उद्धव  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uddhav bhagavat ke anusar shrikrishn ke priy sakha aur sakshat brihaspati ke shishy the. mahamatiman uddhav vrishnivnshiy yadavon ke mananiy mantri the.[1] unake pita ka nam 'upng' kaha gaya hai. kahin-kahin unhen vasudev ke bhaee 'devabhag' ka putr kaha gaya hai, at: unhen shrikrishn ka chachera bhaee bhi bataya gaya hai. ek any mat ke anusar ye satyak ke putr tatha krishn ke mama kahe gaye hain.

parichay

uddhav yadavon ke paramarshadata hone ke sath-sath yoddha bhi the. jarasndh ke akramanon men inhonne apane parakram ka parichay diya tha. dvaraka men yadavon ke kul nash ke bad jab shrikrishn ne apane svargarohan ki ichchha bataee to uddhav ne bhi unake sath jane ka agrah kiya. us samay shrikrishn ne bataya ki vah 'vasu' namak dev ke avatar hain. yah unaka antim janm hai. tadntar krishn ne inako yog marg ka upadesh diya. yah upadesh ‘uddhav gita’ ya ‘avadhoot gitardh’ ke nam se prasiddh hai. krishn ke adesh par uddhav badarikashram chale ge aur vahin tapasya karate hue unhonne apani jivan lila samapt ki.[2]

gokul gaman

mathura pravas men jab shrikrishn ko apane mata-pita tatha gopiyon ke virah-du:kh ka smaran hota hai, to ve uddhav ko nand ke gokul bhejate hain tatha mata-pita ko prasann karane tatha gopiyon ke viyog-tap ko shant karane ka adesh dete hain. uddhav saharsh krishn ka sandesh lekar braj jate hain aur nandadi gopon tatha gopiyon ko prasann karate hain. krishn ke prati gopiyon ke kanta bhav ke anany anurag ko pratyaksh dekhakar uddhav atyant prabhavit hote hain. ve krishn ka yah sandesh sunate hain ki tumhen mera viyog kabhi nahin ho sakata, kyonki main atmaroop hoon, sadaiv tumhare pas hoon. main tumase door isalie hoon ki tum sadaiv mere dhyan men lin raho. tum sab vasanaon se shoony shuddh man se mujhamen anurakt rahakar mera dhyan karane men shighr hi mujhe prapt karogi.

nandababa se bhent

uddhav vrishnavnshiyon men ek pradhan purush the. ye sakshat brihaspati ke shishy aur param buddhiman the. mathura ane par bhagavan shrikrishn ne inhen apana mantri aur antarng sakha bana liya tha. jab uddhav braj men pahunche, tab unase milakar nandababa ko vishesh prasannata huee. unhonne unako gale lagakar apana sneh pradarshit kiya. atithy-satkar ke bad nandababa ne unase vasudev-devaki tatha krishn-balaram ka kushal-kshem poochha. uddhav nandababa aur yashoda maiya ke hriday men shrikrishn ke prati dridh anurag ka darshan kar anand magn ho gaye.

gopiyon dvara adar satkar

jab gopiyon ko gyat hua ki uddhav bhagavan shrikrishn ka sndesh lekar aye hain, tab unhonne ekant men milane par unase shyamasundar ka samachar poochha. uddhav ne kaha- "gopiyon! bhagavan shrikrishn sarvavyapi hain. ve tumhare hriday tatha samast jad-chetan men vyapt hain. unase tumhara viyog kabhi ho hi nahin sakata. unamen bhagavad buddhi karake tumhen sarvatr vyapak shrikrishn ka sakshatkar karana chahiye." priyatam ka yah sandesh sunakar gopiyon ko prasannata huee tatha unhen shuddh gyan prapt hua. unhonne prem vihval hokar krishn ke manohar roop aur lalit lilaon ka smaran karate hue apani ghor viyog-vyatha prakat ki tatha bhavatirek ki sthiti men krishn se braj ke uddhar ki din prarthana ki. parantu shrikrishn ka sandesh sunakar unaka virah tap shant ho gaya. unhonne shrikrishn bhagavan ko indriyon ka sakshi paramatma janakar uddhav ka bhali-bhanti poojan aur adar-satkar kiya. uddhav kee mahine tak gopiyon ka shok-nash karate hue braj men rahe.

gyan ahnkar ka nash

gopiyon ne kaha- "uddhavaji! ham janati hain ki snsar men kisi ki asha n rakhana hi sabase bada sukh hai, phir bhi ham shrikrishn ke lautane ki asha chhodane men asamarth hain. unake shubhagaman ki asha hi to hamara jivan hai. yahan ka ek-ek pradesh, ek-ek dhoolikan shyamasundar ke charan chihnon se chihnit hai. ham kisi prakar marakar bhi unhen nahin bhool sakati hain." gopiyon ke alaukik prem ko dekhakar uddhav ke gyan ahnkar ka nash ho gaya. ve kahane lage- "main to in gop kumariyon ki charan raj ki vandana karata hoon. inake dvara gayi gayi shrihari katha tinon lokon ko pavitr karati hai. prithvi par janm lena to in gopanganaon ka hi sarthak hai. meri to prabal ichchha hai ki main is braj men koee vriksh, lata athava trin ban jaoon, jisase in gopiyon ki padadhooli mujhe pavitr karati rahe."

