नर्मदा नदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


narmada nadi
narmada nadi
any nam reva
desh bharat
rajy gujarat, chhattisagadh, madhy pradesh aur maharashtr
pramukh nagar jabalapur, indaur, vadodara
udgam sthal vindhyachal ki maikal pahadi shrinkhala men amarakntak namak sthan
lambaee 1310 kimi
pauranik ullekh ramayan tatha mahabharat aur paravarti grnthon men is nadi ke vishay men anek ullekh hain.
dharmik mahattv matsy puran evn padm puran adi men aisa aya hai ki us sthan se jahan narmada sagar men milati hai, amarakantak parvat tak, 10 karod tirth hain.
googal manachitr narmada nadi

narmada nadi (angrezi: Narmada River) bharat ke madhyabhag men poorab se pashchim ki or bahane vali madhy pradesh aur gujarat rajy ki ek pramukh nadi hai, jo gnga ke saman poojaniy hai. mahakal parvat ke amarakantak shikhar se narmada nadi ki utpatti huee hai. narmada sarvatr punyamayi nadi bataee gee hai tatha isake udbhav se lekar sngam tak das karod tirth hain.

  • punya kanakhale gnga kurukshetre sarasvati .

grame va yadi varanye punya sarvatr narmada ॥[1]

  • narmada sngam yavadh yavachchamarakantakamh .

tatrantare maharaj tirthakotyo dash sthita: ॥[2]

udgam sthal

narmada nadi, jabalapur

narmada ka udgam vindhyachal ki maikal pahadi shrinkhala men amarakntak namak sthan men hai. maikal se nikalane ke karan narmada ko maikal kanya bhi kahate hain. sknd puran men is nadi ka varnan reva khnd ke antargat kiya gaya hai. kalidas ke ‘meghadootamh’ men narmada ko reva ka snbodhan mila hai, jisaka arth hai—pahadi chattanon se koodane vali. vastav men narmada ki tejadhara pahadi chattanon par aur bhedaghat men sngamaramar ki chattanon ke oopar se uchhalati huee bahati hai. amarakntak men sundar sarovar men sthit shivaling se nikalane vali is pavan dhara ko rudr kanya bhi kahate hain, jo age chalakar narmada nadi ka vishal roop dharan kar leti hain. pavitr nadi narmada ke tat par anek tirth hain , jahan shraddhaluon ka tanta laga rahata hai. inamen kapiladhara, shuklatirth, mandhata, bhedaghat, shoolapani, bhadaunch ullekhaniy hain. amarakntak ki pahadiyon se nikal kar chhattisagadh, madhy pradesh, maharashtr aur gujarat se hokar narmada qarib 1310 kimi ka pravah path tay kar bharaunch ke age khnbhat ki khadi men vilin ho jati hai. parnpara ke anusar narmada ki parikrama ka pravadhan hain, jisase shraddhaluon ko puny ki prapti hoti hai. puranon men bataya gaya hai ki narmada nadi ke darshan matr se samast papon ka nash hota hai.
isaki lambaee prayah 1310 kilo mitar hai. yah nadi pashchim ki taraph jakar khambat ki khadi men girati hai. is nadi ke kinare basa shahar jabalapur ullekhaniy hai. is nadi ke muhane par delta nahin hai. jabalapur ke nikat bhedaghat ka narmada jalaprapat kafi prasiddh hai. vedon men narmada ka koee ullekh nahin hai. gnga ke uparant bharat ki atyant punit nadiyon men narmada evn godavari ke nam ate hain. reva narmada ka doosara nam hai aur yah sambhav hai ki 'reva' se hi 'revottaras' nam pada ho.

grnthon men ullekh

  • vaidik sahity men narmada ke vishay men koee spasht snket nahin milata.
  • ramayan tatha mahabharat aur paravarti grnthon men is nadi ke vishay men anek ullekh hain. pauranik anushruti ke anusar narmada ki ek nahar kisi somavnshi raja ne nikali thi jisase usaka nam somodbhava bhi pad gaya tha.
  • guptakalin amarakosh men bhi narmada ko somodbhava kaha hai.[3]
  • kalidas ne bhi narmada ko somaprabhava kaha hai.[4]
  • raghuvnsh men narmada ka ullekh hai.[5]
  • meghadoot men reva ya narmada ka sundar varnan hai.[6]
narmada nadi
  • valmiki ramayan men bhi narmada ka ullekh hai.[7] isake pashchath ke shlokon men narmada ka ek yuvati nari ke roop men sundar varnan hai[8].
  • mahabharat men narmada ko rikshaparvat se udbhoot mana gaya hai.[9] [10]
  • bhishmaparv men narmada ka godavari ke sath ullekh hai.[11]
  • shrimadbhagavat men reva aur narmada donon ka hi ek sthan par ullekh hai.[12]
  • shatapath brahman[13] ne revottaras ki charcha ki hai, jo patav chakr evn sthapati (mukhy) tha, jise srinjayon ne nikal bahar kiya tha.[14]
  • panini[15] ke ek vartik ne 'mahishmath' ki vyutpatti 'mahish' se ki hai, ise samanyat: narmada par sthit mahishmati ka hi roopantar mana gaya hai. isase prakat hota hai ki sambhavat: vartikakar ko (lagabhag ee.poo. chauthi shatabdi men ) narmada ka parichay tha.
  • raghuvnsh[16] men reva (arthath narmada) ke tat par sthit mahishmati ko anoop ki rajadhani kaha gaya hai.

