कृष्ण संदर्भ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Krishn-title.jpg

krishn avyakt hote hue bhi vyakt brahm the. moolat: ve narayan the. ve svaynbhoo tatha snpoorn jagath ke prapitamah the. dyulok unaka mastak, akash nabhi, prithvi rachan, ashvinikumar nasikasthan, chndr aur soory netr tatha vibhinn devata vibhinn dehayashtiyan hain. ve (brahm roop) hi pralayakal ke ant men brahma ke roop men svayn prakat hue tatha srishti ka vistar kiya. rudr ityadi ki srishti karane ke uparant ve lokahit ke lie anek roop dharan karake prakat hote rahe.

prasng sahit snkshipt parichay

shrikrishn ke roop men vahi avyakt 'narayan' vyakt roop dharan karake avatarit hue. ve vasudev ke putr hue. kns ke bhay se vasudev unhen nnd gop ke yahan chhod aye. vahin palakar ve bade hue. yashoda (nnd ki patni) se unhen adbhut vatsaly ki upalabdhi huee.

  • shishuroop men ve ek bar chhakade niche so rahe the. yashoda unhen vahan chhod yamuna tat gayi thi. bal-lila ka pradarshan karate hue rote hue krishn ne apane panv ke angoothe se chhakade ko dhakka diya to vah ulat gaya. us par rakhe samast matake choor-choor ho gaye.
krishn janm
krishn ko karagar le jate hue vasudev, dvara- raja ravi varma
  • devataon ke dekhate-dekhate unhonne pootana ko mar dala. (vistar se padhen- pootana vadh)
  • ve apane bade bhaee snkarshan[1] ke sath khelate-koodate bade hue. sat varsh ki avastha men gocharan ke lie jaya karate the. ek bar makkhan churakar khane ke dndasvaroop man yashoda ne unhen ookhal men bandh diya. krishn ne us ookhal ko yamal tatha arjun namak do vrikshon ke bich men phnsakar itane zor se khincha ki ve donon vriksh bhoomisat ho gaye. is prakar un vriksho par rahane vale do rakshason ko unhonne mar dala. ve donon bhaee gvalochit veshadhari van men pipihari tatha bansuri bajakar amod-pramod ke sath gayon ko charate the. (vistar se padhen- yamal aur arjun)
  • krishn pile aur balaram nile vastr dharan karate the. ve patton ke mukut pahan lete. kabhi-kabhi rassi ka ygyopavit bhi dharan kar lete the. ve gop balakon ke akarshan ka kendrabindu the.
  • unhonne kadambavan ke pas hrid (kund) men rahane vale kaliya nag ke mastak par nrityakrida ki thi tatha anyatr jane ka adesh diya tha.
  • gopal balakon dvara kiye sarvabhoot eeshvar svaroop ko prakat kiya tatha giriraj ko samarpit hone vali khir ve svayn kha gaye. tab se gopagan unaki pooja karane lage. jab indr ne varsha ki thi tab shrikrishn ne gauon ki raksha ke nimitt ek saptah tak govardhan parvat ko apane hath par uthae rakha tha. indr ne prasann hokar unhen govind nam diya.
  • shrikrishn ne pashuon ki hitakamana se vriksh roop-dhari 'arisht namak daity' ka snhar kiya.
  • brajanivasi 'keshi namak daity' ka snhar kiya. us daity ka sharir ghode jaisa aur bal das hazar hathiyon ke saman tha.
  • kns ke darabar men rahane vale chanoor namak mall ko unhonne mar dala.
  • kns ke bhaee tatha senapati shatrunashak ka bhi unhonne nash kar dala.
  • kns ke kuvalayapid namak hathi ko bhi unhonne mar giraya.
  • kns ko marakar unhonne ugrasen ka rajyabhishek kar diya.
  • ujjayini men donon bhaiyon ne ved vidyadhyayan kiya. dhanurvidya sikhane ve sandipani ke pas gaye. sandipani ne guru-dakshina men apane putr ko vapas manga, jise koee samudri jntu kha gaya tha. shrikrishn ne samudr men rahane vale us daity ka snhar kar diya tatha guruputr ko pun: jivanadan diya jo ki varshon poorv yamalok men ja chuka tha. krishn ke kripaprasad se usane poorvavath apana sharir dharan kiya.
  • shrikrishn ne narakasur[2] ko mar dala. (vistar se padhen- narakasur)
  • shrikrishn ne usha aniruddh ka milan karavaya, banasur ko mara. (vistar se padhen- usha aniruddh)
  • unhonne rookmi ko parajit karake rukmini ka haran kiya. (vistar se padhen- rukmini)
  • indr ko parast karake parijat vriksh ka apaharan kiya.

mahabharat (udyogaparv evn dronaparv)

dyootakrida ke uparant pandavon ke vanavas kal men kauravon-pandavon ke yuddh ki snbhavana dekh shrikrishn kauravon ko samajhane ke lie unaki sabha men gaye. krishn ke sath dhritarashtr, gandhari, vidur, satyaki ityadi sabhi is mat ke the ki pandavon ka rajy unhen lauta dena chahie tatha unase sndhi kar, shanti sthapit karani chahie; kintu duryodhan usake lie taiyar n tha. usane shakuni tatha karn se salah karake krishn ko bndi bana lene ka nishchay kiya. satyaki ko vidit hua to usane sabhasadon ke sammukh hi krishn ko is tathy ki soochana di.

