वैदिक वाङ्मय का शास्त्रीय स्वरूप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vaidik vanmay ka shastriy svaroop
snskrit sahity ki shabd-rachana ki drishti se 'ved' shabd ka arth gyan hota hai, parntu isaka prayog sadharanataya gyan ke arth men nahin kiya jata. hamare maharshiyon ne apani tapasya ke dvara jis 'shashvat jyoti' ka paramparagat shabd-roop se sakshatkar kiya, vahi shabd-rashi 'ved' hai. ved anadi hain aur paramatma ke svaroop hain. maharshiyon dvara pratyaksh drisht hone ke karan inamen kahin bhi asaty ya avishvas ke liye sthan nahin hai. ye nity hain aur mool men purush-jati se asambaddh hone ke karan apaurushey kahe jate hain.

pramanikata

ved anadi apaurushey aur nity hain tatha unaki pramanikata svat: siddh hai, is prakar ka mat astik siddhantavale sabhi pauranikon evn sankhy, yog, mimansa aur vedant ke darshanikon ka hai. nyay aur vaisheshik ke darshinakon ne ved ko apaurushey nahin mana hai, par ve bhi inhen parameshvar (purushottam)- dvara nirmit, parntu poorvanuroopi ka hi manate hain. in donon shakhaon ke darshanikon ne ved ko param praman mana hai aur anupoorvi (shabdochcharanakram)- ko srishti ke arambh se lekar ab tak avichchhinn-roop se pravritt mana hai.


jo ved ko praman nahin manate, ve astik nahin kahe jate. at: sabhi astik matavale ved ko praman manane men ekamat hain, keval nyay aur vaisheshik darshanikon ki apaurushey manane ki shaili bhinn hai. nastik darshanikon ne vedon ko bhinn-bhinn vyaktiyon dvara racha hua granth mana hai. charvak matavalon ne to ved ko nishkriy logon ki jivika ka sadhan tak kah dala hai. at: nastik darshan vale ved ko n to anadi n apaurushey, aur n nity hi manate hain tatha n inaki pramanikata men hi vishvas karate hain. isiliye ve nastik kahalate hain. astik darshanashastron ne is mat ka yukti, tark evn praman se poora khandan kiya hai.

ved char hain

vartaman kal men ved char mane jate hain. unake nam hain-

  1. rigved,
  2. yajurved,
  3. samaved aur
  4. atharvaved.

dvapar yug ki samapti ke poorv vedon ke ukt char vibhag alag-alag nahin the. us samay to 'rikh', 'yaju:' aur 'sam'- in tin shabd-shailiyon ki sngrahatmak ek vishisht adhyayaniy shabd-rashi hi ved kahalati thi. yahan yah kahana bhi aprasngik nahin hoga ki paramapita parameshvar ne pratyek kalp ke arambh men sarvapratham brahmaji (parameshthi prajapati)- ke hriday men samast vedon ka pradurbhav karaya tha, jo unake charon mukhon men sarvada vidyaman rahate hain. brahma ji ki rishi sntanon ne age chalakar tapasya dvara isi shabd-rashi ka sakshatkar kiya aur pathan-pathan ki pranali se inaka snrakshan kiya.

trayi

vishv men shabd-prayog ki tin hi shailiyan hoti hain; jo pady (kavita), gady aur gan roop se jan-sadharan men prasiddh hain. pady men akshar-snkhya tatha pad evn viram ka nishchit niyam rahata hai. at: nishchit akshar-snkhya aur pad evn viram vale ved-mantron ki sngya 'rikh' hai. jin mantron men chhand ke niyamanusar akshar-snkhya aur pad evn viram rishidrisht nahin hain, ve gadyatmak mantr 'yaju:' kahalate hain aur jitane mantr ganatmak hain, ve mantr 'sam' kahalate hain. in tin prakar ki shabd-prakashan-shailiyon ke adhar par hi shastr evn lok men ved ke liye 'trayi' shabd ka bhi vyavahar kiya jata hai. 'trayi' shabd se aisa nahin samajhana chahiye ki vedon ki snkhya hi tin hain, kyonki 'trayi' shabd ka vyavahar shabd-prayog ki shaili ke adhar par hai.

