अक्षपाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

upalabdh nyay darshan ke adi pravartak 'maharshi gotam' ya 'gautam' hain. yahi akshapad nam se bhi prasiddh hain. unhonne upalabdh nyayasootron ka pranayan kiya tatha is anvikshiki ko kramabaddh kar shastr ke roop men pratishthapit kiya.

gautam aur akshapad men abhed tatha inaka parichay

inhen bhi dekhen: gautam

apatat: sandeh ho sakata hai ki akshapad aur gotam ya gautam ek hi rishi ke do nam hain ya donon bhinn-bhinn rishi hain? yahan skand puran ne is sandeh ko door kar diya hai. isaka kahana hai ki akshapad aur gautam ek hi rishi ke do nam hain-

akshapado mahayogi gautamastapasi sthit:.
godavarisamaneta ahalyaya:pati: prabhu:॥ [1]

  • ved tatha puranon men anek gotam ya gautam namak rishiyon ka parichay milata hai.
  • maharshi ushij ke putr dirdhatama gotam janmandh the. inaka parichay matsy puran[2] men diya gaya hai.
  • rigved men gotam rishi ke koopalabh ki bat kahi gayi hai.[3] is sookt ke rishi rahoogan gautam hain. rahoogan ke putr hone ke nate rahugan nam se inaki prasiddhi huee.
  • shatapath brahman men videh madhav raja ke purohit ke roop men inaka parichay diya gaya hai.[4]
  • isi kram men yah bhi ullekhaniy hai ki valmiki ne apani ramayan men ahalya ke putr shatanand ko raja janak ka purohit kaha hai. yahi rahugan gotam ahalya ke pati rahe honge, jinhonne nyayasootron ka upadesh kiya tha- aisi manyata vidvanon ki rahi hai.
  • mahamahopadhyay vindhyeshvari prasad dvivedi tatha mahamahopadhyay phanibhooshan tarkavagish ne yathakram nyayavarttik aur bngala nyayabhashy ki bhoomika men isaka vishad vivechan kiya hai.

muktaye y: shilatvay shastramooche sachetasamh.
gotamn tamavetyev yathavitth tathaiv s:॥ [5]

naishadhiyacharit ke is shlok ko uddhrit kar donon hi mahapanditon ne apane mat men yukti dikhayi hai. yahan shriharsh ne mahavrishabh arth men gotam shabd ka prayog kar nyayasootr ke praneta rishi gotam ka upahas kiya hai. yadyapi nyayasootrakar ke lie gautam pad ka prayog bhi kiya gaya hai. tathapi gotam rishi ke apaty arth men ukt pad ka prayog sngat hi hai.

  • gotr-pravartak rishi gotam ke vnshaj gautam bhi nyayasootr ke praneta ke roop men prasiddh ho sakate hain. mahakavi bhas ne pratimanatak men nyay darshan ke praneta ke roop men medhatithi ka ullekh kiya hai.[6]
  • mahabharat men bhi ahalyapati gotam medhatithi nam se ullikhit hain. inhonne chirakari namak putr ko kabhi apani man ahalya ki hatya ka adesh diya tha. kintu putr ke chirakaritvagun ke karan vah sampadit nahin ho saka to pashchath vicharak rishi apane anuchit adesh ke lie du:khi hue tatha putr ke gun par prasann hokar use ashirvad diya.[7] snbhav hai medhatithi unaka sanskarik nam raha ho aur gotam gotranam.
  • devi puran men gotam pad ki rochak vyutpatt ki gayi hai- vachan se jo doosaron ko du:khi kare, vahi gautam hai arthath vadapradhan nyayashastr ke gyata yuktibal se pratipakshi ko parast kar apana mat pratishthit karata hai. us shastr ke praneta gotam hain aur unake vnshaj gautam. inhin ko akshapad bhi kaha jata hai-

gaurvakh tayaiv tamayanh paranh gotam uchyate.
gotamanvayajanmeti gautamoapi s chakshapath॥[8]

maharshi gautam ka ashram

prachin parampara ke anusar mithila men is maharshi gautam ka ashram raha hai. darabhnga nagar se uttar ki or dash kosh ki doori par aj bhi inaka ashram vidyaman hai, jahan nikat men ‘ahalya sthan’ bhi hai aur ved prasiddh vah koop bhi. is koop ke jal se devataon ne kabhi is rishi ko paritript kiya tha. yahin maharshi gotam ne tapasya ki thi aur tapobal se gautami gnga ko laye the. kinvadanti ke anusar yahin nyayasootr ka bhi pranayan hua, snbhav hai ki ahalyapati gautam ko maithil kahane ka tatha mithila men adikal se hi nyayashastr ke adhik prachar-prasar ka yahi karan raha hoga.

