गुर्जर प्रतिहार साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

samrat mihir bhoj ki pratima, aksharadham mndir, dilli

gurjar pratihar vnsh ki sthapana nagabhatt namak ek samant ne 725 ee. men ki thi. usane ram ke bhaee lakshman ko apana poorvaj batate hue apane vnsh ko sooryavnsh ki shakha siddh kiya. adhikatar gurjar sooryavnsh ka hona sidd karate hai tatha gurjaro ke shilalekho par ankit sooryadev ki kalakrirtiya bhi inake sooryavnshi hone ki pushti karati hai.[1]aj bhi rajasthan men gurjar samman se mihir kahe jate hain, jisaka arth soory hota hai.[2][3]

vidvanon ka manana hai ki in gurjaro ne bharatavarsh ko lagabhag 300 sal tak arab-akrantaon se surakshit rakhakar pratihar (rakshak) ki bhoomika nibhayi thi, at: pratihar nam se jane jane lage.[4].rejar ke shilalekh par pratiharo ne spasht roop se gurjar-vnsh ke hone ki pushti ki hai.[5]nagabhatt pratham bada vir tha. usane sindh ki or se hone se arabon ke akraman ka saphalatapoorvak samana kiya. sath hi dakshin ke chalukyon aur rashtrakooton ke akramanon ka bhi pratirodh kiya aur apani svatntrata ko qayam rakha. nagabhatt ke bhatije ka putr vatsaraj is vnsh ka pratham shasak tha, jisane samrat ki padavi dharan ki, yadyapi usane rashtrakoot raja dhruv se buri tarah har khaee. vatsaraj ke putr nagabhatt dvitiy ne 816 ee. ke lagabhag gnga ki ghati par hamala kiya, aur kannauj par adhikar kar liya. vahan ke raja ko gaddi se utar diya aur vah apani rajadhani kannauj le aya.

yadyapi nagabhatt dvitiy bhi rashtrakoot raja govind tritiy se parajit hua, tathapi nagabhatt ke vnshaj kannauj tatha asapas ke kshetron par 1018-19 ee. tak shasan karate rahe. is vnsh ka sabase pratapi raja bhoj pratham tha, jo ki mihirabhoj ke nam se bhi jana jata hai aur jo nagabhatt dvitiy ka pautr tha. bhoj pratham ne (lagabhag 836-86 ee.) 50 varsh tak shasan kiya aur gurjar samrajy ka vistar poorv men uttari bngal se pashchim men sataluj tak ho gaya. arab vyapari suleman isi raja bhoj ke samay men bharat aya tha. usane apane yatra vivaran men raji ki sainik shakti aur suvyavasthit shasan ki badi prashnsa ki hai. agala samrat mahendrapal tha, jo 'karpooramnjari' natak ke rachayita mahakavi rajeshvar ka shishy aur snrakshak tha. mahendr ka putr mahipal bhi rashtrakoot raja indr tritiy se buri tarah parajit hua. rashtrakooton ne kannauj par qabza kar liya, lekin shighr hi mahipal ne punah use hathiya liya. parantu mahipal ke samay men hi gurjar-pratihar rajy ka patan hone laga. usake bad ke rajaon–bhoj dvitiy, vinayakapal, mahendrapal dvitiy, devapal, mahipal dvitiy aur vijayapal ne jaise-taise 1019 ee. tak apane rajy ko qayam rakha. devapal ke shasan ke antim dinon men gurjar pratihar samrajy ki shakti badhane lagi.

mahamood gazanavi ke hamale ke samay kannauj ka shasak rajyapal tha. rajyapal bina lade hi bhag khada hua. bad men usane mahamood gazanavi ki adhinata svikar kar li. isase asapas ke gurjar raja bahut hi naraz hue. mahamood gazanavi ke laut jane par kalinjar ke chandel raja gand ke netritv men gurjar rajaon ne kannauj ke rajyapal ko parajit kar mar dala aur usake sthan par trilochanapal ko gaddi par baithaya. mahamood ke dobara akraman karane par kannauj phir se usake adhin ho gaya. trilochanapal badi men shasan karane laga. usaki haisiyat sthaniy samant jaisi rah gayi. kannauj men gahadaval vnsh athava rathaur vnsh ka udbhav hone par usane 11vin shatabdi ke dvitiy chaturthansh men badi ke gurjar-pratihar vnsh ko sada ke lie ukhad diya. gurjar-pratihar vnsh ke antarik prashasan ke bare men kuchh bhi pata nahin hai. lekin itihas men is vnsh ka mukhy yogadan yah hai ki isane 712 ee. men sindh vijay karane vale arabon ko age nahin badhane diya.