shruti-amnay

ved ke pathan-pathan ke kram men guru mukh se shravan kar svayn abhyas karane ki prakriya ab tak hai. aj bhi guru mukh se shravan kiye bina keval pustak ke adhar par hi mantrabhyas karana nindaniy evn nishphal mana jata hai. is prakar ved ke snrakshan evn saphalata ki drishti se guru mukh se shravan karane evn use yad karane ka atyant mahattv hai. isi karan ved ko 'shruti' bhi kahate hain. ved parishramapoorvak abhyas dvara snrakshaniy hai. is karan isaka nam 'amnay' bhi hai. trayi, shruti aur amnay- ye tinon shabd astik granthon men ved ke liye vyavahrit kiye jate hain.

char ved

us samay (dvaparayug ki samapti ke samay) men bhi ved ka padhana aur abhyas karana saral kary nahin tha. kali yug men manushyon ki shaktihinata aur kam ayu hone ki bat ko dhyan men rakhakar ved purush bhagavan narayan ke avatar shrikrishnadvaipayan vedavyas ji maharaj ne ygyanushthan ke upayog ko drishtigat rakhakar us ek ved ke char vibhag kar diye aur in charon vibhagon ki shiksha char shishyon ko di. ye hi char vibhag ajakal rigved, yajurved aur atharvaved ke nam se prasiddh hain. pail, vaishampayan, jaimini aur sumantu namak- in char shishyon ne apane-apane adhit vedon ke snrakshan evn prasar ke liye shakal adi bhinn-bhinn shishyon ko padhaya. un shishyon ke manoyog evn prachar ke karan ve shakhaen unhin ke nam se aj tak prasiddh ho rahi hain. yahan yah kahana anuchit nahin hoga ki shakha ke nam se sambandhit koee bhi muni mantradrashta rishi nahin hai aur n vah shakha usaki rachana hai. shakha ke nam se sambandhit vyakti ka us vedashakha ki rachana se sambandh nahin hai, apitu prachar evn snrakshan ke karan sambandh hai.

karmakand men bhinn vargikaran

vedon ka pradhan lakshy adhyatmik gyan dena hi hai, jisase prani matr is asar snsar ke bandhanon ke moolabhoot karanon ko samajhakar isase mukti pa sake. at: ved men karmakand aur gyanakand –in donon vishayon ka sarvangin niroopan kiya gaya hai. vedon ka prarambhik bhag karmakand hai aur vah gyanakand vale bhag se bahut adhik hai. karmakand men ygyanushthan-sambandhi vidhi-nishedh adi ka sarvangin vivechan hai. is bhag ka pradhan upayog ygyanushthan men hota hai. jin adhikari vaidik vidvanon ko ygy karane ka yajaman dvara adhikar prapt hota hai, unako 'ritvik' kahate hain. shrautaygy men in ritvijon ke char gan hain. samast ritvikh char vargon men bntakar apana-apana kary karate hue ygy ko sarvaginn banate hain. ganon ke nam hain-

  1. hotrigan,
  2. adhvaryugan,
  3. udgatrigan aur
  4. brahmagan.

uparyukt charon ganon ya vargon ke liye upayogi mantron ke sngrah ke anusar ved char hue hain. unaka vibhajan is prakar kiya gaya hai-