krishn ne kruddh hokar apana vishv roop (virath roop) pradarshit kiya. krishn ki dahini banh par arjun, bayin banh par haladhar, vaksh par shiv tatha ang-pratyng par vibhinn devi-devata sakshath dikhalayi die. krishn ke attahas se bhoomndal kanp utha. sharir se jvala prasphutit huee tatha sab or anek devata aur yoddhaon ke darshan hone lage. aise roop ke darshan de, krishn ne vahan se prasthan kiya. mahabharat yuddh men krishn ne arjun ke sarathi ka karyabhar snbhala tha. abhimanyu ki mrityu ke uparant krishn ne apane-ap svikar kiya ki arjun (nar) narayan (shrikrishn) ka adha sharir hai. yuddh men pandavon ki vijay ke uparant ve log krishn sahit kurukshetr men rahe. jab tak soory uttarayan nahin ho gaya, bhishm pitamah nity hi unhen dan, dharm, kartavy ka upadesh dete rahe. unake svargarohan uparant pandavon ko hastinapur chhodate hue krishn apane mata-pita ke darshan karane dvarakapuri chale gaye.[5] shrikrishn is prakar krida karate hain jaise manushy khilaunen se krida karata hai. snpoorn charachar bhoot narayan se udbhoot hai. pani ke budbudvath usi men lin ho jata hai.[6]

harivnsh puran

krishn aur balaram ne anubhav kiya ki braj bhoomi ki vanashri bachchon ki krida, gopon ki phal-sabzi bechane ke lie upaj tatha gauon ke ksharayukt mal ityadi se nasht ho gayi hai. is karan se unhonne nishchay kiya ki govardhan parvat se yukt kadamb ityadi vrikshon se apoorit vrindavan men jakar rahana chahie. krishn ne apane rom-rom se bhayanak bhediyon ko utpann kiya. unako dekhakar gop-gopanganaen tatha gayen atynt trast hokar brajabhoomi chhodane ke lie turnt taiyar ho gaye. log vrindavan men ja base.[7]

shrimad bhagavat

kns ki karagar men vasudev ke yahan bhagavan ne krishn-roop men avatar liya. das varsh tak balaram ke sath aise rahe ki unaki kirti vrindavan se bahar nahin gayi. ve gay charate tatha bansuri bajakar sabako rijhate the. khel-khel men unhonne anek asuron ka snhar kiya, kns ko uthakar patak diya. krishn ne apani shakti yogamaya se bhaumasur ki laee rajakanyaon se ek hi muhoort men alag-alag mahalon men vidhivat panigrahan snskar snpadit kiya. ek bar nnd ne kartik shukl ekadashi ka upavas kiya tatha ratri men yamuna men snan karane lage. vah asuron ki vela thi. at: ek asur unhen pakadakar varun ke pas le gaya. krishn varun ke pas gaye tatha nnd baba ko vapas le aye.
narad ne kns ko jakar bataya ki krishn vasudev ka beta hai tatha balaram rohini ka. ve donon chhipakar nnd ke yahan rakhe gaye hain. kns ne krishn ko apani bhavi mrityu ka karan manakar vasudev tatha devaki ko pun: kaid kar liya. shrikrishn ne kns ko marakar unhen kaid se chhudaya. yaduvnshiyon ko yayati ka shap tha ki ve kabhi shasan nahin kar payenge. at: krishn ne apane nana ugrasen se shasan grahan karane ka anurodh kiya. krishn aur balaram ne nnd se kaha- "pitaji, apaka vatsaly apoorv hai. apane tatha yashoda ne apane balakon ke saman hi hamen sneh diya. ap braj jaie. ham log bhi yahan ka kam nipatakar apase milane ayenge." ve donon avntipur (vartaman ujjain) nivasi guruvar sndipan ke gurukul men rahakar unaki seva karane lage. chaunsath din men un donon ne chaunsath kalaon men nipunata prapt ki tatha sndipan ko guru-dakshinasvaroop usaka mrit putr pun: lautakar ve donon mathura laut gaye.[8]
shrikrishn ke anek vivah hue the.[9] unaki shrutakirti namak bua ka vivah kekay desh men hua tha. unaki kanya ka nam tha 'bhadra' jisaka vivah usake bhaee santardan adi ne krishn se kar diya tha. madr desh ki rajakumari 'sulakshana' ko krishn ne svaynvar men har liya tha. inake atirikt bhaumasur ko marakar anek sundariyon ko ve kaid se chhuda laye the.[10]
ek bar soory-grahan ke avasar par bharat ke vibhinn pranton ki janata kurukshetr pahunchi. vahan vasudev, krishn aur balaram se nnd, yashoda, gop-gopiyon adi ka sammilan hua. krishn ne gopiyon adi ko adhyatm gyan ka upadesh diyan unhin dinon vasudev ke ygyotsav ka ayojan tha. us sndarbh men nnd baba, yashoda tatha pandav-parivar ke adhikansh sadasy tin mah tak dvaraka men thahare.[11]
ek bar krishn apane do bhakton par vishesh prasann hue. unamen se ek to mithila nivasi grihasthi brahman 'shrutadev' tha aur doosara mithila ka raja 'bahulashv' tha. shrikrishn ne do roop dharan karake ek hi samay men donon ko darshan die tatha donon bhakton ne bhagavatsvaroop prapt kiya.[12]
brahma ki prarthana par vishnu ne hns ka roop dharan karake sanakadi ke chitt tatha gunon ke anaiky ke vishay men upadesh diya tha. yaduvnshiyon ke snhar ke uparant 'jara' namak vyadh ko nimintt banakar shrikrishn ne svadham men pravesh kiya unhen apane dham men pravesh karate koee bhi devata dekh nahin paya. shrikrishn ki kripa se unake sharir par prahar karane vala vyadh sadeh svarg chala gaya. shrikrishn dvara nashvar sharir ke tyagoparant vasudev, arjun adi bahut dukhi hue. sab unaki alaukik lilaon ko smaran karate rahe.[13]

