उज्जैन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ujjain
Mahakaleshwar-Temple.jpg
vivaran prakriti ki god men kshipra nadi ke kinare basa ujjain madhy pradesh rajy ka ek pramukh dharmik nagar hai.
rajy madhy pradesh
zila ujjain zila
marg sthiti yah shahar sadakamarg dvara bhopal lagabhag 75 ki.mi. doori par sthit hai.
prasiddhi isako kalidas ki nagari bhi kaha jata hai‎
kaise pahunchen kisi bhi shahar se bas aur taiksi dvara pahuncha ja sakata hai.
havaee adda bhopal havaee adda,
relave steshan ujjain relave steshan
kya dekhen ujjain paryatan
es.ti.di. kod 0176
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr, havaee adda
any janakari ujjain sahity jagat ki amooly dharohar hain.
ujjain ujjain paryatan ujjain zila

ujjain bharat men kshipra nadi ke kinare basa madhy pradesh ka ek pramukh dharmik nagar hai. yah aitihasik prishthabhoomi liye hua ek prachin shahar hai. ujjain maharaja vikramadity ke shasan kal men unake rajy ki rajadhani thi. isako kalidas ki nagari bhi kaha jata hai. ujjain men har 12 varsh ke bad 'sinhasth kunbh' ka mela judata hai. bhagavan shiv ke 12 jyotirlingon men se ek 'mahakaleshvar' isi nagari men hai. madhy pradesh ke prasiddh nagar indaur se yah 55 ki.mi. ki doori par hai. ujjain ke any prachin prachalit nam hain- 'avantika', 'ujjaiyani', 'kanakashranga' adi. ujjain mandiron ka nagar hai. yahan anek tirth sthal hai. isaki janasnkhya lagabhag 4 se 5 lakh ke lagabhag hai.

itihas

ujjain ka prachin itihas kafi vistrit hai. yahan ke gadh kshetr men huee khudaee men aitihasik evn prarnbhik lauh yugin samagri atyadhik matra men prapt huee hai. mahabharat v puranon men ullekh hai ki vrishni sngh ke krishn v balaram ujjain men guru sndipan ke ashram men vidya prapt karane aye the. krishn ki patni mitravrinda ujjain ki rajakumari thin aur unake do bhaee 'vind' evn 'anuvind' ne mahabharat ke yuddh men kauravon ki taraf se yuddh kiya tha. ujjain ka ek any atynt pratapi raja hua hai, jisaka nam chndapradyot tha. bharat ke any raja bhi usase darate the. eesa ki chhathi sadi men vah ujjain ka shasak tha. usaki putri vasavadatta evn vats rajy ke raja udayan ki prem katha itihas men bahut prasiddh hai. bad ke samay men ujjain magadh samrajy ka abhinn ang ban gaya tha.

kalidas ki priy nagari

ujjayini ke itihas prasiddh raja vikramadity ke darabar ke navaratnon men mahakavi kalidas pramukh the. kalidas ko ujjayini atyadhik priy thi. isi karan se kalidas ne apane kavy grnthon men ujjayini ka atyadhik manoram aur sundar varnan kiya hai. mahakavi kalidas samrat vikramadity ke ashray men rahakar kavy rachana kiya karate the. kalidas ne ujjayini men hi adhikatar pravas kiya aur ujjayini ke prachin evn gauravashali vaibhav ko badhate dekha. par kalidas ki malava ke prati gahari astha thi. yahan rahakar mahakavi ne vaibhavashali aitihasik attalikaon ko dekha, udayan aur vasavadatta ki premakatha ko atyant bhavapoorn lipibaddh kiya. bhagavan mahakaleshvar ki sndhya kalin arati ko aur kshipra nadi ke pauranik aur aitihasik mahattv se bhali-bhanti parichit hokar usaka atynt manoram varnan kiya, jo aj bhi sahity jagath ki amooly dharohar hai.