akshapad ke sambandh men devi puran men ek rochak katha varnit hai. ek samay aisa aya jab sampoorn bharat men nastik maton ka bolavala raha, ygy adi dharmanushthan lupt hone laga. isase chintit hokar devataon ne bhagavan shnkar ki aradhana ki. shnkar ne maharshi gautam ke pas un logon ko bheja. maharshi gautam nastik maton ke uchchhed hetu baddhaparikar hokar sampoorn bharat ki yatra par chal pade. inaki pariksha ke lie bhagavan shiv balak ka roop dharan kar raste men nastik maton ke anukool tark karate hue inase shastr-vichar karane lage. ek saptah tak yah shastrarth chalata raha kintu kisi ki parajay nahin ho saki. maharshi chintit hokar maun ho gaye, balak roopadhari bhagavan shiv inaka upahas karane lage. unhonne kaha ki jab ap mujh balak ko parast nahin kar sake to vriddh evn lokasammat viddhan nastik ko ap kaise parast kar sakenge. isase to achchha yahi hoga ki ap chupachap bhag jao. kintu maharshi ki antardrishti ne shiv ko pahachan liya aur ye unaki stuti karane lage. stuti se prasann hokar shiv ne inako darshan diya aur var dete hue kaha ki tum tark kushal ho. tumhare atirikt vad yuddh se mujhe kaun prasann kar sakata hai! main prasann hoon, main tumhara nam dharan karoonga aur tum bhi 'trinetr' hooge. isi samay shiv ji ke vahan nandi ne apane danto se praman adi solah padarthon ko likhakar rishi ke samaksh pradarshit kiya. pashchath rishi ne bhagavan shnkar ke anugrah se lok men un padarthon ka prachar kiya, jo vidya anvikshiki nam se prasiddh huee. bhagavan shiv ki agya se maharshi gautam ne nastik mat ka nash karane vali is vidya ki shiksha dash dinon tak apane shishyon ko di. aj bhi is panchadhyayi nyayashastr ke dash ahnik vidyaman hain.

bhagavan vedavyas ne maharshi gautam se vidhivat is vidya ka adhyayan kiya. pashchath 'brahmasootr' ki rachana kar tarkashastr ki ninda bhi ki. isase rusht evn asantusht guru gautam ne snkalp kiya ki in ankhon se pun: us shishy ko nahin dekhoonga. idhar vyas ji gurudev ke is snkalp ki soochana pakar bhayabhit ho gaye aur unako prasann karane ke lie vinamr hokar kaha ki mainne to kutarko ki ninda ki hai, apake sattakon ki nahin, itana sunate hi ashutosh ke bhakt guru gautam ne prasann hokar unako dekhane ke lie apane charan men hi ek ankh ka avirbhav kar liya. tab se maharshi gautam akshapad kahalane lage.[9]

is katha ke pramany men sandeh rahane par bhi itana to avashy mana ja sakata hai ki maharshi gautam hi akshapad hain aur isaka adhar prachin kinvadanti ya is puran ki yah katha hai. yah koee adhunik kalpana nahin hai. yahin ek bat aur lakshy karane yogy hai ki prachin naiyyayik ke shivabhakt hone ka bij yah puran-katha hi hai. choonki shiv ke dvara is shastr ka prakashan puranon men pratipadit hai, at: varttikakar udyotakar ka mahapashupatachary hona ashcharyajanak nahin hai. tatparyachary dvara vrishaketu (shiv) ka pranam nivedan tatha 'nyayakusumanjali' ke upasnhar men achary udayan dvara ‘tanme pramann shiv:‘ kahana bhi nyayadarshan ki shaiv parampara hone ka sakshy prastut karata hai.

yadyapi prakashit devi puran men yah ansh anupalabdh hai tathapi matrika (pandulipi) men upalabdh is ansh ko dekhakar m.m. phanibhooshan tarkavagish ne bngala nyayadarshan ki bhoomika men isaka samavesh kritgyta ke sath kiya hai.

'nyayamnjari' ke upasnhar men naiyyayik jayantabhatt ne bhi kaha hai ki maharshi akshapad ne vadakatha se bhagavan shnkar ko santusht kar unase var prapt kiya tha.[10] isase uparyukt devi puran ki bat ki pushti hoti hai.

brahmand puran men kaha gaya hai ki dvapar yug men sattaisaven parivart men jatukarny vyas ke samay men prabhasatirth men 'som sharma' ke nam se shiv ka avatar hoga aur us samay unake char putr hogen-

  1. akshapad
  2. kanad
  3. ulook aur
  4. vats.[11]

pun: surakshan vyas ke samay kali ke chaudahaven paryay men shiv ka avatar hoga. tab angiras gotr men shreshth gautam namak yogi hogen, jinake nam se us van ka bhi nam hoga, jahan ye rahege.[12]

thik yahi bat vayu puran [13] tatha ling puran[14] men bhi gayi hai.