devi bhagavat

bhoomi ka bhar-haran karane ki prarthana sunakar hari ne devataon ko do bal diye the; ek kala-krishn, doosara safed-balaram.[14] krishn-katha men ankit sabhi patr kisi n kisi karanavash shapagrast hokar janme the. kashyap ne varun se kamadhenu mangi thi phir lautayi nahin, at: varun ke shap se ve gvale hue. devi bhagavat men diti aur aditi ko daksh kanya mana gaya hai. aditi ka putr indr tha jisane man ki prerana se diti ke garbh ke 49 bhag kar die the jo maroot hue. aditi se rusht hokar diti ne shap diya tha-'jis prakar gupt roop se toone mera garbh nasht karane ka prayatn karavaya hai usi prakar prithvi par janm lekar too bar-bar mritavatsa hogi.' phalat: usane devaki ke roop men janm liya.

  • vishnu ne devataon ki raksha karane ke nimitt bhrigu ki patni (shuk ki man) ka hanan kiya tha. at: bhrigu ke shapavash unhonne prithvi par bar-bar janm liya. nar-narayan arjun aur krishn ke roop men avatarit hue. apsaraen rajakumariyon ke roop men janmin tatha krishn ki patniyan huee.
bnsi bajate hue krishn

daity madhu ka putr lavan brahmanon ko anek prakar se pidit kar raha tha. lakshman ke bhaee shatrughn ne us daity ko marakar mathura namak nagari ki sthapana ki. kalantar men sooryavnsh kshin ho gaya. yayati kulotpann yadavon ne mathura par adhikar kar liya. yadavaraj shoorasen ke putr ka nam vasudev tha. vah varun ke shap tatha kashyap ke ansh se utpann hua tha. shoorasen ki mrityu ke uparant ugrasen ko rajy ki prapti huee. ugrasen ke putr ka nam kns tha. devak raja ki kanya ka nam devaki tha. usaka janm varun ke shap tatha aditi ke ansh se hua tha. devak ne usaka vivah vasudev se kar diya. vivah hote hi akashavani huee ki devaki ki athavin sntan kns ko mar dalegi. kns ne devaki ke bal pakadakar use marane ke lie khadg utha liya. vasudev ke vir sathiyon se kns ka yuddh hone laga. yadavon ne kns ko samajha-bujhakar shant kiya ki apani bahan par hath uthana uchit nahin hai. ho sakata hai, kisi shatru ne hi yah akashavani rachi ho. vasudev ne kaha ki vah apani pratyek sntan kns ko arpit kar dega. is shart par kns ne use chhod diya.

vasudev devaki ko lekar apane ghar chala gaya. pratham putr utpann hone par vasudev putr sahit kns ke pas pahuncha. kns ne 'pratham balak se nahin, ashtam balak se bhay hai' kahakar balak use lauta diya, kintu tabhi narad ne vahan pahunchakar kns ko samajhaya ki ginati kahan se shuroo karenge ap ki kis balak ko ashtam mana jayega, nahin kaha ja sakata. yah sunakar kns ne balak ko shila par patakakar mar dala. isi prakar devaki ke chhah putr mare gaye. ve chhahon shapavash janmate hi nasht ho gaye. poorvakal men brahma apani kanya ke prati kamuk ho uthe the. raman karate hue brahma ko dekh maharshi marichi ke (urna namak patni ke garbh se utpann) chhah putron ne unaka parihas kiya tha. isase rusht hokar brahma ne unhen asur yoni men janm lene ka shap diya tha. phalat: pahale ve kalanemi ke putr hue, phir hiranyakashipu ke putr hue. doosare janm men gyan vichyut n hone ke karan brahma ne prasann hokar kaha tha ki ve manavanchhit devata athava gndharv ho jayen ! var pakar ve log to prasann hue. hiranyakashipu ne apane putron ko brahma ka priy jan krodhavesh men kaha-"tum patal men jakar nidra men pade rahoge. prithvi par shadgark nam se prasiddh hoge. devaki ke garbh se janm lekar kalanemi ke vnsh se utpann kns ke hathon mare jaoge." devaki ke sataven garbh men annt dev aye. yogamaya ne yog-bal se is garbh ka akarshan karake use rohini ke garbh men sthapit kiya. bhautik drishti se devaki ka garbhapat man liya gaya. tadanntar vishnu ke anshavatar krishn ne ashtamh putr ke roop men janm liya. yogamaya ne svechchha se yashoda ke garbh men pravesh kiya. any patron ke janm ke moolansh ki talika nimnalikhit hai:-

moolansh krishn-katha ke patr
hiranyakashipu shishupal
viprachitt jarasndh
prahlad shaly
khar lnbak tatha dhenuk
varah aur kishor chanoor aur mushtik
diti putr arisht kuvalayapid
kns ka hathi

shrikrishn paramatma hai. unake solahaven ansh ka ek ansh, sau karod sooryon ke prakash se yukt ek balak hokar, moolashakti prasoot dinb men sthapit tha dinb ke do bhagon men vibhakt hone par bhookha-pyasa vah balak rone laga. kalantar men poorv snskar ke bal se vah param purush shrikrishn ke dhyan men magn hokar hnsane laga. shrikrishn us balak ko ashirvad dekar trailoky chale gaye. krishn ke ashirvad se vah gyanayukt hua. usane virat roop dharan kiya, usi ke nabhikamal se brahma ne janm liya tatha srishti ki rachana ki. srishti ke snhar ke lie brahma ke lalat se ekadash rudr utpann hue. us balak ke kshudransh se hi vishnu ne utpann hokar srishti ka palan kiya. shrikrishn ko chaturbhuj narayan se bhinn mana gaya hai. krishn hi brahma, vishnu , mahesh ke karanabhoot hain. radha sarvashaktimati devi hain.[15]mahabharat men yam, rudr, kam aur krodh-charon ke ansh se ashvatthama ka avataran hua.

