कृष्ण संदर्भ

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
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right|300px krishna avyakt hote hue bhi vyakt brahm the. moolat: ve narayan the. ve svayanbhoo tatha sanpoorn jagath ke prapitamah the. dyulok unaka mastak, akash nabhi, prithvi rachan, ashvinikumar nasikasthan, chandr aur soory netr tatha vibhinn devata vibhinn dehayashtiyaan haian. ve (brahm roop) hi pralayakal ke aant mean brahma ke roop mean svayan prakat hue tatha srishti ka vistar kiya. rudr ityadi ki srishti karane ke uparaant ve lokahit ke lie anek roop dharan karake prakat hote rahe.

prasang sahit sankshipt parichay

shrikrishna ke roop mean vahi avyakt 'narayan' vyakt roop dharan karake avatarit hue. ve vasudev ke putr hue. kans ke bhay se vasudev unhean nand gop ke yahaan chho d aye. vahian palakar ve b de hue. yashoda (nand ki patni) se unhean adbhut vatsaly ki upalabdhi huee.

  • shishuroop mean ve ek bar chhak de niche so rahe the. yashoda unhean vahaan chho d yamuna tat gayi thi. bal-lila ka pradarshan karate hue rote hue krishna ne apane paanv ke aangoothe se chhak de ko dhakka diya to vah ulat gaya. us par rakhe samast matake choor-choor ho gaye.

[[chitr:Krishna-birth.jpg|thumb|krishna janm
krishna ko karagar le jate hue vasudev, dvara- raja ravi varma]]

  • devataoan ke dekhate-dekhate unhoanne pootana ko mar dala. (vistar se padhean- pootana vadh)
  • ve apane b de bhaee sankarshan[1] ke sath khelate-koodate b de hue. sat varsh ki avastha mean gocharan ke lie jaya karate the. ek bar makkhan churakar khane ke dandasvaroop maan yashoda ne unhean ookhal mean baandh diya. krishna ne us ookhal ko yamal tatha arjun namak do vrikshoan ke bich mean phansakar itane zor se khiancha ki ve donoan vriksh bhoomisat ho gaye. is prakar un vriksho par rahane vale do rakshasoan ko unhoanne mar dala. ve donoan bhaee gvalochit veshadhari van mean pipihari tatha baansuri bajakar amod-pramod ke sath gayoan ko charate the. (vistar se padhean- yamal aur arjun)
  • krishna pile aur balaram nile vastr dharan karate the. ve pattoan ke mukut pahan lete. kabhi-kabhi rassi ka yajnopavit bhi dharan kar lete the. ve gop balakoan ke akarshan ka keandrabiandu the.
  • unhoanne kadambavan ke pas hrid (kund) mean rahane vale kaliya nag ke mastak par nrityakri da ki thi tatha anyatr jane ka adesh diya tha.
  • gopal balakoan dvara kiye sarvabhoot eeshvar svaroop ko prakat kiya tatha giriraj ko samarpit hone vali khir ve svayan kha gaye. tab se gopagan unaki pooja karane lage. jab indr ne varsha ki thi tab shrikrishna ne gauoan ki raksha ke nimitt ek saptah tak govardhan parvat ko apane hath par uthae rakha tha. indr ne prasann hokar unhean goviand nam diya.
  • shrikrishna ne pashuoan ki hitakamana se vriksh roop-dhari 'arisht namak daity' ka sanhar kiya.
  • brajanivasi 'keshi namak daity' ka sanhar kiya. us daity ka sharir gho de jaisa aur bal das hazar hathiyoan ke saman tha.
  • kans ke darabar mean rahane vale chanoor namak mall ko unhoanne mar dala.
  • kans ke bhaee tatha senapati shatrunashak ka bhi unhoanne nash kar dala.
  • kans ke kuvalayapi d namak hathi ko bhi unhoanne mar giraya.
  • kans ko marakar unhoanne ugrasen ka rajyabhishek kar diya.
  • ujjayini mean donoan bhaiyoan ne ved vidyadhyayan kiya. dhanurvidya sikhane ve saandipani ke pas gaye. saandipani ne guru-dakshina mean apane putr ko vapas maanga, jise koee samudri jantu kha gaya tha. shrikrishna ne samudr mean rahane vale us daity ka sanhar kar diya tatha guruputr ko pun: jivanadan diya jo ki varshoan poorv yamalok mean ja chuka tha. krishna ke kripaprasad se usane poorvavath apana sharir dharan kiya.
  • shrikrishna ne narakasur[2] ko mar dala. (vistar se padhean- narakasur)
  • shrikrishna ne usha aniruddh ka milan karavaya, banasur ko mara. (vistar se padhean- usha aniruddh)
  • unhoanne rookmi ko parajit karake rukmini ka haran kiya. (vistar se padhean- rukmini)
  • indr ko parast karake parijat vriksh ka apaharan kiya.

chhandogy upanishad

ek bar aangiras rrishi ne devaki ke putr krishna ko yajnadarshan sunaya tha. phalasvaroop krishna shesh samast vidhaoan ke prati trishnahin ho gaye the.[3]krishna ka matriparak nam 'devakiputr'[4] mean paya jata hai.