gopiyon ki krishnabhakti se prabhavit

gopiyon ki krishnabhakti se uddhav itane prabhavit hue ki unhonne gopiyon ki charan raj ki vandana ki tatha ichchha prakat ki ki- "main agale janm men gopiyon ki charan raj se pavitr vrindavan ki lata, aushadh, jhadi adi banoon." is prakar krishn ke prati brajavasiyon ke prem ki sarahana karate hue tatha nandadi, gop tatha gopiyon se krishn ke lie anek bhent lekar ve mathura laut aye.

puran ullekh

'shrimad bhagavat' ke atirikt gopal krishn ki lila ke viyog-paksh ka vistrit varnan any puranon men nahin milata. 'brahmavaivart' men yadyapi uddhav ke braj bheje jane ka prasng aya hai [3], parantu is prasng men bhi pray: ekantat: radha ki birah-vyakulata ki hi pradhanata hai. uddhav unhin ke prem se prabhavit hokar unhen santvana dene men prayatnashil dikhaye gaye hain. ve radha ki mata-sadrish stuti karate hain. unaki moorchchha door karane ke upay karate hain aur ant men unhen krishn ke milan ka ashvasan dekar mathura lautate hain tatha krishn ko shighr gokul jane ke lie prerit karate hain. 'brahm vaivart' men viyog ke varnan bhi vilasonmukh hain. at: is prasng men uddhav ke vyaktitv ki koee visheshata ubharati nahin dikhayi deti.

vidyapati dvara varnan

hindi krishn kavy ke pratham gayak vidyapati ne yadyapi birah ka vishad varnan kiya hai, parantu usamen uddhav ke prasng ko sthan nahin mila, keval ek-adha pad men uddhav ka nam matr aya hai, jahan birah-vihval radha ko ingit kar sakhi kahati hai- "he uddhav! too turant mathura ja aur kah ki chandravadani ab bachegi nahin. usaka vadh kise lagega?" is ek sandarbh se hi uddhav ke bhagavat se bhinn vyaktitv ki soochana milati hai. vastut: krishn-katha lok-vishrut roop men uddhav krishn aur gopiyon athava krishn aur radha ke bich prem sandesh-vahak rahe hain. hindi krishn bhakti kavy men bhi unhen isi roop men grahan kiya gaya, yadyapi hindi krishn bhakti kavy ka pradhan srot aur upajivy bhagavat hi tha.

sooradas ka uddhav sambandhi prasng

bhakt kaviyon men sooradas ne hi uddhav sambandhi prasng ka samyak roop se vistrit varnan kiya hain. unhonne viyog ka marmik chitran karane ke sath is prasng ke madhyam se bhakti ke svat: poorn aikantik svaroop ko spasht karane tatha usaki mahatta pratipadit karane ke lie itar sadhanon-vairagy, yog, jap-tap, karmakand adi ki hinata pramanit ki hai. apane is uddeshy ki poorti ke lie unhonne uddhav ke vyaktitv ka jo navanirman kiya, vahi adyavadhi hindi krishn-kavy ki svikrit parampara men surakshit hai.

soor ke uddhav svayn krishn ke shabdon men kath ki bhanti nishthur, premabhajan se sarvatha shoony, advaitadarshi, 'nithur jogi jng' aur 'bhurng' sakha hain. ve nirgun ka vrat lie hue hain. krishn ko 'trigun tan' samajhate hain tatha brahm ko unase bhinn manate hain. yog ki baten karate hain tatha prem ki baten sunakar viparit bolate hain. ve atyant dambhi, pakhandi aur ahnkari hai. krishn unhen sidhe marg par lane ke lie unaka advaitavadiyon, nirgunavadiyon, alakhavadi yogiyon jaisa abhiman choor karake premabhakti men dikshit karane ke uddeshy se hi chhal karake braj bhejate hain. braj ki gopiyan unake 'gyan' ki dhajjiyan uda deti hain tatha siddh kar deti hain ki prem men shoony hone ke karan gambhir pandity ek durvah bojh ke sadrish hai. ve vastut: gyani nahin, mahamoorkh hain, kyonki ve anapadh gnvar, gramin yuvatiyon ko yog sikhane ka hasyaspad prayatn karane aye hain. sooradas ne apane samay ke bhakti-bahy sabhi matamatantaron ke pratinidhitv ka dayitv uddhav par lad diya aur ant men uddhav ko premabhakti ka yahan tak sarmathak bana diya hai ki mathura lautakar ve svayn shrikrishn ki nishthurata ki alochana karane lagate hain tatha unase brajavasiyon ke birah-du:kh door karane ki prarthana karate hain.

