गुप्त साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गुप्त se punarnirdeshit)

gupt samrajy ka uday tisari sadi ke ant men prayag ke nikat kaushambi men hua. gupt kushanon ke samant the. is vnsh ka arnbhik rajy uttar pradesh aur bihar men tha. lagata hai ki gupt shasakon ke lie bihar ki upeksha uttar pradesh adhik mahattv vala prant tha, kyonki arambhik abhilekh mukhyatah isi rajy men pae ge hain. yahi se gupt shasak kary snchalan karate rahe. aur anek dishaon men badhate ge. gupt shasakon ne apana adhipaty anugnga (madhy gnga maidan), prayag (ilahabad), saket (adhunik ayodhya) aur magadh par sthapit kiya.

gupton ki utpatti

gupt rajavnshon ka itihas sahityik tatha puratatvik donon pramanon se prapt hai. isake atirikt videshi yatriyon ke vivaran se bhi gupt rajavnshon ke bare men janakari prapt hoti hai.

  • sahityik sadhanon men puran sarvapratham hai jisamen matsy puran, vayu puran, tatha vishnu puran dvara prarambhik shasakon ke bare men janakari milati hai.
  • bauddh grnthon men 'ary mnjooshrimoolakalp' mahattvapoorn grnth hai. isake atirikt 'vasubandhu charit' tatha 'chandragarbh pariprichchh' se gupt vnshiy itihas ki mahattvapoorn janakari milati hai.
  • jain grnthon men 'harivnsh' aur 'kuvalayamala' mahattvapoorn grnth hai.
  • smritiyon men narad, parashar aur brihaspati smritiyon se guptakal ki samajik, arthik evn rajanitik itihas ki janakari milati hai.
  • laukik sahity ke antargat vishakhadatt krit 'devichandraguptamh' (natak) se gupt naresh ramagupt tatha chandragupt ke bare men janakari milati hai. any sahityik sroton men - abhigyan shakuntalamh, raghuvnsh mahakavy, mudrarakshas, mrichchhakatikam, harshacharit, vatsayanan ke kamasootr adi se guptakalin shasan vyavastha evn nagar jivan ke vishay men janakari prapt hoti hai.
  • abhilekhiy sakshy ke antargat samudragupt ka prayag prashasti lekh sarvapramukh hai, jisamen samudragupt ke rajyabhishek usake digvijay tatha vyaktitv par prakash padata hai. any abhilekhon men chandragupt dvitiy ke udayagiri se prapt guha lekh, kumar gupt ka vilasad stambh lekh sknd gupt ka bhitari stambh lekh, joonagadh abhilekh mahatpoorn hain.
  • videshi yatriyon ke vivaran men fahyan jo chandragupt dvitiy ke kal men bharat aya tha. usane madhy desh ke janata ka varnan kiya hai. 7vi. shatabdi ee. men chini yatri hvenasang ke vivaran se bhi gupt itihas ke vishay men janakari prapt hoti hai. usane buddhagupt, kumar gupt pratham, shakadity tatha baladity adi gupt shasakon ka ullekh kiya hai. usake vivaran se yah gyat hota hai ki kumar gupt ne hi nalanda vihar ki sthapana ki thi.

gupton ki utpatti snbndhi vichar

gupton ki utpatti ke snbndh men vidvanon men matabhed hai. is snbndh men kuchh vicharak ise shoodr athava nimnajati se utpann manate hai jabaki kuchh ka manana hai ki gupton ki utpatti brahmanon se huee hai. is snbndh men vibhinnh vicharakon ke vichar nimnalikhit hain.

gupton ki utpatti
jati itihasakar
1- shoodr tatha nimn jati se utpatti kashi prasad jayasaval
2- vaishy elan, es.ke. ayngar, anand sadashiv altekar, romila thapar, ramasharan sharma
3- kshatriy sudharak chattopadhyay, ar.si.majoomadar, gauri shnkar hira chandr ojha
4- brahman daau ray chaudhari, daau ramagopal goyal adi

guptakalin prashasan

gupt samraton ke samay men ganatntriy rajavyavastha ka hmas hua. gupt prashasan rajatntratmak vyavastha par adharit tha. devatv ka sidvant guptakalin shasakon men prachalit tha. rajapad vnshanugat siddhant par adharit tha. raja apane bade putr ko yuvaraj ghoshit karata tha. usane utkarsh ke samay men gupt samrajy uttar men himalay se lekar dakshin men vinghyaparvat tak evn poorv men bngal ki khadi se lekar pashchim men saurashtr tak phaila hua tha.

rajasv ke srot

guptakal men rajakiy ay ke pramukh srot 'kar' the, jo nimnalikhit hain-

  • bhag- raja ko bhoomi ke utpadan se prapt hone vala chhathan hissa.
  • bhog- sambhavatah raja ko har din phal-phool evn sabjiyon ke roop men diya jane vala kar.
  • pranayakar- guptakal men gramavasiyon par lagaya gaya anivary ya svechchha chanda tha. bhoomikar bhog ka ullekh manusmriti men hua hai. isi prakar bhent namak kar ka ullekh harshacharit men aya hai.