apani rachana 'meghadoot' men mahakavi kalidas ne ujjayini ka bahut hi sundar varnan karate hue kaha hai ki- "jab svargiy jivon ko apana puny kshin ho jane par prithvi par ana pada, tab unhonne vichar kiya ki ham apane sath svarg bhoomi ka ek khnd (tukada) bhi le chalate hain. vahi svarg khnd ujjayini hai." mahakavi ne likha hai ki- "ujjayini bharat ka vah pradesh hai, jahan ke vriddhajan itihas prasiddh adhipati raja udayan ki pranay gatha kahane men poornat: pravin hain. kalidas krit 'meghadoot' men varnit ujjayini ka vaibhav aj bhale hi vilupt ho gaya ho, parntu aj bhi vishv men ujjayini ka dharmik, pauranik evn aitihasik mahattv hai. sath hi ujjayini jyotish ke kshetr men bhi prasiddh hai. sat puranon men varnit prasiddh nagariyon men ujjayini pramukh sthan rakhati hai. ujjayini men pratyek barah varshon men sinhasth kumbh namak mahaparv ka ayojan hota hai. kumbh ke pavan avasar par desh-videsh se karodon shraddhalu, bhaktajan, sadhu-snt, mahatma evn akhadon ke mathadhish pramukh roop se ujjayini men kalpavas karake moksh prapti ki kamana karate hain.

pramanik itihas

ujjayini ka pramanik itihas ee. san 600 varsh ke lagabhag ka milata hai. tatkalin samay men bharat men solah mahajanapad the. unamen se avnti janapad bhi ek tha. avnti janapad uttar evn dakshin do bhagon men vibhakt tha. uttari bhag ki rajadhani ujjayini thi tatha dakshin bhag ki rajadhani 'mahishmati' thi. us samay chndrapradyot nam ka raja sinhasan par tha. is pradyot raja ke vnshajon ka ujjayini par lagabhag eesa ki tisari shatabdi tak shasan raha tha.

maury shasak

'bharatiy itihas' men prasiddh maury kal ka samrat chandragupt maury bhi yahan aya tha aur usaka pautr ashok ujjayini ka rajyapal bhi raha tha. usaki ek patni devi se mahendr aur 'snghamitra' namak putr aur putri huee thi, jinhonne shrilnka men bauddh dharm ka prachar v prasar kiya tha. maury samrajy ke sthapit hone par magadh ke samrat bindusar ka putr ashok ujjayini ka shasak niyukt hua tha. bindusar ki mrityu ke bad ashok ne ujjayini ka shasan prabandh apane hathon men sambhala. yah ujjayini ke sarvangin vikas ka samay tha. samrat ashok ke bad ujjayini ne anekon samraton ka patan aur utthan dekha.

maury samrajy ka patan

maury samrajy ke prasiddh shasak ashok ke bad ujjayini shakon aur satavahanon ki pratispardha ka mukhy kendr ban gee. shakon ke pahale akraman ko ujjayini ke vir shasak vikramadity ne pratham sadi eesa poorv viphal kar diya tha, kintu kalantar men videshi shakon ne ujjayini par apana adhikar kar liya. chastan v rudradaman shak vnsh ke pratapi v lokapriy mahakshatrap hue the.

gupt samrajy

chauthi shatabdi ee. men gupt aur aulikaron ne malava se shakon ki shasan satta samapt kar di. shak aur gupton ke kal men ujjayini kshetr ka arthik evn audyogik vikas hua. chhathi se dasavin sadi tak ujjain kalachuriyon, maitrakon, uttar gupton, pushyabhootiyon, chalukyon, rashtrakooton v pratiharon ki rajanitik gatividhiyon ka kendr raha.

any rajavnshon ka adhikar

satavin shatabdi men kannauj ke raja harshavardhan ne ujjayini ko apane samrajy men mila liya. usake samay men ujjayini ka sarvangin vikas hua. san 648 ee. men harshavardhan ki mrityu ke bad navin shatabdi tak ujjain paramar shasakon ke adhipaty men aya, jinaka shasan gayarahavin shatabdi tak chalata raha. is samay men ujjain ki kramik unnati hoti rahi. paramaron ke bad ujjain par chauhan aur tomar rajapooton ne adhikaron kar liya. san 1000 se 1300 ee. tak malava par paramar rajaon ka shasan raha aur bahut samay tak paramar rajaon ki rajadhani ujjain rahi. is samay men siyak dvitiy, munjadev, bhojadev, udayadity, naravarman jaise anek mahanh shasakon ne sahity, kala evn snskriti ki unnati men apana samay lagaya.

dilli saltanat

isi samay dilli ke das evn khilaji vnsh ke shasakon ne malava par akraman kiya, jisase paramar vnsh ka patan ho gaya. san 1235 ee. men dilli ka shasak shamashuddin iltamish vidisha par vijay prapt karake ujjain ki aur aya aur us kroor shasak ne ujjain ko bahut buri tarah loota aur yahan ke prachin mndiron evn pavitr dharmik sthanon ka vaibhav bhi nasht kar diya. san 1406 men malava dilli saltanat se azad ho gaya. khilaji v afagan sultan svatntr roop se rajy karate rahe. mugal samrat akabar ne jab malava ko apane adhikar men liya to akabar ne ujjain ko prantiy mukhyalay banaya. mugal badashah akabar, jahangir, shahajahan v aurngajeb ne yahan shasan kiya.

