कपिल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maharshi kapil
Disamb2.jpg kapil ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- kapil (bahuvikalpi)

kapil muni 'sankhy darshan' ke pravartak the, jinhen bhagavan vishnu ka pncham avatar mana jata hai. inaki mata ka nam devahuti v pita ka nam kardam tha. kapil muni ki mata devahooti ne vishnu ke saman putr ki kamana ki thi. atah bhagavan vishnu ne svayn unake garbh se janm liya tha. kardam jab sannyas lekar van jane lage to devahooti ne kaha, "svami mera kya hoga?" is par rishi kardam ne kaha ki "tera putr hi tujhe gyan dega." samay ane par kapil ne mata ko jo gyan diya, vahi 'sankhy darshan' kahalaya.

janm vivaran

kapil sankhyashastr ke pravartak the. inake samay aur janm sthan ke bare men nishchay nahin kiya ja sakata. bahut se vidvanon ko to inaki aitihasikata men hi sndeh hai. puranon tatha mahabharat men inaka ullekh hua hai. kaha jata hai, pratyek kalp ke adi men kapil janm lete hain. janm ke sath hi sari siddhiyan inako prapt hoti hain. isilie inako 'adisiddh' aur 'adividvan' kaha jata hai. mahabharat men ye sankhy ke vakta kahe ge hain. inako agni ka avatar aur brahma ka manasaputr bhi puranon men kaha gaya hai. shrimadbhagavat ke anusar kapil vishnu ke pncham avatar mane ge hain. kardam aur devahooti se inaki utpatti mani gee hai. bad men inhonne apani mata devahooti ko sankhygyan ka upadesh diya, jisaka vishad varnan shrimadbhagavat ke tisare skndh men milata hai.[1]

samay kal

kapilavastu, jahan buddh paida hue the, kapil ke nam par basa nagar tha aur sagar ke putr ne sagar ke kinare kapil ko dekha aur unaka shap paya tatha bad men vahin gnga ka sagar ke sath sngam hua. isase maloom hota hai ki kapil ka janmasthan snbhavat: kapilavastu aur tapasya kshetr gngasagar tha. isase kam-se-kam itana to avashy kah sakate hain ki buddh ke pahale kapil ka nam phail chuka tha. yadi ham kapil ke shishy asuri ka 'shatapath brahman' ke asuri se abhinn manen to kah sakate hain ki kam-se-kam brahman kal men kapil ki sthiti rahi hogi. is prakar 700 varsh ee.poo. kapil ka kal mana ja sakata hai.

shishy

inaka shishy koee asuri namak vnsh men utpann varshasahasrayaji shrotriy brahman batalaya gaya hai. parnpara ke anusar ukt asuri ko nirmanachitt men adhishthit hokar inhonne tatvgyan ka upadesh diya tha. nirmanachitt ka arth hota hai- 'siddhi ke dvara apane chitt ko svechchha se nirmit kar lena'. isase maloom hota hai ki kapil ne asuri ke samane sakshath‌ upasthit hokar upadesh nahin diya, apitu asuri ke gyan men inake pratipadit siddhanton ka sphuran hua. at: ye asuri ke guru kahalae.

sagar putron ko dand

kuchh puranon men kapil muni ko agni ka avatar aur brahma ka manas putr bhi bataya gaya hai. mahatma buddh ka janm sthan 'kapilavastu' hi kapil ka bhi janm sthan mana jata hai. inhin ke nam par vah nagar 'kapilavastu' kahalaya tha. 'gngasagar' kshetr inaki tapasya sthali thi. ikshvaku vnshi raja sagar ke ashvamedh ygy ke ashv ko churakar indr ne inhin ke ashram ke pas chhod diya tha. ashv ki raksha kar rahe sagar ke sath hazar putron ne kapil muni ko ghode ka chor batakar unaka apaman kiya. is mithya abhiyog se kruddh muni ne sagar ke putron ko shap dekar bhasm kar diya. ghoda lekar pita ke pas ane ke lie keval panch putr bach ge the. adhunik vidvanon ka mat hai ki, yah snket ayodhya ki praja ki or hai, jo akal se trast ho gee thi, aur bhagirath ke prayatn se gnga ke ane par logon ka kasht door hua.