mahabharat (udyogaparv evan dronaparv)

dyootakri da ke uparaant paandavoan ke vanavas kal mean kauravoan-paandavoan ke yuddh ki sanbhavana dekh shrikrishna kauravoan ko samajhane ke lie unaki sabha mean gaye. krishna ke sath dhritarashtr, gaandhari, vidur, satyaki ityadi sabhi is mat ke the ki paandavoan ka rajy unhean lauta dena chahie tatha unase sandhi kar, shaanti sthapit karani chahie; kiantu duryodhan usake lie taiyar n tha. usane shakuni tatha karn se salah karake krishna ko bandi bana lene ka nishchay kiya. satyaki ko vidit hua to usane sabhasadoan ke sammukh hi krishna ko is tathy ki soochana di. [[chitr:krishna-arjun1.jpg|thumb|250px|krishna aur arjun|left]] krishna ne kruddh hokar apana vishv roop (virath roop) pradarshit kiya. krishna ki dahini baanh par arjun, bayian baanh par haladhar, vaksh par shiv tatha aang-pratyang par vibhinn devi-devata sakshath dikhalayi die. krishna ke attahas se bhoomandal kaanp utha. sharir se jvala prasphutit huee tatha sab or anek devata aur yoddhaoan ke darshan hone lage. aise roop ke darshan de, krishna ne vahaan se prasthan kiya. mahabharat yuddh mean krishna ne arjun ke sarathi ka karyabhar sanbhala tha. abhimanyu ki mrityu ke uparaant krishna ne apane-ap svikar kiya ki arjun (nar) narayan (shrikrishna) ka adha sharir hai. yuddh mean paandavoan ki vijay ke uparaant ve log krishna sahit kurukshetr mean rahe. jab tak soory uttarayan nahian ho gaya, bhishm pitamah nity hi unhean dan, dharm, kartavy ka upadesh dete rahe. unake svargarohan uparaant paandavoan ko hastinapur chho date hue krishna apane mata-pita ke darshan karane dvarakapuri chale gaye.[5] shrikrishna is prakar kri da karate haian jaise manushy khilaunean se kri da karata hai. sanpoorn charachar bhoot narayan se udbhoot hai. pani ke budbudvath usi mean lin ho jata hai.[6]

harivansh puran

krishna aur balaram ne anubhav kiya ki braj bhoomi ki vanashri bachchoan ki kri da, gopoan ki phal-sabzi bechane ke lie upaj tatha gauoan ke ksharayukt mal ityadi se nasht ho gayi hai. is karan se unhoanne nishchay kiya ki govardhan parvat se yukt kadamb ityadi vrikshoan se apoorit vrindavan mean jakar rahana chahie. krishna ne apane rom-rom se bhayanak bhe diyoan ko utpann kiya. unako dekhakar gop-gopaanganaean tatha gayean atyant trast hokar brajabhoomi chho dane ke lie turant taiyar ho gaye. log vrindavan mean ja base.[7]

shrimad bhagavat

[[chitr:Gita-Krishna-1.jpg|thumb|250px|krishna aur arjun]] kans ki karagar mean vasudev ke yahaan bhagavan ne krishna-roop mean avatar liya. das varsh tak balaram ke sath aise rahe ki unaki kirti vrindavan se bahar nahian gayi. ve gay charate tatha baansuri bajakar sabako rijhate the. khel-khel mean unhoanne anek asuroan ka sanhar kiya, kans ko uthakar patak diya. krishna ne apani shakti yogamaya se bhaumasur ki laee rajakanyaoan se ek hi muhoort mean alag-alag mahaloan mean vidhivat panigrahan sanskar sanpadit kiya. ek bar nand ne kartik shukl ekadashi ka upavas kiya tatha ratri mean yamuna mean snan karane lage. vah asuroan ki vela thi. at: ek asur unhean pak dakar varun ke pas le gaya. krishna varun ke pas gaye tatha nand baba ko vapas le aye.
narad ne kans ko jakar bataya ki krishna vasudev ka beta hai tatha balaram rohini ka. ve donoan chhipakar nand ke yahaan rakhe gaye haian. kans ne krishna ko apani bhavi mrityu ka karan manakar vasudev tatha devaki ko pun: kaid kar liya. shrikrishna ne kans ko marakar unhean kaid se chhu daya. yaduvanshiyoan ko yayati ka shap tha ki ve kabhi shasan nahian kar payeange. at: krishna ne apane nana ugrasen se shasan grahan karane ka anurodh kiya. krishna aur balaram ne nand se kaha- "pitaji, apaka vatsaly apoorv hai. apane tatha yashoda ne apane balakoan ke saman hi hamean sneh diya. ap braj jaie. ham log bhi yahaan ka kam nipatakar apase milane ayeange." ve donoan avantipur (vartaman ujjain) nivasi guruvar sandipan ke gurukul mean rahakar unaki seva karane lage. chauansath din mean un donoan ne chauansath kalaoan mean nipunata prapt ki tatha sandipan ko guru-dakshinasvaroop usaka mrit putr pun: lautakar ve donoan mathura laut gaye.[8]
shrikrishna ke anek vivah hue the.[9] unaki shrutakirti namak bua ka vivah kekay desh mean hua tha. unaki kanya ka nam tha 'bhadra' jisaka vivah usake bhaee santardan adi ne krishna se kar diya tha. madr desh ki rajakumari 'sulakshana' ko krishna ne svayanvar mean har liya tha. inake atirikt bhaumasur ko marakar anek suandariyoan ko ve kaid se chhu da laye the.[10]
ek bar soory-grahan ke avasar par bharat ke vibhinn praantoan ki janata kurukshetr pahuanchi. vahaan vasudev, krishna aur balaram se nand, yashoda, gop-gopiyoan adi ka sammilan hua. krishna ne gopiyoan adi ko adhyatm jnan ka upadesh diyaan unhian dinoan vasudev ke yajnotsav ka ayojan tha. us sandarbh mean nand baba, yashoda tatha paandav-parivar ke adhikaansh sadasy tin mah tak dvaraka mean thahare.[11]
ek bar krishna apane do bhaktoan par vishesh prasann hue. unamean se ek to mithila nivasi grihasthi brahman 'shrutadev' tha aur doosara mithila ka raja 'bahulashv' tha. shrikrishna ne do roop dharan karake ek hi samay mean donoan ko darshan die tatha donoan bhaktoan ne bhagavatsvaroop prapt kiya.[12]
brahma ki prarthana par vishnu ne hans ka roop dharan karake sanakadi ke chitt tatha gunoan ke anaiky ke vishay mean upadesh diya tha. yaduvanshiyoan ke sanhar ke uparaant 'jara' namak vyadh ko nimiantt banakar shrikrishna ne svadham mean pravesh kiya unhean apane dham mean pravesh karate koee bhi devata dekh nahian paya. shrikrishna ki kripa se unake sharir par prahar karane vala vyadh sadeh svarg chala gaya. shrikrishna dvara nashvar sharir ke tyagoparaant vasudev, arjun adi bahut dukhi hue. sab unaki alaukik lilaoan ko smaran karate rahe.[13]