shiv puran

durvasa krishn ki pariksha lene gaye. paryapt atithy pakar unhonne apane rath ko krishn tatha unaki patni rukmini se khinchavane ki ichchha prakat ki. krishn aur rukmini ke saharsh rath khinchane se prasann hokar durvasa ne krishn ko 'payas' di aur kaha ki ve apane badan par laga len. jahan-jahan yah lagegi, vahan kisi astr-shastr ka prahar nahin lag payega. krishn ne vaisa hi kiya.[16]

mahabharat ke pramukh patr shrikrishn

mahabharat yuddh men bhishm krishn ki pratigya bhng karavate hue

mngalacharan

mahabharat dharm, arth, kam aur mokshakon pradan karane vala kalpavriksh hai. yah vividh katharoopi ratnon ka ratnakar tatha agyan ke andhakar ko vinasht karane vala soory hai. is granth ke mukhy vishay tatha is mahayuddh ke mahanayak bhagavanh shrikrishn hain. ni:shastr hote hue bhi bhagavanh shrikrishn hi mahabharat ke pradhan yoddha hain. isaliye sampoorn mahabharat bhagavanh vasudev ke hi nam, roop lila aur dham ka snkirtan hai. narayan ke nam se is granth ke mngalacharan men vyasaji ne sarvapratham bhagavanh shrikrishn ki hi vandana ki hai.

draupadi svaynvar

mahabharat ke adiparv men bhagavanh shrikrishn ka pratham darshan draupadi-svaynvar ke avasar par hota hai. ab arjun ke lakshyavedh karane par draupadi unake gale men jayamala dalati hai. tab kaurav paksh ke log tatha any raja milakar draupadi ko pane ke liye yuddh ki yojana banate hain. us samay bhagavanh shrikrishn ne unako samajhate hue kaha ki 'in logon ne draupadi ko dharmapoorvak prapt kiya hai, at: ap logon ko akaran uttejit nahin hona chahiye.' bhagavanh shrikrishn ko dharm ka paksh lete hue dekhakar sabhi log shant ho gaye aur draupadi ke sath pandav sakushal apane nivas par chale gaye.

pratham poojaniy

dharmaraj yudhishthar ke rajasooy ygy men jab yah prashr upasthit hua ki yahan sarvapratham kisaki pooja ki jay to us samay mahatma bhishm ne kaha ki 'vasudev hi is vishv ke utpatti evn pralayasvaroop hain aur is charachar jagath ka astitv unhin se hai. vasudev hi avyakt prakriti, sanatan karta aur samast praniyon ke adhishvar hain, atev ve hi pratham poojaniy hain.' bhishm ke is kathan par chediraj shishupal ne shrikrishn ki pratham pooja ka virodh karate hue unaki kathor ninda ki aur bhishm pitamah ko bhi khari-khoti sunayi. bhagavanh shri krishn dhairyapoorvak usaki kathor baton ko sahate rahe aur jab vah sima par karane laga, tab unhonne sudarshan chakr ke dvara usaka sir dhad se alag kar diya. sabake dekhate-dekhate shishupal ke sharir se ek divy tez nikala aur bhagavanh shrikrishn men sama gaya. is alaukik ghatana se yah siddh hota hai ki koee kitana bhi bada papi kyon n ho, bhagavanh ke hathon marakar vah sayujy mukti prapt karata hai.
kns vadh karate krishn-balaram

draupadi

pandavon ke ekamatr rakshak to bhagavanh shrikrishn hi the, unhin ki kripa aur yukti se hi bhimasen ke dvara jarasandh mara gaya aur yudhishthir ka rajasooy ygy sampann hua. rajasooy ygy ka divy sabhagar bhi may danav ne bhagavanh shrikrishn ke adesh se hi banaya. dyoot men parajit hue pandavon ki patni draupadi jab bhari sabha men du:shasan ke dvara nagn ki ja rahi thi, tab usaki karun pukar sunakar us vanamali ne vastravatar dharan kiya. shak ka ek patta khakar bhaktabhayahari bhagavanh ne durvasa ke kop se pandavon ki raksha ki.

shantidoot

yuddh ko rokane ke liye shrikrishn shantidoot bane, kintu duryodhan ke ahnkar ke karan yuddharambh hua aur rajasooyaygy ke agrapoojy bhagavanh shrikrishn arjun ke sarathi bane. sngram bhoomi men unhonne arjun ke madhyam se vishv ko gita roopi durlabh ratn pradan kiya. bhishm, dron, karn aur ashvatthama-jaise maharathiyon ke divyastron se unhonne pandavon ki raksha ki. yuddh ka ant hua aur yudhishthir ka dharmarajy sthapit hua. pandavon ka ekamatr vnshadhar uttara ka putr parikshit ashvatthama ke brahmastr ke prabhav se mrit utpann hua, kintu bhagavanh shrikrishn ki kripa se hi use jivanadan mila. ant men gandhari ke shap ko svikar karake mahabharat ke mahanayak bhagavan shrikrishn ne uddand yadavakul ke paraspar grihayuddh men snhar ke sath apani manavi lila ka snvaran kiya.