  1. rigved- isamen hotrivarg ke liye upayogi mantron ka snkalan hai. isaka nam rigved isaliye pada hai ki isamen 'rikh' sngyk (padyabaddh) mantron ki adhikata hai. isamen hotrivarg ke upayogi gadyatmak (yaju:) svaroop ke bhi kuchh mantr hain. isaki mantr-snkhya any vedon ki apeksha adhik hai. isake kee mantr any vedon men bhi milate hain. samaved men to rigved ke mantr hi adhik hain. svatantr mantr kam hain.
  2. yajurved- isamen ygyanushtan-sambandhi adhvaryuvarg ke upayogi mantron ka snkalan hai. isaka nam yajurved isaliye pada hai ki isamen 'gadyatmak' mantron ki adhikata hai. isamen kuchh padyabaddh , mantr bhi hain jo adhvaryuvarg ke upayogi hain. isake kuchh mantr atharvaved men bhi paye jate hain. yajurved ke do vibhag hain- (1) shuklayajurved aur (2) krishnayajurved.
  3. samaved- isamen ygyanushthan ke udgatrivarg ke upayogi mantron ka snkalan hai. isaka nam samaved isaliye pada hai ki isamen gayan-paddhati ke nishchit mantr hi hain. isake adhikansh mantr rigved men upalabdh hote hain, kuchh mantr svatantr bhi hain.
  4. atharvaved- isamen ygyanushthan ke brahmavarg ke upayogi mantron ka snkalan hai. is brahmavarg ka kary hai ygy ki dekh-rekh karana, samay-samay par niyamanusar nirdesh dena, ygy men ritvijon evn yajaman ke dvara koee bhool ho jay ya kami rah jay to usaka sudhar ya prayashchitt karana. atharv ka arth hai kamiyon ko hatakar thik karana ya kami-rahit banana. at: isamen ygy-sambandhi evn vyakti-sambandhi sudhar ya kami-poorti karane vale bhi mantr hain. isamen padyatmak mantron ke sath kuchh gadyatmak mantr bhi upalabdh hain. is ved ka namakaran any vedon ki bhanti shabd-shaili ke adhar par nahin hai, apitu isake pratipady vishay ke anusar hai. is vaidik shabdarashi ka prachar evn prayog mukhyat: atharv nam ke maharshi dvara kiya gaya. isaliye bhi isaka nam atharvaved hai.

kuchh mantr sabhi vedon men ya ek-do vedon men saman-roop se milate hain, jisaka karan yah hai ki charon vedon ka vibhajan ygyanushthan ke ritvik janon ke upayogi hone ke adhar par kiya gaya hai. at: vibhinn ygyavasaron par vibhinn vargon ke ritvijon ke liye upayogi mantron ka us ved men a jana svabhavik hai, bhale hi vah mantr doosare ritvik ke liye bhi any avasar par upayogi hone ke karan anyatr bhi milata ho.

vedon ka vibhajan aur shakha-vistar

adhunik vicharadhara ke anusar charon vedon ki shabd rashi ke vistar men tin drishtiyan payi jati hain-

  1. yagyik drishti,
  2. prayogik drishti aur
  3. sahityik drishti.

yagyik drishti

isake anusar vedokt ygyon ka anushthan hi ved ke shabdon ka mukhy upayog mana gaya hai. srishti ke arambh se hi ygy karane men sadharanataya mantrochcharan ki shaili, mantrakshar evn karm-vidhi men vividhata rahi hai. is vividhata ke karan hi vedon ki shakha ka vistar hua hai. pratyek ved ki anek shakhaen batayi gayi hain. yatha-rigved ki 21 shakha, yajurved ki 101 shakha, samaved ki 1,000 shakha aur atharvaved ki 9 shakha- is prakar kul 1,131 shakhaen hain. is snkhya ka ullekh maharshi patanjali ne apane mahabhashy men bhi kiya hai. any vedon ki apeksha rigved men mantr-snkhya adhik hai, phir bhi isaka shakha-vistar yajurved aur samaved ki apeksha kam hai. isaka karan yah hai ki rigved men devataon ke stuti roop mantron ka bhandar hai. stuti-vakyon ki apeksha karmaprayog ki shaili men bhinnata honi svabhavik hai. at: rigved ki apeksha yajurved ki shakhaen adhik hain. gayan-shaili ki shakhaon ka sarvadhik hona ashcharyajanak nahin hai. at: samaved ki 1000 shakhaen batayi gayi hain. phalat: koee bhi ved shakha-vistar ke karan ek-doosare se upayogita, shraddha evn mahattv men kam-zyada nahin hai. charon ka mahattv saman hai. uparyukt 1,131 shakhaon men se vartaman men keval 12 shakhaen hi mool granthon men upalabdh hain. ve hain—