kahin-kahin sahity men is nadi ke poorvi ya pahadi bhag ko reva (shabdik arth—uchhalane-koodane vali) aur pashchimi ya maidani bhag ko narmada (shabdik arth—narm ya sukh dene vali) kaha gaya hai. (kintu mahabharat ke uparyukt uddharan men udagam ke nikat hi nadi ko narmada nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai). narmada ke tatavarti pradesh ko bhi kabhi-kabhi narmada nam se hi nirdisht kiya jata tha. vishnupuran ke anusar is pradesh par shayad guptakal se poorv abhir adi shoodrajatiyon ka adhikar tha.[17] vaise narmada ka nadi ke roop men ullekh hai.[18] [19]

narmada ki mahatta

narmada nadi
mahabharat evn katipay puranon men narmada ki charcha bahudha huee hai. matsy puran[20], padm puran[21] koorm puran[22] ne narmada ki mahatta evn usake tirthon ka varnan kiya hai. matsy puran[23] evn padm puran adi[24] men aisa aya hai ki us sthan se jahan narmada sagar men milati hai, amarakantak parvat tak, jahan se vah nikalati hai, 10 karod tirth hain. agni puran[25] evn koorm puran[26] ke mat se kram se 60 karod evn 60 sahasr tirth hain. naradiy puran[27] ka kathan hai ki narmada ke donon taton par 400 mukhy tirth hain[28], kintu amarakantak se lekar sadhe tin karod hain.[29] [30] van parv[31] ne narmada ka ullekh godavari evn dakshin ki any nadiyon ke sath kiya hai. usi parv[32] men yah bhi aya hain ki narmada anart desh men hai, yah priyngu evn amr-kunjon se paripoorn hai, isamen vetr lata ke vitan paye jate hain, yah pashchim ki or bahati hai aur tinon lokon ke sabhi tirth yahan (narmada men) snan karane ko ate hain.[33] matsy puran evn padm puran ne udghosh kiya hai ki gnga kanakhal men evn sarasvati kurukshetr men pavitr hai, kintu narmada sabhi sthanon men, chahe gram ho ya van. narmada keval darshan-matr se papi ko pavitr kar deti hai; sarasvati (tin dinon men) tin snanon se, yamuna sat dinon ke snanon se aur gnga keval ek snan se.[34] vishnudharmasootr[35] ne shraddh ke yogy tirthon ki soochi di hain, jisamen narmada ke sabhi sthalon ko shraddh ke yogy thaharaya hai. narmada ko rudr ke sharir se nikali huee kaha gaya hai, jo is bat ka kavitvamay prakatikaran matr hai ki yah amarakantak se nikali hai jo maheshvar evn unaki patni ka nivas-sthal kaha jata hai.[36] [37] vayu puran[38] men aisa udghoshit hai ki nadiyon men shreshth punit narmada pitaron ki putri hai aur is par kiya gaya shraddh akshay hota hai.[39] matsy puran evn koorm puran ka kathan hai ki yah 100 yojan lambi evn do yojan chaudi hai.[40] pro.ke.vi. rngasvami ayngar ne kaha hai ki matsy puran ki bat thik hai, kyonki narmada vastav men lagabhag 800 mil lambi hai.[41] kintu do yojan (arthath unake matanusar 16 mil) ki chaudaee bhramak hai. matsy puran evn koorm puran ka kathan hai ki narmada amarakantak se nikali hain, jo kaling desh ka pashchimi bhag hai.[42]
narmada nadi