devi bhagavat

bhoomi ka bhar-haran karane ki prarthana sunakar hari ne devataoan ko do bal diye the; ek kala-krishna, doosara safed-balaram.[14] krishna-katha mean aankit sabhi patr kisi n kisi karanavash shapagrast hokar janme the. kashyap ne varun se kamadhenu maangi thi phir lautayi nahian, at: varun ke shap se ve gvale hue. devi bhagavat mean diti aur aditi ko daksh kanya mana gaya hai. aditi ka putr indr tha jisane maan ki prerana se diti ke garbh ke 49 bhag kar die the jo maroot hue. aditi se rusht hokar diti ne shap diya tha-'jis prakar gupt roop se toone mera garbh nasht karane ka prayatn karavaya hai usi prakar prithvi par janm lekar too bar-bar mritavatsa hogi.' phalat: usane devaki ke roop mean janm liya.

  • vishnu ne devataoan ki raksha karane ke nimitt bhrigu ki patni (shuk ki maan) ka hanan kiya tha. at: bhrigu ke shapavash unhoanne prithvi par bar-bar janm liya. nar-narayan arjun aur krishna ke roop mean avatarit hue. apsaraean rajakumariyoan ke roop mean janmian tatha krishna ki patniyaan huee.

[[chitr:Krishna-2.jpg|thumb|bansi bajate hue krishna|left]] daity madhu ka putr lavan brahmanoan ko anek prakar se pi dit kar raha tha. lakshman ke bhaee shatrughn ne us daity ko marakar mathura namak nagari ki sthapana ki. kalaantar mean sooryavansh kshin ho gaya. yayati kulotpann yadavoan ne mathura par adhikar kar liya. yadavaraj shoorasen ke putr ka nam vasudev tha. vah varun ke shap tatha kashyap ke aansh se utpann hua tha. shoorasen ki mrityu ke uparaant ugrasen ko rajy ki prapti huee. ugrasen ke putr ka nam kans tha. devak raja ki kanya ka nam devaki tha. usaka janm varun ke shap tatha aditi ke aansh se hua tha. devak ne usaka vivah vasudev se kar diya. vivah hote hi akashavani huee ki devaki ki athavian santan kans ko mar dalegi. kans ne devaki ke bal pak dakar use marane ke lie khadg utha liya. vasudev ke vir sathiyoan se kans ka yuddh hone laga. yadavoan ne kans ko samajha-bujhakar shaant kiya ki apani bahan par hath uthana uchit nahian hai. ho sakata hai, kisi shatru ne hi yah akashavani rachi ho. vasudev ne kaha ki vah apani pratyek santan kans ko arpit kar dega. is shart par kans ne use chho d diya.
[[chitr:Jarasandh1.jpg|bhim-jarasandh yuddh|thumb|200px]] vasudev devaki ko lekar apane ghar chala gaya. pratham putr utpann hone par vasudev putr sahit kans ke pas pahuancha. kans ne 'pratham balak se nahian, ashtam balak se bhay hai' kahakar balak use lauta diya, kiantu tabhi narad ne vahaan pahuanchakar kans ko samajhaya ki ginati kahaan se shuroo kareange ap ki kis balak ko ashtam mana jayega, nahian kaha ja sakata. yah sunakar kans ne balak ko shila par patakakar mar dala. isi prakar devaki ke chhah putr mare gaye. ve chhahoan shapavash janmate hi nasht ho gaye. poorvakal mean brahma apani kanya ke prati kamuk ho uthe the. raman karate hue brahma ko dekh maharshi marichi ke (urna namak patni ke garbh se utpann) chhah putroan ne unaka parihas kiya tha. isase rusht hokar brahma ne unhean asur yoni mean janm lene ka shap diya tha. phalat: pahale ve kalanemi ke putr hue, phir hiranyakashipu ke putr hue. doosare janm mean jnan vichyut n hone ke karan brahma ne prasann hokar kaha tha ki ve manavaanchhit devata athava gandharv ho jayean ! var pakar ve log to prasann hue. hiranyakashipu ne apane putroan ko brahma ka priy jan krodhavesh mean kaha-"tum patal mean jakar nidra mean p de rahoge. prithvi par shadgark nam se prasiddh hoge. devaki ke garbh se janm lekar kalanemi ke vansh se utpann kans ke hathoan mare jaoge." devaki ke satavean garbh mean anant dev aye. yogamaya ne yog-bal se is garbh ka akarshan karake use rohini ke garbh mean sthapit kiya. bhautik drishti se devaki ka garbhapat man liya gaya. tadanantar vishnu ke aanshavatar krishna ne ashtamh putr ke roop mean janm liya. yogamaya ne svechchha se yashoda ke garbh mean pravesh kiya. any patroan ke janm ke moolaansh ki talika nimnalikhit hai:-

moolaansh krishna-katha ke patr
hiranyakashipu shishupal
viprachitt jarasandh
prahlad shaly
khar lanbak tatha dhenuk
varah aur kishor chanoor aur mushtik
diti putr arisht kuvalayapi d
kans ka hathi

shrikrishna paramatma hai. unake solahavean aansh ka ek aansh, sau karo d sooryoan ke prakash se yukt ek balak hokar, moolashakti prasoot dianb mean sthapit tha dianb ke do bhagoan mean vibhakt hone par bhookha-pyasa vah balak rone laga. kalaantar mean poorv sanskar ke bal se vah param purush shrikrishna ke dhyan mean magn hokar hansane laga. shrikrishna us balak ko ashirvad dekar trailoky chale gaye. krishna ke ashirvad se vah jnanayukt hua. usane virat roop dharan kiya, usi ke nabhikamal se brahma ne janm liya tatha srishti ki rachana ki. srishti ke sanhar ke lie brahma ke lalat se ekadash rudr utpann hue. us balak ke kshudraansh se hi vishnu ne utpann hokar srishti ka palan kiya. shrikrishna ko chaturbhuj narayan se bhinn mana gaya hai. krishna hi brahma, vishnu , mahesh ke karanabhoot haian. radha sarvashaktimati devi haian.[15]mahabharat mean yam, rudr, kam aur krodh-charoan ke aansh se ashvatthama ka avataran hua.