  • rigved ki 21 shakhaon men se keval 2 shakhaon ke hi granth prapt hain-
  1. shakal-shakha aur
  2. shankhayan-shakha.
  • yajurved men krishnayajurved ki 86 shakhaon men se keval 4 shakhaon ke granth hi prapt hain-
  1. taittiriy shakha,
  2. maitrayaniy shakha,
  3. kath shakha aur
  4. kapishthal shakha.
    • shuklayajurved ki 15 shakhaon men se keval 2 shakhaon ke granth hi prapt hain-
  1. madhyandiniy-shakha aur
  2. kanv-shakha.
  • samaved ki 1000 shakhaon men se keval 2 shakhaon ke hi granth prapt hain-
  1. kauthum-shakha aur
  2. jaiminiy-shakha.
  • atharvaved ki 9 shakhaon men se keval 2 shakhaon ke hi granth prapt hain-
  1. shaunak-shakha aur
  2. paippalad-shakha.

adhyayan-shaili

uparyukt 12 shakhaon men se keval 6 shakhaon ki adhyayan-shaili prapt hai, jo niche di ja rahi hai- rigved men keval shakal-shakha, krishnayajurved men keval taittiriy shakha aur shuklayajurved men keval madhyandiniy shakha tatha kanv-shakha, samaved men keval kauthum-shakha, atharveved men keval shaunak-shakha. yah kahana bhi anupayukt nahin hoga ki any shakhaon ke kuchh aur bhi granth upalabdh hain, kintu unase us shakha ka poora parichay nahin mil sakata evn bahut-si shakhaon ke to nam bhi upalabdh nahin hain. krishnayajurved ki maitrayani shakha maharashtr men tatha samaved ki jaiminiy shakha keral ke kuchh vyaktiyon ke hi uchcharan men simit hain.

prayogik drishti

isake anusar pratyek shakha ke do bhag bataye gaye hain. ek mantr-bhag aur doosara brahman-bhag.

mantr-bhag

mantr-bhag us shabdarashi ko kahate hain, jo ygy men sakshath-roop se prayog men ati hai.

brahman-bhag

brahman shabd se us shabdarashi ka snket hai, jisamen vidhi (agyabodhak shabd), katha, akhyayika evn stuti dvara ygy karane ki pravritti utpann karana, ygyanushthan karane ki paddhati batana, usaki upapatti aur vivechan ke sath usake rahasy ka niroopan karana hai. is prayogik drishti ke do vibhajanon men sahityik drishti ke char vibhajanon ka samavesh ho jata hai.

sahityik drishti

isake anusar pratyek shakha ki vaidik shabd-rashi ka vargikaran-

snhita

ved ka jo bhag pratidin visheshat: adhyayaniy hai, use 'snhita' kahate hain. is shabd rashi ka upayog shraut evn smart donon prakar ke ygyanushthanon men hota hai. pratyek ved ki alag-alag shakha ki ek-ek snhita hai. vedon ke anusar unako-

  1. rigved-snhita,
  2. yajurved- snhita,
  3. samaved-snhita aur
  4. atharvaved-snhita kaha jata hai. in snhitaon ke path men unake akshar, varn, svar adi ka kinchit matr bhi ulat-pulat n hone paye, isaliye prachin adhyayan-adhyapan ke sampraday men
  • snhita-path,
  • pad-path,
  • kram-path-ye tin prakriti path aur
  • jata,
  • mala,
  • shikha,
  • rekha,
  • dhvaj,
  • dand,
  • rath tatha
  • ghan- ye ath vikriti path prachalit hain.

brahman

vah ved-bhag jisamen visheshataya ygyanushthan ki paddhati ke sath-hi-sath tadupayogi pravritti ka udbodhan karana, usako dridh karana tatha usake dvara phal-prapti adi ka niroopan vidhi evn arthavad ke dvara kiya gaya hai, 'brahman' kaha jata hai.

aranyak

vah ved-bhag jisamen ygyanushthan-paddhati, yagyik mantr, padarth evn phal adi men adhyatmikata ka snket diya gaya hai, 'aranyak' kahalata hai. yah bhag manushy ko adhyatmik bodh ki or jhukakar sansarik bandhanon se oopar uthata hai. at: isaka vishesh adhyayan bhi snsar ke tyag ki bhavana ke karan vanaprasthashram ke liye arany (jngal)- men kiya jata hai. isiliye isaka nam 'aranyak' prasiddh hua hai.