vyavasthapak, shaktishali shasak raja bhoj

pratihar samrajy ka vastavik vyavasthapak, us vnsh ka sabase adhik shaktishali shasak raja bhoj tha. hamen yah pata nahin hai ki bhoj kab sinhasan par baitha. usake prarambhik jivan ke bare men hamen pata isalie nahin hai kyonki nagabhatt dvitiy tatha rashtrakoot shasak gopal tritiy se parajit hone ke bad pratihar samrajy ka lagabhag vighatan ho gaya tha. bhoj ne dhire dhire phir samrajy ki sthapana ki. usane kannauj par 836 ee. tak punah adhikar prapt kar liya aur jo gurjar pratihar vnsh ke ant tak usaki rajadhani bana raha. raja bhoj ne gurjaratra (gujarat kshetr) (gurjaro se rakshit desh) ya gurjar-bhoomi (rajasthan ka kuchh bhag) par bhi punah apana prabhutv sthapit kiya, lekin ek bar phir gurjar pratiharon ko pal tatha rashtrakooton ka samana karana pada. bhoj devapal se parajit hua lekin aisa lagata hai ki kannauj usake hath se gaya nahin. ab poorvi kshetr men bhoj parajit ho gaya, tab usane madhy bharat tatha dakkan ki or apana dhyan laga diya. gujarat aur malava par vijay prapt karane ke apane prayas men usaka phir rashtrakooton se sngharsh chhid gaya. narmada ke tat par ek bhishan yuddh hua. lekin bhoj malava ke adhikatar kshetr par apana prabhutv qayam karane men saphal raha. sambhav hai ki usane gujarat ke kuchh hisson par bhi shasan kiya ho. hariyana ke karanal zile men prapt ek abhilekh ke anusar bhoj ne satalaj nadi ke poorvi tat par kuchh kshetron ko bhi apane adhin kar liya tha. is abhilekh men bhoj dev ke shaktishali aur shubh shasanakal men ek sthaniy mele men kuchh ghodon ke vyapariyon dvara ghodon ki charcha ki gee hai. isase pata chalata hai ki pratihar shasakon aur madhy eshiya ke bich kafi vyapar chalata tha. arab yatriyon ne bataya ki gurjar pratihar shasakon ke pas bharat men sabase achchhi ashv sena thi. madhy eshiya tatha arab ke sath bharat ke vyapar men ghodon ka pramukh sthan tha. devapal ki mrityu aur usake parinamasvaroop pal samrajy ki kamazori ka labh uthakar bhoj ne poorv men apane samrajy ka vistar kiya.

durbhagyavash hamen bhoj ke vyaktigat jivan ke bare men adhik janakari nahin hai. bhoj ka nam kathaon men avashy prasiddh hai. sambhavatah usake samasamayik lekhak bhoj ke prarambhik jivan ki romanchapoorn ghatanaon, khoe hue rajy ko phir se prapt karane ke sahas, tatha kannauj ki vijay se atyanat prabhavit the. kintu bhoj vishnu ka bhakt tha aur usane 'adivarah' ki padavi grahan ki thi jo usake sikkon par bhi ankit hai. kuchh samay bad kannauj par shasan karane vale paramar vnsh ke raja bhoj, aur pratihar vnsh ke is raja bhoj men antar karane ke lie ise kabhi-kabhi 'mihir bhoj' bhi kaha jata hai.