shiv puran

durvasa krishna ki pariksha lene gaye. paryapt atithy pakar unhoanne apane rath ko krishna tatha unaki patni rukmini se khianchavane ki ichchha prakat ki. krishna aur rukmini ke saharsh rath khianchane se prasann hokar durvasa ne krishna ko 'payas' di aur kaha ki ve apane badan par laga lean. jahaan-jahaan yah lagegi, vahaan kisi astr-shastr ka prahar nahian lag payega. krishna ne vaisa hi kiya.[16]

mahabharat ke pramukh patr shrikrishna

[[chitr:Bhishma1.jpg|mahabharat yuddh mean bhishm krishna ki pratijna bhang karavate hue|thumb|250px]]

mangalacharan

mahabharat dharm, arth, kam aur mokshakoan pradan karane vala kalpavriksh hai. yah vividh katharoopi ratnoan ka ratnakar tatha ajnan ke andhakar ko vinasht karane vala soory hai. is granth ke mukhy vishay tatha is mahayuddh ke mahanayak bhagavanh shrikrishna haian. ni:shastr hote hue bhi bhagavanh shrikrishna hi mahabharat ke pradhan yoddha haian. isaliye sampoorn mahabharat bhagavanh vasudev ke hi nam, roop lila aur dham ka sankirtan hai. narayan ke nam se is granth ke mangalacharan mean vyasaji ne sarvapratham bhagavanh shrikrishna ki hi vandana ki hai.

draupadi svayanvar

mahabharat ke adiparv mean bhagavanh shrikrishna ka pratham darshan draupadi-svayanvar ke avasar par hota hai. ab arjun ke lakshyavedh karane par draupadi unake gale mean jayamala dalati hai. tab kaurav paksh ke log tatha any raja milakar draupadi ko pane ke liye yuddh ki yojana banate haian. us samay bhagavanh shrikrishna ne unako samajhate hue kaha ki 'in logoan ne draupadi ko dharmapoorvak prapt kiya hai, at: ap logoan ko akaran uttejit nahian hona chahiye.' bhagavanh shrikrishna ko dharm ka paksh lete hue dekhakar sabhi log shant ho gaye aur draupadi ke sath pandav sakushal apane nivas par chale gaye.

pratham poojaniy

dharmaraj yudhishthar ke rajasooy yajn mean jab yah prashr upasthit hua ki yahaan sarvapratham kisaki pooja ki jay to us samay mahatma bhishm ne kaha ki 'vasudev hi is vishv ke utpatti evan pralayasvaroop haian aur is charachar jagath ka astitv unhian se hai. vasudev hi avyakt prakriti, sanatan karta aur samast praniyoan ke adhishvar haian, atev ve hi pratham poojaniy haian.' bhishm ke is kathan par chediraj shishupal ne shrikrishna ki pratham pooja ka virodh karate hue unaki kathor ninda ki aur bhishm pitamah ko bhi khari-khoti sunayi. bhagavanh shri krishna dhairyapoorvak usaki kathor batoan ko sahate rahe aur jab vah sima par karane laga, tab unhoanne sudarshan chakr ke dvara usaka sir dh d se alag kar diya. sabake dekhate-dekhate shishupal ke sharir se ek divy tez nikala aur bhagavanh shrikrishna mean sama gaya. is alaukik ghatana se yah siddh hota hai ki koee kitana bhi b da papi kyoan n ho, bhagavanh ke hathoan marakar vah sayujy mukti prapt karata hai. [[chitr:Krishna-Balarama.jpg|left|thumb|kans vadh karate krishna-balaram]]

draupadi

pandavoan ke ekamatr rakshak to bhagavanh shrikrishna hi the, unhian ki kripa aur yukti se hi bhimasen ke dvara jarasandh mara gaya aur yudhishthir ka rajasooy yajn sampann hua. rajasooy yajn ka divy sabhagar bhi may danav ne bhagavanh shrikrishna ke adesh se hi banaya. dyoot mean parajit hue pandavoan ki patni draupadi jab bhari sabha mean du:shasan ke dvara nagn ki ja rahi thi, tab usaki karun pukar sunakar us vanamali ne vastravatar dharan kiya. shak ka ek patta khakar bhaktabhayahari bhagavanh ne durvasa ke kop se pandavoan ki raksha ki.

shantidoot

yuddh ko rokane ke liye shrikrishna shantidoot bane, kiantu duryodhan ke ahankar ke karan yuddharambh hua aur rajasooyayajn ke agrapoojy bhagavanh shrikrishna arjun ke sarathi bane. sangram bhoomi mean unhoanne arjun ke madhyam se vishv ko gita roopi durlabh ratn pradan kiya. bhishm, dron, karn aur ashvatthama-jaise maharathiyoan ke divyastroan se unhoanne pandavoan ki raksha ki. yuddh ka ant hua aur yudhishthir ka dharmarajy sthapit hua. pandavoan ka ekamatr vanshadhar uttara ka putr parikshit ashvatthama ke brahmastr ke prabhav se mrit utpann hua, kiantu bhagavanh shrikrishna ki kripa se hi use jivanadan mila. ant mean gandhari ke shap ko svikar karake mahabharat ke mahanayak bhagavan shrikrishna ne uddand yadavakul ke paraspar grihayuddh mean sanhar ke sath apani manavi lila ka sanvaran kiya.