'shrimadbhagavat' ke uddhav ke vyaktiv ko pun: lok-vishrut krishn-katha ki or kinchit mod dekar sooradas ne premadoot ke madhyam se jahan ek or atyant vynjanapoorn prem birah kavy ki rachana ki hai, vahin doosari or bhakti marg ki sarvashreshthata siddh karane men anupam saphalata prapt ki hai. 'soorasagar' ke is prasng men sadhe sat sau pad hain.

ashtachhap kaviyon dvara sphut rachanaen

sooradas ke samakalin 'ashtachhap' ke any kaviyon men nndadas ko chhodakar sabhi ne soor ke hi adhar par uddhav sambandhi prasng par sphut rachana ki hai. at: unake dvara uddhav ke charitr-chitran men koee navinata nahin milati. keval nandadas ne apane 'bhnvaragit' men uddhav ko ek advait vedant ke sarmathak gyanamargi pandit ke roop men upasthit kiya hai, jo n keval gopiyon ki utkat prem-bhakti, balki unake pandityapoorn tarkon ka loha manakar bhaktimarg men dikshit ho jate hain. yadyapi krishn bhakti ke radhavallabhi sadrish kuchh sampradayon men birah ki mahatta nahin mani gayi hai aur jis karan uddhav sambandhi prasng unamen lokapriy nahin hua. phir bhi mukhyat: soor ke 'uddhav gopi snvad' tatha 'bhramaragit' ka adhar lekar adhunik kal tak darjanon rachanaen hueen aur unamen uddhav ka vyaktitv bahut kuchh soor ke uddhav ki hi bhanti chitrit hua hai.

rasikon men lokapriy 'uddhav-gopi snvad'

tulasidas ne bhi apani 'krishnagitavali' men is prasng men saras pad rache hain. sach to yah hai ki krishn bhakt kavi hi nahin, madhy kal se lekar adhunik kal tak brajabhasha ka aisa koee kavi n hoga, jisane is prasng par kuchh chhand n rache hon. yah nirvivad saty hai ki brajabhasha kavy ka mukhy varny-vishay radha-krishn aur gopi krishn ki lila hi raha hai. is lila men sabase adhik marmik, rasikon men lokapriy prasng 'uddhav-gopi snvad' aur 'bhramaragit' hai. in sabhi kaviyon men uddhav ke tathakathit gyanamarg ki khilli udane, uddhav ki moodhata pramanit karane tatha prem aur bhakti ki mahatta pratipadit karane men paraspar pratisparddha si dekhi jati hai.

krishn se tattvgyan ka upadesh

bhagavan ne jab dvarakapuri ka nirman kiya, tab uddhav unake sath dvaraka aye. bhagavan shrikrishn inhen sadaiv apane sath rakhate the tatha rajyakary men inase sahayog liya karate the. svadham padharane ke poorv bhagavan shrikrishn ne uddhav ko tattvgyan ka upadesh diya aur unhen 'badarikashram' jakar rahane ki agya di. bhagavan ke svadham padharane par uddhav mathura aye. yahin unaki vidur se bhent huee. apane ek svaroop se bhagavan ke agyanusar uddhav badarikashram chale gaye aur doosare sookshm roop se govardhan ke pas lata-gulmon men chhipakar nivas karane lage. maharshi shandily ke upadesh se vajranabh ne jab govardhan ke snnikat snkirtan-mahotsav kiya, tab uddhav lata-kunjon se prakat ho gaye. unhonne shrikrishn ki raniyon ko ek mahine tak 'shrimadbhagavat' ki katha sunayi tatha apane sath sabako nity vrajabhoomi men le gaye. bhagavan shrikrishn ne kaha hai- "mere is lok se lila-snvaran ke bad uddhav hi mere gyan ki raksha karenge. ve gunon men mujhase tanik bhi kam nahin hain. ve yahan adhikariyon ko upadesh karane ke liye rahenge."

adhunik kaviyon dvara chitran

adhunik kal men jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ne 'uddhavashatak' men bhakti aur riti kavy ki paramparaon ka samanvay-sa karate hue uddhav ke vyaktitv men snvedanashilata ka kuchh adhik sannivesh kiya hai, vaise unake uddhav brajabhasha ke jane pahachane uddhav hi hain. khadiboli ke kavyon 'priyapravas' (hariaudh) aur 'dvapar' (maithilisharan gupt) ke uddhav gopiyon ke has-parihas ke alamban nahin banate. unake vyaktitv men gambhirata payi jati hai. donon kaviyon ne unhen adhik snvedanashil, vicharashil tatha buddhiman chitrit kiya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sahayak granth-

  1. sooradas : brajeshvar varma,
  2. hindi men bhramaragit kavy aur usaki parampara: da. snehalata shrivastav,
  1. bhagavat, dasham skandh, poorvardh, adhyay 46
  2. bharatiy charit kosh |lekhak: liladhar sharma 'parvatiy' |prakashak: shiksha bharati, madarasa rod, kashmiri get, dilli |prishth snkhya: 102 |
  3. shrikrishn janm khand, adhyay 94

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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