vyapar evn vanijy

gupt kal men vyapar evn vanijy apane utkarsh par tha. ujjain, bhadauch, pratishshthan, vidisha, prayag, pataliputr, vaishali, tamralipi, mathura, ahichchhatr, kaushambi adi mahattvapoorn vyaparik nagar hai. in sab men ujjain sarvadhik mahattvapoorn vyaparik sthal tha kyonki desh ke har kone se marg ujjain ki or ate the. svarn mudaon ki adhikata ke karan hi snbhavatah guptakalin vyapar vikas kar saka.

samajik sthiti

guptakalin bharatiy samaj parnparagat 4 jatiyon -

  1. brahman,
  2. kshatriy,
  3. vaishy evn
  4. shoodr men vibhajit tha.
  • kautily ne arthashastr men tatha varahamihir ne vrihatasnhita men charon varno ke lie alag alag bastiyon ka vidhan kiya hai.
  • nyay snhitaon men yah ullekh milata hai ki brahman ki pariksha tula se, kshatriy ki pariksha agni se, vaishy ki pariksha jal se tatha shoodr ki vishay se ki jani chahie.

dharmik sthiti

gupt samrajy ko brahman dharm v hindoo dharm ke punarutthan ka samay mana jata hai. hindoo dharm vikas yatra ke is charan men kuchh mahattvapoorn parivartan drishtigochar hue jaise moortipooja hindoo dharm ka samany lakshan ban gee. ygy ka sthan upasana ne le liya evn gupt kal men hi vaishnav evn shaiv dharm ke madhy samanvay sthapit hua. eeshvar bhakti ko mahattv diya gaya. tatkalin mahattvapoorn sampraday ke roop men vaishnav evn shaiv sampraday prachalan men the.

kala aur sthapaty

gupt kal men kala ki vividh vidhaon jaise vastn sthapaty, chitrakala, mridabhand kala adi men abhootapoorn pragati dekhane ko milati hai. gupt kalin sthapaty kala ke sarvochch udaharan tatkalin mndir the. mndir nirman kala ka janm yahi se hua. is samay ke mndir ek oonche chabootaren par nirmit kie jate the. chabootare par chadhane ke lie charon or se sidhiyon ka nirman kiya jata tha. devata ki moorti ko garbhagrih men sthapit kiya gaya tha aur garbhagrih ke charon or oopar se achchhadit pradakshina marg ka nirman kiya jata tha. guptakalin mndiron par pashvon par gnga, yamuna, shnkh v padm ki akritiyan bani hoti thi. guptakalin mndiron ki chhaten prayah sapat banaee jati thi par shikhar yukt mndiron ke nirman ke bhi avashesh mile hain. guptakalin mndir chhoti-chhoti eeton evn pattharon se banaye jate the. ‘bhitaraganv ka mndir‘ eeton se hi nirmit hai.

guptakalin mahattvapoorn mndir

mndir sthan
1- vishnumndir tigava (jabalapur madhy pradesh)
2- shiv mndir bhoomara (nagod madhy pradesh)
3- parvati mndir nachana kuthar (madhy pradesh)
4- dashavatar mndir devagadh (jhansi, uttar pradesh)
5- shivamndir khoh (nagaud, madhy pradesh)
6- bhitaraganv ka mndir lakshman mndir (eeton dvara nirmit) bhitaraganv (kanapur, uttar pradesh)

sahity

guptakal ko snskrit sahity ka svarn yug mana jata hai. barnet ke anusar prachin bharat ke itihas men gupt kal ka vah mahattv hai jo yoonan ke itihas men perikliyan yug ka hai. smith ne gupt kal ki tulana british itihas ke ejilabethan tatha stuart ke kalon se ki hai. gupt kal ko shreshth kaviyon ka kal mana jata hai.

gupt kal svarn kal ke roop men

gupt kal ko svarn yug (Golden Age), klasikal yug (Classical Age) evn pairiklin yug (Periclean Age) kaha jata hai. apani jin visheshataon ke karan guptakal ko ‘svarnakal‘ kaha jata hai, ve is prakar hain- sahity, vigyan, evn kala ke utkarsh ka kal, bharatiy snskriti ke prachar prasar ka kal, dharmik sahishnuta evn arthik samriddhi ka kal, shreshth shasan vyavastha evn mahansamraton ke uday ka kal evn rajanitik ekata ka kal, in samast visheshataon ke sath hi ham gupt ko svarnakal, klasikal yug evn pairiklin yug kahate hain. kuchh vidvanon jaise ar.es.sharma, di.di. kaushambi evn daau. romila thapar gupt ke ‘svarn yug‘ ki snkalpana ko niradhar siddh karate hain kyonki unake anusar yah kal samantavad ki unnati, nagaron ke patan, vyapar evn vanijy ke patan tatha arthik avanati ka kal tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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