rrigved mean krishna

rrigved mean krishna nam ka ullekh do roopoan mean milata hai—ek krishna aangiras, jo somapan ke lie ashvini kumaroan ka avahan karate haian[17] aur doosare krishna nam ka ek asur, jo apani das sahasr senaoan ke sath aanshumati tatavarti pradesh mean rahata tha aur indr dvara parabhoot hua tha. krishna sambandhi in donoan sandarbho mean paraspar sambandh hai athava nahian, is vishay mean nishchit roop se kuchh nahian kaha ja sakata. rrigved mean ashvini kumaroan ki stuti mean kakshivan rrishi dvara unhean krishna ke pautr vishnapu ke jilane ka shrey diya gaya hai.[18] krishna ke putr vishvak (vishvakay) ne bhi ek sookt mean sanatan ke lie ashvinikumaroan ka avahan kiya hai aur doorasth vishnapu ko lane ki prarthana ki hai.[19] aisa jan p data hai ki kadachit vishnapu kisi prakar ahat ho gaya tha aur krishna aangiras aur unake putr ne usake jivan ke lie arogy ke devata ashvinikumaroan se prarthana ki thi.

krishnaasur ke sambandh mean bhi ullekh hai ki usaki garbhavati striyoan ka indr ne vadh kiya tha.[20] rrigved ke ek chhand mean gayoan ke uddharakarta aur svami ka ullekh hai aur vishnu ko us lok ka adhipati kaha gaya hai. parantu bhagavat dharm ke upasy krishna ki katha se in sandarbhoan ka koee sidha sambandh nahian jan p data. chhandogy upanishad mean devakiputr krishna ko ghor aangiras ka shishy kaha gaya hai aur bataya gaya hai ki guru ne unhean yajn ki ek aisi saral riti batayi thi jisaki dakshina, tap, dan, arjav, ahiansa, aur saty thi. guru se jnan prapt karane ke bad krishna ki jnan-pipasa sada ke lie shant ho gayi.[21] krishna aangiras ka ullekh kaushitaki brahman mean bhi milata hai.[22] krishna-sambandhi yah sandarbh unhean gita ke upadeshta aur bhagavat dharm ke poojy krishna ke nikat le jata hai.

bauddh sahity

bauddh sahity mean krishna ka ullekh do sthaloan par milata hai-ek ghat jatak mean varnit devagabbha aur upasagar ke balavan, parakrami, uddhat aur kri dapriy putr vasudev kanh ki katha ke roop mean aur doosara mahaumagg jatak ke kamasakt vasudev kanh ke sandarbh mean. ghat jatak ke vasudev kanh putr shok mean dukhi chitrit kiye gaye haian jisase rrigved ke aangiras krishna ke sandarbh se unaka sootr jo da ja sakata hai. mahaumagg, jatak mean vasudev kanh dvara kamasakt hokar chandal kanya jambavati ko mahishi banane ka ullekh hua hai.

anek vrittant

[[chitr:Krishna-Mandapam.jpg|thumb|govardhan parvat uthate hue krishna]]

nipun balavan yoddha

mahabharat mean krishna sambandhi anek vrittant milate haian. mahabharat yuddh mean unake parakram, aishvary aur nitinaipuny ke sath unake devatv ka bhi samanvay paya jata hai. sabhaparv mean bhishm dvara unaki prashansa samast ved-vedant ke jnata tatha rajaniti mean nipun balavan yoddha ke roop mean ki gayi hai. udyog parv mean kaha gaya hai ki arjun vajrapani indr ki apeksha krishna ko adhik parakrami samajhakar unhean yuddh mean apani or milane mean apana saubhagy manate haian. isi sthal par krishna ke parakram ka varnan karate hue unake dvara dasyuoan ke sanhar, durdharsh rajaoan ke vinash, rukmini ke haran, nagajit ke putroan ki parajay, sudarshanaraja ki mukti, panday ke sanhar, kashi nagari ke uddhar, nishadoan ke raja ekalavy ke vadh, ugrasen ke putr sunam ki mrityu adi karyo ka varnan kiya gaya hai. devataoan ke dvara unhean avadhyata ka varadan mila tha. unhoanne balyavastha mean hi indr ke gho de uchchai:shrava ke saman bali, yamuna ke van mean rahane vale hayaraj ko mar dala tha tatha vrish pralanb, narag, jrimbh, mur, kans adi ka sanhar kiya tha, jal devata varun ko parajit kiya tha tatha patal vasi panchajan ko marakar paanchajany prapt kiya tha. apani priy patni satyabhama ki prasannata ke lie ve amaravati se parijat laye the.

vasudev

mahabharat mean prapt krishna sambandhi in sandarbhoan se unake aitihasik vyaktitv ki soochana milati hai aur jnat hota hai ki ve vrishni vanshiy satvat jati ke poojy purush the. yah bhi sanket milata hai ki mahabharat aur puranoan mean varnit krishna ke charitr aur kinhian aitihasik vasudev krishna sambandhi katha mean kuchh antar avashy raha hoga, kyoanki mahabharat aur puranoan mean anek sthaloan par is bat par bal diya gaya hai ki yahi krishna vastavik vasudev haian, yahi dvitiy vasudev haian. dvitiy vasudev kahane ka abhipray yah tha ki kuchh any raja bhi apane ko dvitiy vasudev ke nam se prasiddh karane ka yatn karate the. paundr raja purushottam aur karavirapur ke raja shrrigal isi prakar ke vyakti the, jinhean marakar krishna ne siddh kiya ki unaka vasudevatv mithya hai tatha ve hi svayan ekamatr vasudev haian.