mantr ka jap evn upavas

vishnu puran ne vyavastha di hai ki yadi koee rat evn din men aur jab andhakarapoorn sthan men use jana ho tab 'prat:kal narmada ko namaskar, ratri men narmada ko namaskar! he narmada, tumhen namaskar; mujhe vishadhar sanpon se bachaon' is mantr ka jap karake chalata hai to use sanpon ka bhay nahin hota.[43] koorm puran evn matsy puran men aisa kaha gaya hai ki jo agni ya jal men pravesh karake ya upavas karake (narmada ke kisi tirth par ya amarakantak par) pran tyagata hai vah pun: (is snsar men) nahin ata.[44]

prachin lekh

taaulami ne narmada ko 'namadoj' kaha hai.[45] narmada ki charcha karane vale shilalekhon men ek ati prachin lekh hai eran prastarastambhabhile, jo budhagupt ke kal[46] ka hai.[47] narmada men milane vali katipay nadiyon ke nam milate hain, yatha-

upatirth

saradar sarovar bandh, narmada nadi

bahut-se upatirthon ke nam ate hain jinamen do ya tin ka yahan ullekh kiya jayaga. jo hai-

  • maheshvaratirth (arthath onkar), jahan se ek tir dvara rudr ne banasur ki tin nagariyan jala dalin[54],
  • shukl-tirth[55],
  • bhrigutirth:-jisake darshan matr se manushy pap-mukt ho jata hai, jisamen snan karane se svarg milata hai aur jahan marane se snsar men pun: lautana nahin padata,
  • jamadagny tirth:-jahan narmada samudr men girati hai aur jahan bhagavan janardan ne poornata prapt ki.

amarakantak parvat ek tirth hai jo brahmahatya ke sath any papon ka mochan karata hai aur yah vistar men ek yojan hai.[56] narmada ka atyant mahattvapoorn tirth hai mahishmati, jisake sthal ke vishay men vidvanon men matabhed raha hai. adhikansh lekhak yahi kahate hain ki yah onkar mandhata hai jo indaur se lagabhag 40 mil dakshin narmada men ek dvip hai. isaka itihas purana hai. bauddh granthon men aisa aya hai ki ashok mahanh ke rajyakal[57] men moggaliputt tiss ne kee deshon men dharmik doot-mandal bheje the, jinamen ek dootamandal mahishamandal ko bhi bheja gaya tha. da. phlit ne mahishamandal ko mahishmati kaha hai.[58] mahabhashyakar ko mahishmati ka gyan tha[59] kalidas ne ise reva se ghiri huee kaha hai.[60] udyogaparv[61], anushasan parv[62], bhagavat puran[63] evn padm puran[64] men mahishmati ko narmada ya reva par sthit mana gaya hai. ek any prachin nagar hai bharukachchh ya bhrigukachchh (adhunik bhadoch).