rigved men krishn

rigved men krishn nam ka ullekh do roopon men milata hai—ek krishn angiras, jo somapan ke lie ashvini kumaron ka avahan karate hain[17] aur doosare krishn nam ka ek asur, jo apani das sahasr senaon ke sath anshumati tatavarti pradesh men rahata tha aur indr dvara parabhoot hua tha. krishn sambandhi in donon sandarbho men paraspar sambandh hai athava nahin, is vishay men nishchit roop se kuchh nahin kaha ja sakata. rigved men ashvini kumaron ki stuti men kakshivan rishi dvara unhen krishn ke pautr vishnapu ke jilane ka shrey diya gaya hai.[18] krishn ke putr vishvak (vishvakay) ne bhi ek sookt men sanatan ke lie ashvinikumaron ka avahan kiya hai aur doorasth vishnapu ko lane ki prarthana ki hai.[19] aisa jan padata hai ki kadachit vishnapu kisi prakar ahat ho gaya tha aur krishn angiras aur unake putr ne usake jivan ke lie arogy ke devata ashvinikumaron se prarthana ki thi.

krishnasur ke sambandh men bhi ullekh hai ki usaki garbhavati striyon ka indr ne vadh kiya tha.[20] rigved ke ek chhnd men gayon ke uddharakarta aur svami ka ullekh hai aur vishnu ko us lok ka adhipati kaha gaya hai. parantu bhagavat dharm ke upasy krishn ki katha se in sandarbhon ka koee sidha sambandh nahin jan padata. chhandogy upanishad men devakiputr krishn ko ghor angiras ka shishy kaha gaya hai aur bataya gaya hai ki guru ne unhen ygy ki ek aisi saral riti batayi thi jisaki dakshina, tap, dan, arjav, ahinsa, aur saty thi. guru se gyan prapt karane ke bad krishn ki gyan-pipasa sada ke lie shant ho gayi.[21] krishn angiras ka ullekh kaushitaki brahman men bhi milata hai.[22] krishn-sambandhi yah sandarbh unhen gita ke upadeshta aur bhagavat dharm ke poojy krishn ke nikat le jata hai.

bauddh sahity

bauddh sahity men krishn ka ullekh do sthalon par milata hai-ek ghat jatak men varnit devagabbha aur upasagar ke balavan, parakrami, uddhat aur kridapriy putr vasudev kanh ki katha ke roop men aur doosara mahaumagg jatak ke kamasakt vasudev kanh ke sandarbh men. ghat jatak ke vasudev kanh putr shok men dukhi chitrit kiye gaye hain jisase rigved ke angiras krishn ke sandarbh se unaka sootr joda ja sakata hai. mahaumagg, jatak men vasudev kanh dvara kamasakt hokar chandal kanya jambavati ko mahishi banane ka ullekh hua hai.

anek vrittant

govardhan parvat uthate hue krishn

nipun balavan yoddha

mahabharat men krishn sambandhi anek vrittant milate hain. mahabharat yuddh men unake parakram, aishvary aur nitinaipuny ke sath unake devatv ka bhi samanvay paya jata hai. sabhaparv men bhishm dvara unaki prashnsa samast ved-vedant ke gyata tatha rajaniti men nipun balavan yoddha ke roop men ki gayi hai. udyog parv men kaha gaya hai ki arjun vajrapani indr ki apeksha krishn ko adhik parakrami samajhakar unhen yuddh men apani or milane men apana saubhagy manate hain. isi sthal par krishn ke parakram ka varnan karate hue unake dvara dasyuon ke snhar, durdharsh rajaon ke vinash, rukmini ke haran, nagajit ke putron ki parajay, sudarshanaraja ki mukti, panday ke snhar, kashi nagari ke uddhar, nishadon ke raja ekalavy ke vadh, ugrasen ke putr sunam ki mrityu adi karyo ka varnan kiya gaya hai. devataon ke dvara unhen avadhyata ka varadan mila tha. unhonne balyavastha men hi indr ke ghode uchchai:shrava ke saman bali, yamuna ke van men rahane vale hayaraj ko mar dala tha tatha vrish pralnb, narag, jrimbh, mur, kns adi ka snhar kiya tha, jal devata varun ko parajit kiya tha tatha patal vasi pnchajan ko marakar panchajany prapt kiya tha. apani priy patni satyabhama ki prasannata ke lie ve amaravati se parijat laye the.

vasudev

mahabharat men prapt krishn sambandhi in sandarbhon se unake aitihasik vyaktitv ki soochana milati hai aur gyat hota hai ki ve vrishni vnshiy satvat jati ke poojy purush the. yah bhi snket milata hai ki mahabharat aur puranon men varnit krishn ke charitr aur kinhin aitihasik vasudev krishn sambandhi katha men kuchh antar avashy raha hoga, kyonki mahabharat aur puranon men anek sthalon par is bat par bal diya gaya hai ki yahi krishn vastavik vasudev hain, yahi dvitiy vasudev hain. dvitiy vasudev kahane ka abhipray yah tha ki kuchh any raja bhi apane ko dvitiy vasudev ke nam se prasiddh karane ka yatn karate the. paundr raja purushottam aur karavirapur ke raja shrrigal isi prakar ke vyakti the, jinhen marakar krishn ne siddh kiya ki unaka vasudevatv mithya hai tatha ve hi svayn ekamatr vasudev hain.