puranoan mean krishna

[[chitr:Cover-Vishnu-Purana.jpg|thumb|left|vishnu puran, gitapres gorakhapur ka avaran prishth]] mahabharat, harivansh puran tatha vishnu puran, vayu puran, vaman puran, bhagavat puran adi puranoan mean krishna ki tulana mean indr ki hinata siddh karane ke lie anek kathaean di gayi haian; parantu phir bhi govardhan parvat dharan ke prasang mean unake indr dvara abhishikt hone aur 'upendr' nam se svikrit hone ka ullekh hua hai. puranoan mean vividh kathaoan ke madhyam se uttarottar krishna ki mahatta aur usi anupat mean indr ki hinata pramanit ki gayi hai. mahabharat mean krishna ke aishvary aur devatv ka prachur varnan hai parantu unake lality aur madhury ka koee sanket nahian milata. mahabharat unake gop jivan aur gopi prem ke sambandh mean sarvatha maun hai. sabha parv ke us prasang mean bhi, jise prakshipt kaha jata hai aur jisamean shishupal krishna ki ninda karate hue unake dvara pootana, bakasur, keshi, vatsasur aur kans ke vadh tatha govardhan dharan kiye jane ka ullekh karata hai, gopiyoan se unake prem ka koee sanket nahian kiya gaya hai. isase yah spasht soochit hota hai ki gopal krishna ka lalit aur madhur charit moolat: mahabharat ke krishna ke charit se bhinn tha. puranoan mean varnit krishna sambandhi lalit kathaean unamean uttarottar vriddhi pati gayi haian. udaharan ke lie harivansh mean jise 'vastav mean mahabharat ka parishisht kaha jata hai, unake gopal roop sambandhi sandarbh atayant sankshipt hai. unaki tulana mean unake aishvary roop ki bhog-vilas sambandhi anek kathaean kahian adhik vistar se varnit haian. vishnu puran mean bhi lagabhag aisi hi sthiti hai. kintu bhagavat, padm puran , brahm vaivart puran tatha kuchh any puranoan mean, jinhean paravarti kaha ja sakata hai, gopalkrishna sambandhi kathan adhik vistrit hone lage haian. puranoan ke bhog-aishvary sambandhi akhyanoan aur gop-gopi lila sambandhi madhur kathaoan mean vatavaran ka bahut antar paya jata hai. yadi ek mean ghor bhautikata, vilasita aur nagn aindriyata hai to doosare mean bhavatmak komalata, hardik utphullata, sookshm anubhooti aur alaukikata ki or unmukh udattata hai.

shoorasen pradesh

[[chitr:Shursen-Map.jpg|thumb|300px|shoorasen mahajanapad]] anuman hai ki gopal krishna moolat: shoorasen pradesh ke satvat vrishnivanshi pashupalak kshatriyoan ke kul devata the aur unake kri da kautuk ki manoranjak kathaean maukhik roop mean lok-prachalit thian. in kathaoan ke lok-prachalit hone ke praman kuchh pashan moortiyoan aur shilapattoan par utkirn chitroan mean mile hai. mathura mean prapt ek khandit shilapatt mean vasudev navajat krishna ko ek soop mean sir par rakhakar yamuna par karate hue dikhaye gaye haian. 5vian shatabdi eesavi ke ek doosare khandit shilapatt mean kaliy-daman ka drishy dikhaya gaya hai. yah chhathi shatabdi eesvi ki anuman ki gayi hai. bangal ke paha dapur namak sthan mean chhathi shatabdi ki kuchh mrinmoortiyaan mili haian jinamean dhenukasur vadh, yamalarjun uddhar tatha mrishtik chanoor ke sath mall-yuddh ke drishy dikhaye gaye haian. yahian par ek any moorti mili hai jisamean krishna ko kisi gopi ke sath prasiddh mudra mean kh de dikhaya gaya hai. anuman kiya gaya hai ki yah gopi sambhavat: radha ka sabase prachin moortigat praman prastut karati hai. rajasthan ke mandor tatha bikaner ke pas sooratagadh mean kramash: dvarapatoan par utkirn govarddhan –dharan, navanit-chaury, shakatabhanjan aur kaliy-daman ke chitr utkirn mile haian tatha govardhan-dharan aur dan-lila ka drishyaankan prastut karane vale kuchh sundar mitti ke khilaune prapt hue haian. mandor ke chitr chauthi-paanchavi shatabdi eesvi ke anuman kiye gaye haian. dakshin bharat ke badami ke paha di qile par krishna-janm, pootana-vadh, shakat-bhanjan, kans-vadh adi ke anek drishy gufaoan mean utkirn mile haian. jo chhathi-satavian shatabdi eesvi ke mane jate haian[23].

kavy mean krishna

kavy mean gopal krishna ki lila ka pahala sandarbh pratham shatabdi eesavi mean rachit ashvaghosh ke 'buddhicharit'[24]mean milata hai. anumanat: pratham shatabdi eesvi mean hal satavahan dvara sangrahit 'gahasattasee' (gatha saptashati) mean kee gathaean krishna, radha, gopi, yashoda adi se sambaddh milati haian.[25] in gathaoan mean krishna dvara nariyoan ke gauravaharan, mukhamaroot se radhika ke goraj ke apanayan adi ke ullekh hue haian. in ullekhoan se soochit hota hai ki krishna ke gopi-premasambandhi prasang kam se kam pahali shatabdi eesvi ke pahale se hi lok-prachalit the. yah avashy drashtavy hai ki 'gahasattasee' mean bhakti bhavana ka koee sanket nahian milata, usaka vatavaran sarvatha laukik shrriangar ka hi hai parantu isase bhinn dakshin ke alavar santoan dvara rachit git poornataya bhakti bhavana se prerit aur anupranit haian. in santoan ka samay paanchavian se navian shatabdi eesavi anuman kiya gaya hai. alavar santoan ke in gitoan mean vishnu, narayan athava vasudev tatha unake avataroan-ram aur krishna ke prati apoorv bhakti –bhav prakat kiya gaya hai. inamean gopal-krishna ki lalit lila ke aise anek prasang varnit haian jo uttar bharat ke madhyakalin krishna bhakti- kavy ke priy vishay rahe haian. in gitoan mean krishna ki prem-lilaoan se sambaddh ek nappitray namak gopi ka pramukh roop se varnan hai. use krishna ki priyatama aur vishnu ki arddhagini lakshmi ka avatar kaha gaya hai. anuman hai ki yah gopi uttar bharat ki krishnakatha mean prayukt radha hi hai. radha-krishna katha ki prachinata ki drishti se tamil sahity ka yah praman mahattvapoorn hai.