marathon ka adhikar

san 1737 ee. men ujjain par sindhiya vnsh ka adhikar ho gaya. san 1880 ee. tak yahan sindhiya shasakon ka ekachhatr rajy raha, jisamen ujjain ka vikas hota raha. sindhiya shasakon ki rajadhani ujjain bani. maharaj ranoji sindhiya ne 'mahakaleshvar mndir' ka jirnoddhar karaya. sindhiya vnsh ke snsthapak shasak ranoji shinde ke mntri ramachndr shenavi ne ajakal ujjain men sthit mahakal ke mndir ka nirman karaya. san 1810 men sindhiya shasak rajy ki rajadhani ko gvaliyar men le aye, kintu usake bad bhi ujjain ka vikas hota raha. 1948 men gvaliyar ko navin madhy bharat men mila liya gaya.

aj bhi ujjayini men anek dharmik, pauranik evn aitihasik mndir aur bhavan hain, jinamen bhagavan mahakaleshvar mndir, chaubis khnbha devi, gopal mndir, kal bhairav, boharo ka roja, vikrant bhairav, chausath yoginiyan, nagar kot ki rani, harasiddhi man ka mndir, gadhakalika devi ka mndir, mngalanath ka mndir, siddhavat, bina ninv ki masjid, gaj lakshmi mndir, brihaspati mndir, navagrih mndir, bhookhi mata, bhartrihari ki gufa, pir machhandaranath ki samadhi, kaliya dah pailes, kothi mahal, ghntaghar, jantar mntar mahal, chintaman ganesh adi pramukh roop se ullekhaniy hain.

adhunik ujjain

ujjain nagar vindhy parvatamala ke pas aur pavitr kshipra nadi ke kinare samudr tal se 1678 phit ki oonchaee par 23 digri .50' uttar deshansh aur 75 digri .50' poorvi akshansh par hai. nagar ka tapaman aur vatavaran samashitoshn hai. yahan ki bhoomi upajaoo hai. mahakavi kalidas aur mahanh rachanakar banabhatt ne nagar ki khoobasoorati ko bahut hi sundar roop se varnit kiya hai. mahakavi kalidas likhate hai ki duniya ke sare ratn ujjain men sthit hain aur samudron ke pas keval jal hi bacha hai. ujjain nagar ki pramukh aur anchalik boli mithi malavi boli hai. hindi ka bhi prayog kiya jata hai.

ujjain bharat ke itihas ke anek bade parivartanon ka gavah hai. kshipra ke antasthal men is aitihasik nagar ke utthan aur patan ki anokhi aur spasht anubhootiyan ankit hai. kshipra ke prakritik ghaton par prakritik saundary ki anokhi chhata bikhari huee hai, jahan asnkhy logon ka avagaman rahata hai, chahe rngon se paripoorn kartik mela ho ya bhid se bhara sinhasth kumbh ka mela ya sadharan dinacharya men kshipra ka snan. nagar ko tin aur se ghere kshipra sabake man ko akarshit karati hai. kshipra ke ghat subah-subah mahakal aur harasidhdi mndiron ki stuti ka svagat karate hain.

kshipra nadi jab uphan par ati hai to gopal mndir ki dehari ko chhoo leti hai. durgadas ki chhatri se thoda hi age chal kar nadi ki dhara nagar ke prachin parisar ke pas ghoom jati hai. bhartrihari ji ki gupha, pir machhindar aur gadhakalika man ka mndir par karake nadi bhagavan mngalanath ji ke pas pahunchati hai. mngalanath ji ka mndir sandipani ashram ke pas hi hai aur pas men hi shri ram-janardan mndir ke pas sundar drishy hain. sidhdavat aur kal bhairav ki or mudakar kshipra kaliyadah mahal ko gherate huee lagabhag sabhi aitihasik sthanon par hokar shant bhav se ujjain se age apani yatra ki or badh jati hai. kavi, bhakt, sadhu, kalakar, snt hon ya paryatak, kshipra ke manoram tat pag-pag par mndiron se yukt sabhi shraddhaluon ke lie samman aur prerana ke adhar hai.