puranon men krishn

vishnu puran, gitapres gorakhapur ka avaran prishth

mahabharat, harivnsh puran tatha vishnu puran, vayu puran, vaman puran, bhagavat puran adi puranon men krishn ki tulana men indr ki hinata siddh karane ke lie anek kathaen di gayi hain; parantu phir bhi govardhan parvat dharan ke prasng men unake indr dvara abhishikt hone aur 'upendr' nam se svikrit hone ka ullekh hua hai. puranon men vividh kathaon ke madhyam se uttarottar krishn ki mahatta aur usi anupat men indr ki hinata pramanit ki gayi hai. mahabharat men krishn ke aishvary aur devatv ka prachur varnan hai parantu unake lality aur madhury ka koee snket nahin milata. mahabharat unake gop jivan aur gopi prem ke sambandh men sarvatha maun hai. sabha parv ke us prasng men bhi, jise prakshipt kaha jata hai aur jisamen shishupal krishn ki ninda karate hue unake dvara pootana, bakasur, keshi, vatsasur aur kns ke vadh tatha govardhan dharan kiye jane ka ullekh karata hai, gopiyon se unake prem ka koee snket nahin kiya gaya hai. isase yah spasht soochit hota hai ki gopal krishn ka lalit aur madhur charit moolat: mahabharat ke krishn ke charit se bhinn tha. puranon men varnit krishn sambandhi lalit kathaen unamen uttarottar vriddhi pati gayi hain. udaharan ke lie harivnsh men jise 'vastav men mahabharat ka parishisht kaha jata hai, unake gopal roop sambandhi sandarbh atayant snkshipt hai. unaki tulana men unake aishvary roop ki bhog-vilas sambandhi anek kathaen kahin adhik vistar se varnit hain. vishnu puran men bhi lagabhag aisi hi sthiti hai. kintu bhagavat, padm puran , brahm vaivart puran tatha kuchh any puranon men, jinhen paravarti kaha ja sakata hai, gopalakrishn sambandhi kathan adhik vistrit hone lage hain. puranon ke bhog-aishvary sambandhi akhyanon aur gop-gopi lila sambandhi madhur kathaon men vatavaran ka bahut antar paya jata hai. yadi ek men ghor bhautikata, vilasita aur nagn aindriyata hai to doosare men bhavatmak komalata, hardik utphullata, sookshm anubhooti aur alaukikata ki or unmukh udattata hai.

shoorasen pradesh

shoorasen mahajanapad

anuman hai ki gopal krishn moolat: shoorasen pradesh ke satvat vrishnivnshi pashupalak kshatriyon ke kul devata the aur unake krida kautuk ki manornjak kathaen maukhik roop men lok-prachalit thin. in kathaon ke lok-prachalit hone ke praman kuchh pashan moortiyon aur shilapatton par utkirn chitron men mile hai. mathura men prapt ek khandit shilapatt men vasudev navajat krishn ko ek soop men sir par rakhakar yamuna par karate hue dikhaye gaye hain. 5vin shatabdi eesavi ke ek doosare khandit shilapatt men kaliy-daman ka drishy dikhaya gaya hai. yah chhathi shatabdi eesvi ki anuman ki gayi hai. bngal ke pahadapur namak sthan men chhathi shatabdi ki kuchh mrinmoortiyan mili hain jinamen dhenukasur vadh, yamalarjun uddhar tatha mrishtik chanoor ke sath mall-yuddh ke drishy dikhaye gaye hain. yahin par ek any moorti mili hai jisamen krishn ko kisi gopi ke sath prasiddh mudra men khade dikhaya gaya hai. anuman kiya gaya hai ki yah gopi sambhavat: radha ka sabase prachin moortigat praman prastut karati hai. rajasthan ke mandor tatha bikaner ke pas sooratagadh men kramash: dvarapaton par utkirn govarddhan –dharan, navanit-chaury, shakatabhnjan aur kaliy-daman ke chitr utkirn mile hain tatha govardhan-dharan aur dan-lila ka drishyankan prastut karane vale kuchh sundar mitti ke khilaune prapt hue hain. mandor ke chitr chauthi-panchavi shatabdi eesvi ke anuman kiye gaye hain. dakshin bharat ke badami ke pahadi qile par krishn-janm, pootana-vadh, shakat-bhnjan, kns-vadh adi ke anek drishy gufaon men utkirn mile hain. jo chhathi-satavin shatabdi eesvi ke mane jate hain[23].

kavy men krishn

kavy men gopal krishn ki lila ka pahala sandarbh pratham shatabdi eesavi men rachit ashvaghosh ke 'buddhicharit'[24]men milata hai. anumanat: pratham shatabdi eesvi men hal satavahan dvara sngrahit 'gahasattasee' (gatha saptashati) men kee gathaen krishn, radha, gopi, yashoda adi se sambaddh milati hain.[25] in gathaon men krishn dvara nariyon ke gauravaharan, mukhamaroot se radhika ke goraj ke apanayan adi ke ullekh hue hain. in ullekhon se soochit hota hai ki krishn ke gopi-premasambandhi prasng kam se kam pahali shatabdi eesvi ke pahale se hi lok-prachalit the. yah avashy drashtavy hai ki 'gahasattasee' men bhakti bhavana ka koee snket nahin milata, usaka vatavaran sarvatha laukik shrringar ka hi hai parantu isase bhinn dakshin ke alavar santon dvara rachit git poornataya bhakti bhavana se prerit aur anupranit hain. in santon ka samay panchavin se navin shatabdi eesavi anuman kiya gaya hai. alavar santon ke in giton men vishnu, narayan athava vasudev tatha unake avataron-ram aur krishn ke prati apoorv bhakti –bhav prakat kiya gaya hai. inamen gopal-krishn ki lalit lila ke aise anek prasng varnit hain jo uttar bharat ke madhyakalin krishn bhakti- kavy ke priy vishay rahe hain. in giton men krishn ki prem-lilaon se sambaddh ek nappitray namak gopi ka pramukh roop se varnan hai. use krishn ki priyatama aur vishnu ki arddhagini lakshmi ka avatar kaha gaya hai. anuman hai ki yah gopi uttar bharat ki krishnakatha men prayukt radha hi hai. radha-krishn katha ki prachinata ki drishti se tamil sahity ka yah praman mahattvapoorn hai.

