-vidarak raha hai. yadyapi vah apane putr ke kartavy-marg men badhak nahin banin. ram ke vanavas jane ki khabar sunakar vah kahati hai-

idn tu duahkhn yadanarthakani men vratani danani ch snyamashch hi .
tapashch taptn yadapaty kamyaya sunishphaln bij mivot mooshare ॥[2]

  • kaushalya komal matri hridaya thi . bharat ke karan ram ko 14 varsh ka vanavas mila, phir bhi usaka sneh bhav ramavat hi hai . vah bharat men hi ram ka svaroop pa leti hai aur man ka adarsh charitr upasthit karati hai, yatha-

khincha unako, le god, hriday lipataya,
boli tumako pa punah ram ko paya ॥[3]

  • mata kaushalya ne apane putr ko is prakar snskarit kiya ki vimata kaikeyi ke kubhavon se bhi ram vichalit nahin hue aur saharsh vanavasi hue . kaushalya shriram ko aisi hi shiksha deti huee kahati hai-

‘jaun keval pitu ayesu tata . tau jani jahu jani badi mata .
jaun pitu matu kaheu ban jana . tau kanan sat abadh samana॥ [4]

  • raja dasharath ke tin raniyan thin . atah aisi sthiti men sautiya ahn panapana svabhavik hai par kaushalya saut ko saut n samajhakar bahin sadrish manati hai . kaikeyi ke bare men vah sumitra se kahati hai-

sithil sanehun kahai kosila sumitra joo saun,
main n lakhi sauti, sakhi! bhagini jyon seee hain॥[5]

is prakar kaushalya matritv ki jivant pratima hai . daya, maya, mamata ki mandakini hai. tap, tyag, evn balidan ki akath katha hai.[6]vah ram tatha bharat men bhed nahin samajhati . pati v ram se sneh rakhati hai, par ram ke van-gaman par maun rahakar apane kartavy ka nirvahan bhi karati hai . pati ki mrityu ke uparant vah sati hone ka prastav bhi rakhati hai . usamen shil hai, udattata hai, matritv ki vynjana hai to nari sulabh snvedana bhi hai.

kathaon men kaushalya

dakshin kosalaraj ne apani putri ka vivah ayodhya ke yuvaraj dasharath se sunishchit kiya. achanak ek din rajakumari kaushalya rajabhavan se adrishy ho gayin. udhar ayodhya se maharaj aj prasthan kar chuke the. ve sadal-bal sarayoo nadi ke marg se nauka dvara kosal ki yatra kar rahe then akasmat bhayanak andhi ayin bahut-si naukaen doob gayin. maharaj ne dekha ki yuvaraj jis nauka se chal rahe the usaka pata nahin hai. vastav men ravan ne jab apane bhagy par vichar kiya, tak use pata chala ki dasharath aur kaushalya ke dvara utpann putr usaka vadh karega. isaliye usane kaushalya ka haran karake aur unhen petika men band karake dakshin sagar men apane ek parichit mahamatsy ko de diya tha. mahamatsy petika ko apane mukh men rakhata tha. akasmat doosare mahamatsy ne us par akraman kiya. isaliye matsy ne vah petika gngasagar ke kinare bhoomi par chhod di. bhitar se kaushalya ji petika kholakar bahar a gayin. snyog se dasharath ji bhi bahate hue vahin pahunche. vahin unaka kaushalya ji se sakshatkar hua. paraspar parichay ke bad unhonne agni prajvalit karake kaushalya ji se vivah kar liya aur ayodhya laut aye.

putr ram ka janm

arambh se hi kaushalya ji dharmik thin. ve nirantar bhagavan ki pooja karati thin, anek vrat rakhati thin aur nity brahmanon ko dan deti thin. maharaj dasharath ne anek vivah kiye. sabase chhoti maharani kaikeyi ne unhen atyadhik akarshit kiya. maharshi vasishth ke adesh se shrringi rishi amantrit hue. putreshti ygy men prakat hokar agnidev ne charoo pradan kiya. charoo ka adha bhag kaushalya ji ko prapt hua. pativraty, dharm, sadhuseva, bhagavadaradhana sab ek sath saphal huee. bhagavan ram ne mata kaushalya ki god ko vishv ke liye vandaniy bana diya. bhagavan ki vishvamohini moorti ke darshan se unake sare kasht paramanand men badal gaye.

rajatilak

'mera ram aj yuvaraj hoga' mata kaushalya ka hriday yah sochakar prasannata se uchhal raha tha. unhonne poori rat bhagavan ki aradhana men vyatit ki. prat: brahm mahoort men uthakar ve bhagavanu ki pooja men lag gayin. pooja ke bad unhonne pushpanjali arpit kar bhagavan ko pranam kiya. isi samay raghunath ne akar mata ke charanon men mastak jhukaya. kaushalya ji ne shri ram ko uthakar hriday se lagaya aur kaha- 'beta! kuchh kaleoo to kar lo. abhishek men abhi bahut vilamb hoga.'

vanavas

'mera abhishek to ho gaya man! pitaji ne mujhe chaudah varsh ke liye van ka rajy diya hai.' shriram ne kaha. 'ram! tum parihas to nahin kar rahe ho. maharaj tumhen pranon se bhi adhik priy manate hain. kis aparadh se unhonne tumhen van diya hai? main tumhen adesh deti hoon ki tum van nahin jaonge, kyonki mata pita se das guna badi hai; parantu yadi isamen chhoti mata kaikeyi ki bhi ichchha sammilit hai to van ka rajy tumhare liye saikadon ayodhya ke rajy se bhi badhakar hai.' mata kaushalya ne hriday par patthar rakhakar raghavendr ko van jane ka adesh diya. unake du:kh ka koee par nahin tha.

pita ka duahkh

'kausalye! main tumhara aparadhi hoon, apane pati ko kshama kar do.' maharaj dasharath ne karun svar men kaha. 'mere dev mujhe kshama karen.' pati ke din vachan sunakar kaushalya ji unake charanon men gir padin. 'svami dinatapoorvak jis stri se prarthana karata hai, us stri ke dharm ka nash hota hai. pati hi stri ke liye lok aur paralok ka ekamatr svami hai.' is tarah kaushalya ji ne maharaj ko anek prakar se santvana di. shriram ke viyog men maharaj dasharath ne sharir tyag diya. mata kaushalya sati hona chahati thin, kintu shri bharat ke sneh ne unhen rok diya. chaudah varsh ka samay ek-ek pal yug ki bhanti bit gaya. shriram aye. aj bhi vah man ke liye shishu hi to the.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sahayak granth- ramakatha: daau. kamil bulke tatha tulasidas: da. mataprasad gupt, hindi parishad, vishvavidyalay, ilahabad.
  2. valmiki ramayan, uddhrit bharatiy snskriti, daau. devaraj, pri. 31
  3. saket- snt daau. baladev prasad mishr, tritiy sarg, pri 51
  4. ramacharit manas, ayodhyakand 56/1-2
  5. kavitavali, tulasidas pri. 2-3
  6. kavivar maithilisharan gupt aur saket, daau. brajamohan sharma, pri. 116

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