ujjayini nagari

prachin samay men avntika, ujjayini, vishala, pratikalpa, kumudavati, svarnashringa, amaravati adi anek namon se jana jane vala nagar hi aj ujjain ke nam se prasiddh hai. sabhyata ke uday se hi yah nagar bharat ke pramukh tirth-sthal ke roop men jana gaya . pavitr kshipra ke dahine tat par sthit is nagar ko bharat ki 'saptapuriyon' men se ek mana jata hai.

paryatan

mahakaleshvar mndir

shri mahakaleshvar jyotirling madhy pradesh ke ujjain janapad men avasthit hai. ujjain ka puranon aur prachin any granthon men 'ujjayini' tatha 'avantikapuri' ke nam se ullekh kiya gaya hai. yah sthan malava kshetr men sthit kshipra nadi ke kinare vidyaman hai. jab sinh rashi par brihaspati grah ka agaman hota hai, to yahan pratyek barah varsh par mahakumbh ka snan aur mela lagata hai. ujjain nagar ke mahakaleshvar ki manyata barah jyotirlingon men se ek ki hai. mahakaleshvar mndir ka mahatmy vibhinn puranon men vistrit roop se varnit hai. mahakavi tulasidas se lekar snskrit sahity ke anek prasiddh kaviyon ne is mndir ka varnan kiya hai. logon ke manas men mahakal mndir ki parampara anadi kal se hai. prachin kal se hi ujjain bharat ki kalaganana ka kendr bindu hai aur shri mahakal ujjain nagar ke adhipati adidev mane jate hain.

bharatiy itihas ke pratyek kal men shung, kushan, satavahan, gupt, parihar tatha maratha kal men is mndir ka jirnoddhar karaya jata raha hai. adhunik mndir ka punarnirman ranoji sindhiya ke samay men malava ke soobedar shri ramachndr baba shenavi ne karaya tha. ajakal bhi mndiron ka jirnoddhar evn suvidha vistar ka kary chalata rahata hai. mahakaleshvar ki pratima dakshinamukhi hai. tantrik pooja men dakshinamukhi pooja ka mahattv barah jyotirlingon men se keval baba mahakaleshvar ko hi prapt hai. onkareshvar men mndir ki oopari pith par mahakal moorti ki tarah onkareshvar shiv ji ki pratishtha hai. tisare bhag men nagachndreshvar ki pratima ke darshan keval nagapnchami ke din ko hi hote hain. maharaja vikramadity aur raja bhoj ki mahakal pooja ke lie likhi gayin shasakiy sanaden mahakal mndir men prapt hoti rahi hai. ajakal yah mndir mahakal mndir samiti ke tatvavadhan men snrakshit v surakshit hai.

shri bade ganesh mndir

shri shri mahakaleshvar mndir ke pas harasidhdi marg par bade ganesh ji ki bhavy aur kalatmak moorti pratishthit hai. is moorti ko padmavibhooshan pn. sooryanarayan vyas ke pita, vikhyat vidvanh sv. pn. narayan ji vyas ne nirmit karaya tha. mndir ke parisar men saptadhatu se bani pnchamukhi hanuman ji ki pratima ke sath hi sath navagrah mndir aur shrikrishn aur yashoda adi ki pratimaen bhi virajaman hain.

mngalanath mndir

puranon men yah varnan aya hai ki ujjayini nagari mngal ki janani hai. vah vyakti jinaki kundali men mngal ki dasha bhari rahati hai, vah log apane anisht grahon ki shanti ke lie pooja-path karavane ke lie ujjain nagar ate hain. vaise desh men mngal bhagavan ke anek mndir hain, kintu ujjain men mngal ka janmasthan hone ke karan is jagah ki pooja ko adhik mahattv diya jata hai. manyata hai ki yah mndir bahut hi purana hai. sindhiya rajagharane ne is mndir ka punarnirman karavaya tha. ujjain shahar ko bhagavan mahakal ka nagar kaha jata hai, atev yahan mngal bhagavan ki shiv roopi pratima ki shraddha bhavana ke sath pooja ki jati hai. pratyek mngalavar ko mndir men shraddhaluon ki bhid lagi rahati hai.

harasidhdi mndir

ujjain nagar ke prachin dharmik sthalon men harasidhdi devi ka mndir pramukh hai. shri chintaman ganesh mndir se kuchh hi doori par aur rudrasagar talab ke kinare par sthit is mndir men samrat vikramadity ne harasidhdi devi ki pooja ki thi. harasidhdi devi vaishnav snpraday ki aradhy devi rahi hain. shiv puran ke anusar raja daksh ke dvara kiye gaye ygy ke bad sati ki kohani yahan par giri thi.