sooradas

hindi ka krishn-bhakti kavy yadyapi sooradas se prarambh hota hai parantu isase pahale 15vin shatabdi men vidyapati ne apane padon men krishn ke shrringari roop ka jo varnan kiya tha usaki prakriti bhale hi laukik shrringar ki rahi ho, usaka upayog bhakton ne madhury bhakti ke sandarbhon men hi kiya. vidyapati aur hindi ke ritikalin radhakrishn sambandhi shrringar –kavy ke bich hindi bhaktikavy ka ek lamba vyavadhan hai jisamen krishn ka vyaktitv kaviyon ne atyant kushalata ke sathh manav aur atimanav ke paraspar virodhi tattvon se nirmit kar chitrit kiya hai. krishn ke is charit-chitran men badi vilakshanata hai. ek or unhen vishnu ka avatar, brahma-vishnu aur mahesh se pare tatha sakshath sachchidanand brahm kaha gaya hai, to doosari or unaki shaishav, baly aur kishorakal ki atyant manaviy aur svabhavik lila ka manohar varnan kiya gaya hai. hindi krishn-kavy ke rachayitaon men krishn ka samyakh charitr-chitran vastav men sooradas ne hi kiya kintu sooradas ka charitr-chitran vastut: bhavantmak hai. pradhan roop se unhonne krishn ko vatsaly, sakhy aur madhury ka alamban banaya hai aur in bhavon ka atyant svabhavik chitran karate hue dainy aur vismay ke bhavon ke sahare unake prati poojy bhavana vyakt ki hai.

krishn ke charitr-chitran men soor ki any visheshata yah hai ki yadyapi ve nand-yashoda, gop-gopi, adi ke sath rag-rng men achool magn rahate hain, phir bhi unake vyavahar se vynjit hota hai ki vastav men ve bhavatit aur vitarag hain. krishn ke mathura aur dvaraka-pravas tatha unake prati brajavasiyon aur visheshakar gopiyon ke virah-bhav ka varnan karate hue sooradas ne krishn ke is vilakshan vyaktitv ka atyant prabhavashali chitran kiya hai. isake dvara hamen gita ke yogiraj krishn ki anasakti ka vyavaharik parichay milata hai. sooradas ke atirikt any krishn-bhakt kaviyon ne krishn ke sampoorn charit ka chitran nahin kiya. bahut thode se kaviyon ne krishn ke baly aur kishorakal ke jivan ka parichay diya. adhikansh kavi unake madhuryapoorn charit ki or hi jhuke aur radha aur gopiyon ke sath unake prem sambandhon ke chitran men hi nimagn rahen krishn ke premi aur premapatr donon roopon ke chitran men anek kaviyon ne tanmayata pradarshit ki, parantu sooradas ne unamen vitaragatv aur anasakti ke snketon tatha any upayon dvara jis adhyatmikata ki uchch kavyamayi vynjana ki thi, vah koee any kavi nahin kar saka. sooradas ne krishn ke asur-snhari roop ka bhi vishad varnan kiya tha. yadyapi unake varnan men krishn ki virata aur parakram ke sthan par unake vismayakari krida-kautak ki hi pradhanata hai, parantu unaka uddeshy jis alaukik ki vynjana karana tha use paravarti kavi nahin samajh sake. is karan unhonne krishn-charit ke is paksh ki pray: upeksha hi ki.
shrikrishn ke sahaj manaviy shrringari roop ko sooradas ne unake prati dainy bhavana vyakt karake tatha unake alaukik krityon ke varnayan dvara vismay ki vynjana karake unake charit men jis udattata ka sannivesh kiya tha, paravarti kaviyon ne use vismrit kar diya aur shrikrishn ka charit lagabhag poorn roop men ihalaukik ho gaya aur usamen manav vyaktitv ki snkuchit ekangita hi shesh rah gayi. phalat: jivan ki vyakhya ki kasauti par kasane par vah atyant kalpit aur ayatharth lagata hai, jaise rag-rng aur anand-vihar men lipt jivan ka koee uddeshy hi n ho. vastav men tathy yahi hai ki krishn-charit jivan ke vastavik chitran athava adarsh chitran ke roop men racha hi nahin gaya, unaka charit vastav men parabrahm ki lilamatr hain jisaka prayojan lilanand ke atirikt any kuchh nahin. usaka uddeshy akhand anand men jivan ki adhyatmik paripoornata ki vynjana karana hi hai. bhakt kaviyon ne us anand ka roop stri-anand roop men param purush hain aur unaki para shakti roop prakriti svaroopa radha hain jinake snyog se hi param annd ki paripoornata siddh hoti hai.