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. padm puran, adikhand 13-6-7
  2. padm puran, adikhand 21/42
  3. ’revatunarmada somodbhava mekalakanyaka’, pauranik anushruti
  4. ’tathetyupasyrishy pay: pavitrn somodbhavaya: sarito nrisom:’ raghuvnsh 5,59
  5. 's narmadarodhasi sikaradrairmarudbhiranartitanaktamale, niveshayamas vilnghitadhva klantn rajodhoosaraketoo sainyamh’, raghuvnsh 5,42
  6. de. reva
  7. ’pashyamanastato vidhyn ravanonarmadan yayau, chalopalajalan punyan pashchimodadhigaminimh’, valmiki ramayan-uttarakand, 31,19
  8. ’chakavakai: sakarandai: sahnsajalakukkutai:, sarasaishch sadamattai: koojadibh: susamavritamh.
    phulladru makrittottnsan chakavakayugastanimh, vistirnapulinashronin hnsavali sumekhalamh.
    pushparenvanuliptanginjalaphenamalanshukamh jalavagahasusparshan phullotpal shubhekshanamh pushpakadavaruhh yashu narmadan saritan varamh, ishtamiv varan narimavagahy dashananh:’, uttarakand 31,21-22-23-24
  9. ’purashchapashchachch yatha mahanadi tamrikshavantn girimety narmada’, shantiparv 52,32
  10. de. vanaparv 82,52
  11. ’godavarin narmadan ch bahudan ch mahanadimh’, bhishmaparv 9,14
  12. ’tapi reva sarasa narmada charmanvati sindhurandh: shonashch nadau’, shrimadbhagavat 5,19,18
  13. shatapath brahman, 12.9.3.1
  14. revottarasamuh patavn chakrn sthapatisrinjaya aparurudhu:. shatapathabrahman (12.9.3.1).
  15. panini 4.2.87
  16. raghuvnsh 96.43
  17. ’narmada marubhoovishayanshch-abhir shoodradya: bhokshyanti’, vishnupuran 4,24
  18. taishchoktn purukutsay bhoobhuje narmada tate, sarasvatay tenapi mahyn sarasvaten ch’; ‘narmada surasadyashch nadyo vindhyadrinirgata;’, vishnu puran 1,2,9; 2,3,11
  19. de. reva, somodbhava.
  20. adhyay 186-194,554 shlok
  21. adikhand, adhyay 13-23, 739 shlok, jinamen bahut se matsy puran ke hi shlok hain
  22. uttarardh, adhyay 40-42, 189 shlok
  23. matsy puran 194.45
  24. padm puran, 21.44
  25. agni puran 113.2
  26. koorm puran, 2.40.13
  27. uttarardh, adhyay 77
  28. shlok 1
  29. shlok 4 evn 27-28
  30. yadyapi reva evn narmada samanyat: samanarthak kahi jati hain, kintu bhagavat puran, 5.19.18 ne inhen prithakh-prithakh (tapi-reva-surasa-narmada) kaha hai, aur vaman puran, 13.25 evn 29-30 ka kathan hai ki reva vindhy se tatha narmada rikshapad se nikali hai. sardhatrikotitirthani gaditanih vayuna. divi bhuvyantarikshe ch revayan tani santi ch॥ naradiy puran (uttar, 77.27-28).
  31. van parv, 188.103 evn 222.24
  32. van parv, 89.1-3
  33. aisa lagata hai ki prachin kal men gujarat evn kathiyavad ko anart kaha jata tha. udyog parv, 97-6 men dvaraka ko anart–nagari kaha gaya hai. narmada anart men hokar bahati mani gayi hai at: aisi kalpana ki jati hai ki mahabharat ke kal men anart ke antargat gujarat ka dakshinibhag evn kathiyavad donon sammilit the.
  34. matsy puran, 186.10-11=padm puran, adi, 13.6-7=koorm puran 2.40.7-8
  35. vishnudharmasootr, 85.8
  36. matsy puran, 188.19
  37. narmada saritan shrenshtha rudradehadvini:srita. tarayentsarvabhootani sthavarani charani ch॥ matsy puran (190.17= koorm puran 2.40.5= padm puran, adikhand 17.13).
  38. vayu puran, 977.32
  39. pitrinan duhita punya narmada saritan vara. tatr shraddhani dattani akshayani bhavantyut॥ vayupuran (77.32).
  40. yojananan shatn sagrn shrooyate sariduttama. vistaren tu rajendr yojanadvayamayata॥ koorm puran (2.40.12=matsy puran 186.24-25). aur dekhie agni puran (113.2).
  41. unake dvara sampadit kalpataru, pri. 199
  42. kalingadeshapashchardhe parvateamarakantake. punya ch trishu lokeshu ramaniya manorama॥ koorm puran (2.40.9) evn matsy puran (186.12).
  43. narmadayai nam: pratarnarmadayai namo nishi. namostu narmade tubhyn trahi man vishasarpat:॥ vishnupuran (4.3.12-13).
  44. anashakn tu y: kuryattasminstirthe naradhip. garbhavase tu rajendr n punarjayaten pumanh ॥ matsy. (194.29-30); parityajati y: prananh parvatteamarakantake. varshakotishatn sagrn rudraloke mahiyaten॥ matsy puran (186.53-54).
  45. pri0 102
  46. gupt snvath 165= 484-85 ee.
  47. dekhie karpas inskripshanam indikeram jild 3, pri. 89
  48. dakshini tat par, matsy puran 186.40 evn padm puran 1.13.35
  49. matsy puran 186.46= padm puran 2.35-39
  50. matsy puran 191.42-43 evn padm puran 1.18.44
  51. matsy puran 191.49 evn padm puran 1.18.47
  52. matsy puran 189.12-13 evn padm puran 1.16.6
  53. narmada ki uttari shakha jahan 'onkar' namak dvip avasthit hai 'kavenri' nam se prasiddh hai.
  54. matsy puran 188.2 evn padm puran 1.15.2
  55. matsy puran 192.3 dvara ati prashnsit aur jisake bare men yah kaha jata hai ki rajarshi chanaky ne yahan siddhi prapt ki thi
  56. matsy puran 189.89 evn 98
  57. lagabhag 274 ee.poo.
  58. je. ar. e. esh., pri. 425-477, sanh 1910
  59. panini 3.1.26, vartik 10
  60. raghuvnsh 6.43
  61. udyogaparv, 19.23-24 evn 166.4
  62. anushasan parv, 166.4
  63. bhagavatapuran, 10.79.21
  64. padm puran, 2.92.32

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