sankhy darshan

apane sankhy darshan men kapil muni ne karmakand ke viparit gyanakand ko mahatv diya. unake pahale karm ko hi ek marg mana jata tha aur gyan keval charcha tak simit tha. tyag, tapasya aur samadhi ko bharatiy snskriti men pratishthit karane ka shrey kapil muni ko hi hai. vikasavad ka sarvapratham pratipadan karake unhonne snsar ko svabhavik gati se utpann mana. ye srishti ke kisi ati prakritik kartta ko nahin manate. eeshvar ka vishesh ullekh n hone ke karan kuchh vidvanh 'sankhy darshan' ko anishvaravadi manate hain.

rachanaen

kapil muni ke nam se kee grnth prasiddh hain, jinamen pramukh hain- 'sankhy sootr', 'tatv samas', 'vyas prabhakar', 'kapil gita', 'kapil pncharam', 'kapil stobh' aur 'kapil smriti'.

kapil ne kya upadesh diya, yah kahana kathin hai. 'tatvasamasasootr' ko usake tikakar kapil dvara rachit manate hain. sootr chhote aur saral hain. isilie maiksamoolar ne unhen bahut prachin batalaya. parntu is par n to koee bahut prachin tika upalabdh hoti hai aur n kisi purane grnth men isaka ullekh milata hai. 8vin shatabdi ke jain grnth 'bhagavadajjukiyamh‌' men sankhy ka ullekh karate hue kaha gaya hai-

'ashtau prakritay:, shodash vikara:, atma, pnchavayava:, traigunyam, man:, snchar: pratisncharashch'

ath prakritiyan, solah vikar, atma, panch avayav, tin,gun, man, srishti aur pralay, ye sankhyashastr ke vishay hain. 'tatvasamasasootr' men bhi aisa hi path milata hai. sath hi tatvasamasasootr ke tikakar bhavaganesh kahate hain ki unhonne tika likhate samay pnchashikh likhit tika se sahayata li hai. richard garve ke anusar pnchashikh ka kal pratham shatabdi ka hona chahie. at: bhagavajjukiyamh‌ tatha bhavaganesh ki tika ko yadi praman manen to 'tatvasamasasootr' ka kal eesa ki pahali shatabdi tak le jaya ja sakata hai. isake poorv isaki sthiti ke lie sabal praman ka abhav hai. sankhyapravachanasootr ko bhi kuchh tikakar kapil ki kriti manate hain. kaumudiprabha ke karta svapneshvar 'sankhyapravachanasootr' ko pnchashikh ki kriti manate hain aur kahate hain ki yah grnth kapil dvara nirmit isalie mana gaya hai ki kapil sankhy ke pravartak hain. yahi bat 'tatvasamas' ke bare men bhi kahi ja sakati hai. parntu sankhyapravachanasootr ka vivaran madhav ke 'sarvadarshanasngrah' men nahin hai aur n to gunaratn men hi isake adhar par sankhy ka vivaran diya hai. at: vidvanh log ise 14vin shatabdi ka grnth manate hain.[1]

ramayan sandarbh

ramayan men jal ki khoj men thake-mande ram, sita aur lakshman kapil ki kutiya men pahunche. kapil ki patni susharma ne unhen thnda jal diya. tabhi samidhaen ekatr karake kapil bhi apani kutiya par pahunche. vahan dhoolamndit pairon se aye un tinon atithiyon ka niradar karake kapil ne unhen ghar se bahar nikal diya. andhi-toofan aur varsha se bachane ke lie unhonne ek baragad ki chhaya men ashray liya. is vriksh ki chhaya men sakshat haladhar aur narayan aye hain, ve tinon vriksh ki chhaya men so rahe the. subah uthe to dekha, ek vishal mahal men gadde par so rahe hain. rat-bhar men yakshapati ne unake lie us mahal ka nirman kar diya than. vahan rahate hue ve nikatasth jain mndir ke shramanon ko yathechchh dan diya karate the.

agale din kapil samidha akalan ke lie jngal men gaye to mahal dekhakar vismit ho gaye. vahan ke nivasi jain matavalnbiyon ko dan dete hain, yah janakar unhonne jainiyon se grihasth-dharm ki diksha li. ve donon mahal men gaye to un tinon ko pahachanakar bahut lajjit hue. ram ne unaka satkar karake unhen dhan pradan kiya. kapil ne ni:sng hokar pravrajya grahan ki. varshakal ke uparant un tinon ne vahan se prasthan kiya. yakshapati ne ram ko svaynprabh nam ka har, lakshman ko manikundal tatha sita ko choodamaniratn upaharasvaroop samarpit kiye. unake prasthan ke uparant yaksharaj ne us mayavi nagari ka snvaran kar liya|[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 kapil (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 27 agast, 2014.
  2. pum charit, 35.-36.1-8.–

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