radha ke prem sandarbh

athavin shatabdi men rachit bhattanarayan ke 'venisnhar' namak-natak men nandishlok men tatha vakapati raj dvara likhit prakrit mahakavy 'gudavaho' ke mngalacharan men krishn ki stuti unake radha aur gopi-prem tatha yashoda ke vatsalyabhajan hone ki spasht soochana deti hai. 'gudavaho' men unhen 'vishnusvaroop' aur 'lakshmipati' bhi kaha gaya hai. navin shatabdi eesavi ke 'dhvanyalok' men uddhrit do shlokon men krishn aur radha ke madhur prem ke sandarbh prapt hote hain. dasavin shatabdi ke trivikram bhatt rachit 'nalachampoo' ke ek shlok men param purush krishn ke sath radha ke anurag ka snket prapt hota hai. dasavin shatabdi ki hi ballabhadev dvara rachit 'shishupalavadh' ki tika tatha somadev poori ke 'yashasyatilakachampoo' men bhi radha ke priy krishn ka jis roop men ullekh milata hai usase krishn ke gopivallabh roop ki soochana prapt hoti hai.

prem kridaon ka sandarbh

'kavindravachan samuchchay' namak kavitasngrah bhi dasavin shatabdi ka mana gaya hai. isamen snkalit anek shlokon men krishn ki gopi aur radha sambandhi prem kridaon ka sandarbh milata hai jinase krishn ke yashoda ke vatsaly-bhajan, gopiyon ke kant, gopon ke srihridh tatha radha ke anany premabhajan vyaktitv ki soochana milati hai. in sabhi sandarbho men krishn ke dakshin aur dhrisht nayakatv ke bhi spasht snket hain. dasavin shatabdi tak radha aur krishn ke prati poojyabhav bhi vikasit ho chuka tha. isaka praman malavadhish vakpati munjaparamar ke ek abhilekh se bhi milata hai jisamen shrikrishn ki stuti karate hue unaka vishnu roop men varnan hai aur sath hi unhen radha ke virah men pidit kaha gaya hai. dasavin shatabdi ke asapas rachit shrimadbhagavat men krishnacharit ka vyapak varnan hai isamen unake sabhi svaroopon ka varnan aur snket hai. krishn ke vyaktitv ke lality aur madhury ke sath unake daivat roop ki pratishtha 12vin shatabdi tak aur adhik dridhata ke sath ho gayi thi. isaka praman lilashuk dvara rachit 'krishnakarnamritastotr' eeshvarapuri dvara rachit 'shrikrishnalilamrit ' ka shrriganr ras nishchit roop se madhury bhakti hai. isi prakar 'git govind' men radha-madhav ke jis uddam shrringar ka varnan kiya gaya hai, usaki mool prerana bhi dharmik hai. krishn ke vyaktitv men is prakar jis lokarnjanakari lality ka udattikaran vaishnav bhakti ke vikas men hota gaya usi ki charam parinati ham paravarti sahity men pate hain.

asnkhy katha prasng

barahavin shatabdi ke bad krishn-kavy mriktakon ke atirikt prabandhon ke roop men bhi prapt hota hai. 'saduktikarnamrit' namak ek muktak sngrah 13vin shatabdi ke prarambh ka hain. jisamen gopal krishn ki lila se sambaddh sath shlok hain. in shlokon men gopal krishn ke shaishav, kaishor aur yauvan ki lalit lilaon ka hi varnan milata hai. 13vin-14vin shatabdi men rachit bopadev ki 'harilila' tatha vedantadeshikaki 'yadavabhyuday' namak rachanaen tatha pandrahavin shatabdi ki 'brajabihari' (shridharasvami), 'gopalila' (ramachandr bhatt), ' haricharit'-kavy (chaturbhuj), 'harivilas'-kavy (brajalolimbaraj), 'gopalacharit' (padmanabh), 'murarivijay'- natak (krishn bhatt) aur 'kns-nidhan' mahakavy (shriram) adi anek kavy aur natak gopalakrishn ke madhur, lalit aur poojy charit ka chitran karate hain. 16vin shatabdi se krishnabhakti andolan sampoorn uttar bharat men vyapt ho gaya aur krishn-kavy adhunik bhashaon men racha jane laga. is kavy ka mooladhar shrimadbhagavat tha, parantu sath hi kaviyon ne lok men prachalit krishnasambandhi un asnkhy katha prasngon ka bharapoor upayog kiya, jinamen krishn ka charit vatsaly, sakhy aur madhuryavynjak lilaon se samanvit raha hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. baladev
  2. bhaumasur
  3. chhandogy upanishad [[chhandogy upanishad adhyay-3, khand-17, shlok 6
  4. chhandogy upanishad (3,17,6)
  5. mahabharat, udyogaparv, 130-131, dronaparv 79
  6. mahabharat, sabhaparv, adhyay 38
  7. harivnsh puran, vishnuparv 8-9
  8. shrimadh bhagavat 3.3.-,10.28.-,10.44.
  9. kuchh ko vishesh prasiddhi nahin prapt huee, ve yahan ullikhit hain.
  10. shrimadh bhagavat 10.56, 57, 58
  11. shrimadh bhagavat 10.82-84)
  12. shrimadh bhagavat .10.86.13
  13. shrimadh bhagavat 11.13.15-42/- 11.30/-
  14. bhagavat, 4.20-25
  15. bhagavat, 8/3
  16. shiv puran, 44 .7. 26
  17. rigved 8.85.1-9
  18. rigved 1.116.7,23
  19. rigved 8.86.1-5
  20. rigved 1.101.1
  21. chhandogy upanishad 3.17.4-6)
  22. kaushitaki brahman 30.9
  23. arkelajikal sarve riport 1926-27, 1905-6 tatha 1928-29 ee.
  24. buddhicharit (1-5)
  25. 'gahasattasee' 1.29, 5.47, 2.12, 2.14

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