kshipra ghat

ujjain nagar ke dharmik nahari hone men kshipra nadi ke ghaton ka pramukh sthan hai. nadi ke dayen kinare par, jahan ujjain nagar sthit hai, sidhibadhd ghat hain. in ghaton par anek devi-devataon ke naye v purane mndir hai. kshipra ke ghaton ki sundarata sinhasth kumbh ke samay dekhate hi banati hai, jab lakhon-karodon shradhdalu yahan bhakti aur shraddhapoorvak snan karate hain.

gopal mndir

ujjain nagar ka doosara sabase bada 'mndir gopal' mndir mana jata hai. yah mndir nagar ke vyastatam bhag men sthit hai. kaha jata hai ki is mndir ka nirman maharaja daulatarav sindhiya ki maharani bayaja baee ne sanh 1833 ke lagabhag karaya tha. is mndir men nam ke anusar krishn (gopal) ki pratima hai. is mndir ke chandi ke dvar akarshan ka kendr hain.

gadhakalika devi

ujjain men sthit gadhakalika devi ka mndir vartaman ujjain nagar men prachin avntika nagari ke kshetr men hain. mahakavi kalidas gadhakalika devi ke upasak the. is prachin mndir ka maharaja harshavardhan dvara jirnoddhar karane ka ullekh bhi milata hai. man kalika ke is mndir men darshan ke lie roz hazaron bhakton ki bhid ekatr hoti hai. devi kalika tantrikon ki devi mani jati hain . is chamatkarik mndir ki prachinata ke vishay men mana jata hai ki isaki sthapana mahabharat kal men huee thi, lekin moorti saty yug ki hai. bad men is mndir ka jirnoddhar maharaja harshavardhan dvara karae jane ka ullekh bhi prapt hota hai. gvaliyar ke maharaja ne bhi isaka punarnirman karaya tha.

bhartrihari gupha

bhartrihari gufa

gyarahavin sadi ke ek mndir ke avashesh ko bhartrihari ki gupha kaha jata hai, jisaka samay samay par jirnoddhar hota raha .

kal bhairav

ujjain nagar men kal bhairav mndir prachin avntika nagari ke kshetr men sthit hai. yah mndir shiv ji ke upasakon ke kapalik sampraday se juda hua hai. aj bhi mndir ke andar kal bhairav ki ek vishal pratima hai. kinvadanti hai ki prachin kal men is mndir ka nirman raja bhadrasen ne karaya tha. puranon men varnit asht bhairav men kal bhairav ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai.

sinhasth kumbh

sinhasth kumbh ujjain ka mahanh snan parv hai. yah parv barah varshon ke antaral se manaya jata hai. jab brihaspati sinh rashi men hota hai, us samay sinhasth kumbh ka parv manaya jata hai. pavitr kshipra nadi men puny snan ka mahatyam chaitr mas ki poornima se prarnbh ho jata hain aur vaishakh mas ki poornima ke antim snan tak bhinn-bhinn tithiyon men sampann hota hai. ujjain ke prasiddh kumbh mahaparv ke lie paramparik roop se das yog mahattvapoorn mane jate hain.

poore desh men char sthanon par kumbh ka ayojan kiya jata hai. prayag, nasik, haridvar aur ujjain. ujjain men lagane vale kumbh melon ko sinhasth ke nam se pukara jata hai. jab mesh rashi men soory aur sinh rashi men guru a jata hai tab us samay ujjain men mahakunbh mele ka ayojan kiya jata hai, jise sinhasth ke nam se desh bhar men kaha jata hai. sinhasth mahakumbh ke ayojan ki prachin parampara hai. isake ayojan ke vishay men anek kathaen prachalit hai. samudr mnthan men prapt amrit ki boonden chhalakate samay jin rashiyon men soory, chandr, guru ki sthiti ke vishisht yog hote hain, vahin kunbh parv ka in rashiyon men grihon ke snyog par hi ayojan kiya jata hai. amrit kalash ki raksha men soory, guru aur chandrama ke vishesh prayatn rahe the. isi karan in grahon ka vishesh mahattv rahata hai aur inhin grihon ki un vishisht sthitiyon men kunbh ka parv manane ki parampara chali a rahi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

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