sooradas

hindi ka krishna-bhakti kavy yadyapi sooradas se prarambh hota hai parantu isase pahale 15vian shatabdi mean vidyapati ne apane padoan mean krishna ke shrriangari roop ka jo varnan kiya tha usaki prakriti bhale hi laukik shrriangar ki rahi ho, usaka upayog bhaktoan ne madhury bhakti ke sandarbhoan mean hi kiya. vidyapati aur hindi ke ritikalin radhakrishna sambandhi shrriangar –kavy ke bich hindi bhaktikavy ka ek lamba vyavadhan hai jisamean krishna ka vyaktitv kaviyoan ne atyant kushalata ke sathh manav aur atimanav ke paraspar virodhi tattvoan se nirmit kar chitrit kiya hai. krishna ke is charit-chitran mean b di vilakshanata hai. ek or unhean vishnu ka avatar, brahma-vishnu aur mahesh se pare tatha sakshath sachchidanand brahm kaha gaya hai, to doosari or unaki shaishav, baly aur kishorakal ki atyant manaviy aur svabhavik lila ka manohar varnan kiya gaya hai. hindi krishna-kavy ke rachayitaoan mean krishna ka samyakh charitr-chitran vastav mean sooradas ne hi kiya kintu sooradas ka charitr-chitran vastut: bhavaantmak hai. pradhan roop se unhoanne krishna ko vatsaly, sakhy aur madhury ka alamban banaya hai aur in bhavoan ka atyant svabhavik chitran karate hue dainy aur vismay ke bhavoan ke sahare unake prati poojy bhavana vyakt ki hai.
[[chitr:Surdas Surkuti Sur Sarovar Agra-19.jpg|left|sooradas, agara|thumb]] krishna ke charitr-chitran mean soor ki any visheshata yah hai ki yadyapi ve nand-yashoda, gop-gopi, adi ke sath rag-rang mean achool magn rahate haian, phir bhi unake vyavahar se vyanjit hota hai ki vastav mean ve bhavatit aur vitarag haian. krishna ke mathura aur dvaraka-pravas tatha unake prati brajavasiyoan aur visheshakar gopiyoan ke virah-bhav ka varnan karate hue sooradas ne krishna ke is vilakshan vyaktitv ka atyant prabhavashali chitran kiya hai. isake dvara hamean gita ke yogiraj krishna ki anasakti ka vyavaharik parichay milata hai. sooradas ke atirikt any krishna-bhakt kaviyoan ne krishna ke sampoorn charit ka chitran nahian kiya. bahut tho de se kaviyoan ne krishna ke baly aur kishorakal ke jivan ka parichay diya. adhikaansh kavi unake madhuryapoorn charit ki or hi jhuke aur radha aur gopiyoan ke sath unake prem sambandhoan ke chitran mean hi nimagn rahean krishna ke premi aur premapatr donoan roopoan ke chitran mean anek kaviyoan ne tanmayata pradarshit ki, parantu sooradas ne unamean vitaragatv aur anasakti ke sanketoan tatha any upayoan dvara jis adhyatmikata ki uchch kavyamayi vyanjana ki thi, vah koee any kavi nahian kar saka. sooradas ne krishna ke asur-sanhari roop ka bhi vishad varnan kiya tha. yadyapi unake varnan mean krishna ki virata aur parakram ke sthan par unake vismayakari krida-kautak ki hi pradhanata hai, parantu unaka uddeshy jis alaukik ki vyanjana karana tha use paravarti kavi nahian samajh sake. is karan unhoanne krishna-charit ke is paksh ki pray: upeksha hi ki.
shrikrishna ke sahaj manaviy shrriangari roop ko sooradas ne unake prati dainy bhavana vyakt karake tatha unake alaukik krityoan ke varnayan dvara vismay ki vyanjana karake unake charit mean jis udattata ka sannivesh kiya tha, paravarti kaviyoan ne use vismrit kar diya aur shrikrishna ka charit lagabhag poorn roop mean ihalaukik ho gaya aur usamean manav vyaktitv ki sankuchit ekaangita hi shesh rah gayi. phalat: jivan ki vyakhya ki kasauti par kasane par vah atyant kalpit aur ayatharth lagata hai, jaise rag-rang aur anand-vihar mean lipt jivan ka koee uddeshy hi n ho. vastav mean tathy yahi hai ki krishna-charit jivan ke vastavik chitran athava adarsh chitran ke roop mean racha hi nahian gaya, unaka charit vastav mean parabrahm ki lilamatr haian jisaka prayojan lilanand ke atirikt any kuchh nahian. usaka uddeshy akhand anand mean jivan ki adhyatmik paripoornata ki vyanjana karana hi hai. bhakt kaviyoan ne us anand ka roop stri-anand roop mean param purush haian aur unaki para shakti roop prakriti svaroopa radha haian jinake sanyog se hi param anand ki paripoornata siddh hoti hai.