phalitarth yah hua ki ahalya ke pati 'gautam' hi 'medhatithi' evn 'akshapad' nam se parichit hain. inhin ko bhagavan shiv ke anugrah se nyayashastriy shodash padarthon ka darshan hua aur inhonne anugrah buddhi se isaka lok men prachar kiya. atev inaka evn inake anuyayion ka shaiv achar-vichar se prabhavit hona svabhavik hai. choonki mithila shaivadharm se apekshakrit adhik prabhavit huee aur yahin sarvapratham nyayashastr ka prachar hua, jo kramash: roodhamoola hokar paramparakram se aj tak yahan vartaman evn vardhaman hai.[15]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. skand puran maheshvar khand, kumarika khand 55.5
  2. matsyapuran a. 48
  3. jihmn nanudeavatn taya dishaasinchannutsn gotamay trinnaje. agachchhantamavata chitramanav: kamn viprasy tarpayant dhamabhi:॥ (1.14.85.11) m.a.soo.m.
  4. videhoath madhavoagnivaishvanaramukhe babhar. tasy gotamo rahugan rishi: purohit as. (a. 4.bra..
  5. naishadhiyacharitamh 17.15
  6. pratimanatak pancham, ank bho: kashayapagotroasmi. sangopangn vedamadhiye. manaviyn dharmashastrn maheshvarn yogashastrn barhaspatyamarthashastrn medhatithernyayashastrn prachetasn shraddhakalpn ch.
  7. mahabharat shantiparv a. 266 sampoorn tatha. medhatithirmahapragyo gautamastapasi sthit:॥ shlo0 45.
  8. devi puran, shumbhanishumbhamathanapad adhyay 30
  9. devi puran shumbhanishumbhamathanapad
  10. nyayodgaragabhiranirmalagira gauripatistoshito, vade yen kiritinev samare dev: kiratakriti:. praptodaravarastat: s jayati gyanamritaprarthana, namnanekamaharshimastakabalatpadoakshapado muni:॥
  11. saptavinshatime prapte parivarte kramagate. chatukarnyon yada vyaso bhavishyati tapodhan:॥ tadapyahn bhavishyami somasharma dvijottam:. prabhasatirthamasady yogatma lokavishrut:॥ tatrapi mam te putra bhavishyanti tapodhana:. akshapad: kanadashch ulooko vats ev ch. (brahmandapuran anushangapad) a. 23
  12. yada vyas: surakshan: paryayetu chaturdash:. tatrapi punarevahn bhavishyami yugantaken vane tvadigaras: shreshtho gotamo nam yogavith. tasmadh bhavishyate punyn gautamn nam tadvanamh॥ (brahmandapuran, anushangapad) a. 23
  13. vayupuran poorvakhand a. 23
  14. lingapuran a. 24
  15.  bho mune vedadharmgy! kin tooshnimasyate chiramh.
    mamanirjity medhavinh kshudranastikabalakamh॥
    kathannu vidusho vriddhanh nastikanh lokasammatanh.
    vijeshyasi mahayuddhe tath palayasv ma chiramh॥
    sadhu gautam bhadrn te tarkeshu kushalo hyasi.
    tvamrite vadayuddhen ki man toshayitun ksham:॥
    anen tav vaden toshitoahn mahamune.
    tannam dharayishyami tvn trinetro bhavishyasi॥
    ityevn bruvat: shambhorjajrimbhe vahano vrish:.
    darshayanh dantalikhitanh pramanadinshch shodash॥
    shambho: kripamanuprapy yadikshamakaronmuni:.
    ten chanvikshikin sngyan vidyan pravartayath kshitau॥
    adeshen shivasyaiv s shishyanh dashabhirdine:.
    pathayamas tan vidyan nastikamatanashinimh॥
    tat: kalen kiyata vyaso gurunideshat:.
    samavritto grihasthoabhooth vedavyakhyanakovid:॥
    s tark nindayamas brahmasootropadeshak:.
    tachchhutva gautam: kruddho vedavyasn prati sthit:॥
    pratijgye ch naitabhyan drimbhyan pashyami tanmukhamh॥
    y: shishyo dveshti vai tark chiray gurusammatamh॥
    vyasoapi bhagavanstasy guro: kopn vimrishy ch.
    ayayau tvaritastatr yatrabhoodh gautamo muni:॥
    asakridh dandavadh bhootva padayo: pranipaty ch.
    prasadayamas gurun kutarko nindito maya॥
    prasanno gautamo vyase pratigyan svanch snsmaranh.
    padeakshin sphotayamas soakshapadastatoabhavath॥ (devipuran, shumbhanishumbhamathanapad)

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