bhoj ki mrityu sambhavatah 885 ee. men huee. usake bad usaka putr mahendrapal pratham sinhasan par baitha. mahendrapal ne lagabhag 908-09 tak raj kiya aur n keval bhoj ke rajy ko banae rakha varanh magadh tatha uttari bngal tak usaka vistar kiya. kathiyavad, poorvi pnjab aur avadh men bhi isase sambandhit praman mile hain. mahendrapal ne kashmir naresh se bhi yuddh kiya par har kar use bhoj dvara vijit pnjab ke kuchh kshetron ko kashmir naresh ko dena pada.

al masoodi ke anusar

is prakar pratihar nauvin shatabdi ke madhy se lekir dasavin shatabdi ke madhy, arthath ek sau varshon tak uttari bharat men shaktishali bane rahe. bagadad nivasi al masoodi 915-16 men gujarat aya tha aur usane pratihar shasakon, unake samrajy ke vistar, aur unaki shakti ki charcha ki hai. vah gurjar-pratihar rajy ko al-juar (gurjar ka apabhrnsh) aur shasak ko 'baura' pukarata hai. jo shayad adivarah ka galat uchcharan hai. yadyapi yah padavi raja bhoj ki thi, jisaka is samay tak dehant ho chuka tha. al masoodi kahata hai ki juar rajy men 1,800,000 ganv aur shahar the. isaki lambaee 2,000 kilomitar thi aur itani hi isaki chaudaee thi. raja ki sena ke char ang the aur pratyek ang men sat lakh se lekar nau lakh sainik the. al masoodi kahata hai ki uttar ki sena se yah naresh mulatan ke shasak aur usake mitron se yuddh karata hai, dakshin ki sena se rashtrakooton se tatha poorv ki sena se palon se sngharsh karata hai. isake pas yuddh ke lie prashikshit keval 2,000 hathi the lekin ashv sena desh men sabase achchhi thi. pratihar shasak sahity tatha gyan ko bahut protsahit karate the. mahanh snskrit kavi aur natakakar rajashekhar bhoj ke pautr mahipal ke darabar men rahata tha. pratiharon ne kee sundar bhavanon aur mandiron ka nirman kar kannauj ki shobha badhaee. athavin-nauvin shatabdi ke dauran kee bharatiy vidvanh bagadad ke khalifon ke darabar men ge. inhonn arab men bharatiy vigyan, visheshakar ganit, bijaganit tatha chikitsa shastr ka prachar kiya. hamen un rajaon ke nam ka pata nahin jo apane dooton aur in vidvanon ko bagadad bhejate the. pratihar sindh ke arab shasakon ke shatru ke roop men jane jate hain. isake bavajood aisa lagata hai ki is kal men bhi bharat aur pashchim eshiya ke bich vidvanon aur vastuon ka adan-pradan jari raha.

rashtrakoot naresh indr tritiy ne 915 aur 918 ee. ke madhy men ek bar phir kannauj par dhava bol diya. isase pratihar samrajy kamazor pad gaya aur sambhavatah gujarat par rashtrakooton ka adhikar sthapit ho gaya kyonki al masoodi kahata hai ki pratihar samrajy ki samudr tak pahunch nahin thi. gujarat, samudr ke raste hone vale vyapar ka kendr tha tatha uttari bharat se pashchim eshiya ko jane vali vastuon ka pramukh dvar tha. gujarat ke hath se nikal jane se pratiharon ko aur bhi dhakka laga. mahipal ke bad pratihar samrajy ka dhire-dhire patan ho gaya. ek aur rashtrakoot samrat krishn tritiy ne 963 ee. men uttari bharat par akraman kar pratihar shasak ko parajit kar diya. isake shighr bad pratihar samrajy ka vighatan ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

sndarbh

  1. Lālatā Prasāda Pāṇḍeya (1971) Sun-worship in ancient India. Motilal Banarasidass.
  2. Bombay (India : State) (1901) Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume 9, Part 1. Govt. Central Press.
  3. Chandrasekharendra Saraswati (Jagatguru Sankaracharya of Kamakoti) (2001) Śri Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya's Saundaryalaharī. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
  4. New image of Rajasthan. Directorate of Public Relations, Govt. of Rajasthan. 1966. p. 2
  5. Rama Shankar Tripathi (1999). History of ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. p. 318.

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