radha ke prem sandarbh

[[chitr:Krishna-Radha-1.jpg|thumb|250px|radha-krishna]] athavian shatabdi mean rachit bhattanarayan ke 'venisanhar' namak-natak mean naandishlok mean tatha vakapati raj dvara likhit prakrit mahakavy 'gudavaho' ke mangalacharan mean krishna ki stuti unake radha aur gopi-prem tatha yashoda ke vatsalyabhajan hone ki spasht soochana deti hai. 'gudavaho' mean unhean 'vishnusvaroop' aur 'lakshmipati' bhi kaha gaya hai. navian shatabdi eesavi ke 'dhvanyalok' mean uddhrit do shlokoan mean krishna aur radha ke madhur prem ke sandarbh prapt hote haian. dasavian shatabdi ke trivikram bhatt rachit 'nalachampoo' ke ek shlok mean param purush krishna ke sath radha ke anurag ka sanket prapt hota hai. dasavian shatabdi ki hi ballabhadev dvara rachit 'shishupalavadh' ki tika tatha somadev poori ke 'yashasyatilakachampoo' mean bhi radha ke priy krishna ka jis roop mean ullekh milata hai usase krishna ke gopivallabh roop ki soochana prapt hoti hai.

prem kri daoan ka sandarbh

'kavindravachan samuchchay' namak kavitasangrah bhi dasavian shatabdi ka mana gaya hai. isamean sankalit anek shlokoan mean krishna ki gopi aur radha sambandhi prem kri daoan ka sandarbh milata hai jinase krishna ke yashoda ke vatsaly-bhajan, gopiyoan ke kant, gopoan ke srihridh tatha radha ke anany premabhajan vyaktitv ki soochana milati hai. in sabhi sandarbho mean krishna ke dakshin aur dhrisht nayakatv ke bhi spasht sanket haian. dasavian shatabdi tak radha aur krishna ke prati poojyabhav bhi vikasit ho chuka tha. isaka praman malavadhish vakpati muanjaparamar ke ek abhilekh se bhi milata hai jisamean shrikrishna ki stuti karate hue unaka vishnu roop mean varnan hai aur sath hi unhean radha ke virah mean pi dit kaha gaya hai. dasavian shatabdi ke asapas rachit shrimadbhagavat mean krishnacharit ka vyapak varnan hai isamean unake sabhi svaroopoan ka varnan aur sanket hai. krishna ke vyaktitv ke lality aur madhury ke sath unake daivat roop ki pratishtha 12vian shatabdi tak aur adhik dridhata ke sath ho gayi thi. isaka praman lilashuk dvara rachit 'krishnakarnamritastotr' eeshvarapuri dvara rachit 'shrikrishnalilamrit ' ka shrrigaanr ras nishchit roop se madhury bhakti hai. isi prakar 'git govind' mean radha-madhav ke jis uddam shrriangar ka varnan kiya gaya hai, usaki mool prerana bhi dharmik hai. krishna ke vyaktitv mean is prakar jis lokaranjanakari lality ka udattikaran vaishnav bhakti ke vikas mean hota gaya usi ki charam parinati ham paravarti sahity mean pate haian.

asankhy katha prasang

barahavian shatabdi ke bad krishna-kavy mriktakoan ke atirikt prabandhoan ke roop mean bhi prapt hota hai. 'saduktikarnamrit' namak ek muktak sangrah 13vian shatabdi ke prarambh ka haian. jisamean gopal krishna ki lila se sambaddh sath shlok haian. in shlokoan mean gopal krishna ke shaishav, kaishor aur yauvan ki lalit lilaoan ka hi varnan milata hai. 13vian-14vian shatabdi mean rachit bopadev ki 'harilila' tatha vedantadeshikaki 'yadavabhyuday' namak rachanaean tatha pandrahavian shatabdi ki 'brajabihari' (shridharasvami), 'gopalila' (ramachandr bhatt), ' haricharit'-kavy (chaturbhuj), 'harivilas'-kavy (brajalolimbaraj), 'gopalacharit' (padmanabh), 'murarivijay'- natak (krishna bhatt) aur 'kans-nidhan' mahakavy (shriram) adi anek kavy aur natak gopalkrishna ke madhur, lalit aur poojy charit ka chitran karate haian. 16vian shatabdi se krishnabhakti andolan sampoorn uttar bharat mean vyapt ho gaya aur krishna-kavy adhunik bhashaoan mean racha jane laga. is kavy ka mooladhar shrimadbhagavat tha, parantu sath hi kaviyoan ne lok mean prachalit krishnasambandhi un asankhy katha prasangoan ka bharapoor upayog kiya, jinamean krishna ka charit vatsaly, sakhy aur madhuryavyanjak lilaoan se samanvit raha hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. baladev
  2. bhaumasur
  3. chhandogy upanishad [[chhandogy upanishad adhyay-3, khand-17, shlok 6
  4. chhandogy upanishad (3,17,6)
  5. mahabharat, udyogaparv, 130-131, dronaparv 79
  6. mahabharat, sabhaparv, adhyay 38
  7. harivansh puran, vishnuparv 8-9
  8. shrimadh bhagavat 3.3.-,10.28.-,10.44.
  9. kuchh ko vishesh prasiddhi nahian prapt huee, ve yahaan ullikhit haian.
  10. shrimadh bhagavat 10.56, 57, 58
  11. shrimadh bhagavat 10.82-84)
  12. shrimadh bhagavat .10.86.13
  13. shrimadh bhagavat 11.13.15-42/- 11.30/-
  14. bhagavat, 4.20-25
  15. bhagavat, 8/3
  16. shiv puran, 44 .7. 26
  17. rrigved 8.85.1-9
  18. rrigved 1.116.7,23
  19. rrigved 8.86.1-5
  20. rrigved 1.101.1
  21. chhandogy upanishad 3.17.4-6)
  22. kaushitaki brahman 30.9
  23. arkelajikal sarve riport 1926-27, 1905-6 tatha 1928-29 ee.
  24. buddhicharit (1-5)
  25. 'gahasattasee' 1.29, 5.47, 2.12, 2.14

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