upanishad

vah ved-bhag jisamen vishuddh riti se adhyatmik chintan ko hi pradhanata di gayi hai aur phal sambandhi phalanubandhi karmon ke dridhanurag ko shithil karana sujhaya gaya hai, 'upanishad' kahalata hai. ved ka yah bhag usaki sabhi shakhaon men hai, parntu yah bat spasht-roop se samajh leni chahiye ki vartaman men upanishad sngya ke nam se jitane granth upalabdh hain, unamen se kuchh upanishadon (eeshavasy, brihadaranyak, taittiriy, chhandogy adi)- ko chhodakar baqi ke sabhi upanishad –bhag men upalabdh hon, aisi bat nahin hai. shakhagat upanishadon men se kuchh ansh ko samayik, samajik ya vaiyaktik avashyakata ke adhar par upanishad sngya de di gayi hai. isilie inaki snkhya evn upalabdhiyon men vividhata milati hai. vedon men jo upanishad-bhag hain, ve apani shakhaon men sarvatha akshunn hain. unako tatha unhin shakhaon ke nam se jo upanishad-sngya ke granth upalabdh hain, donon ko ek nahin samajhana chahiye. upalabdh upanishad-granthon ki snkhya men se eeshadi 10 upanishad to sarvamany hain. inake atirikt 5 aur upanishad (shvetashvataradi), jin par acharyo ki tikaen tatha praman-uddharan adi milate hain, sarvasammat kahe jate hain. in 15 ke atirikt jo upanishad upalabdh hain, unaki shabdagat ojasvita tatha pratipadanashaili adi ki vibhinnata hone par bhi yah avashy kaha ja sakata hai ki inaka pratipady brahm ya atmatattv nishchayapoorvak apaurushey, nity, svat:praman ved-shabd-rashi se sambaddh hai.

rishi, chhand aur devata

ved ke pratyek mantr men kisi-n-kisi rishi, chhand evn devata ka ullekh hona avashyak hai. kahin-kahin ek hi mantr men ek se adhik rishi, chhand aur devata ke nam milate hain. isaliye yah avashyak hai ki ek hi mantr men ek se adhik rishi, chhand aur devata kyon hain, yah spasht kar diya jay. isaka vivechan nimn pnktiyon men kiya gaya hai-

rishi

yah vah vyakti hai, jisane mantr ke svaroop ko yatharth roop men samajha hai. 'yatharth'- gyan pray: char prakar- se hota hai

  1. parampara ke mool purush hone se,
  2. us tattv ke sakshat darshan se,
  3. shraddhapoorvak prayog tatha sakshatkar se aur
  4. ichchhit (abhilashit)-poorn saphalata ke sakshatkar se. atev in char karanon se mantr-sambandhit rishiyon ka nirdesh granthon men milata hai. jaise—
  • kalp ke adi men sarvapratham is anadi vaidik shabd-rashi ka pratham upadesh brahmaji ke hriday men hua aur brahmaji se paramparagat adhyayan-adhyapan hota raha, jisaka nirdesh 'vnsh-brahman' adi granthon men upalabdh hota hai. at: samast ved ki parampara ke mool purush brahma (rishi) hain. inaka smaran parameshthi prajapati rishi ke roop men kiya jata hai.
  • isi parameshthi prajapati ki parampara ki vaidik shabdarashi ke kisi ansh ke shabd tattv ka jis rishi ne apani tapashcharya ke dvara kisi vishesh avasar par pratyaksh darshan kiya, vah bhi us mantr ka rishi kahalaya. us rishi ka yah rishitv shabdatattv ke sakshatkar ka karan mana gaya hai. is prakar ek hi mantr ka shabdatattv-sakshatkar anek rishiyon ko bhinn-bhinn roop se ya samoohik roop se hua tha. at: ve sabhi us mantr ke rishi mane gaye hain.
  • kalp granthon ke nirdeshon men aise vyaktiyon ko bhi rishi kaha gaya hai, jinhonne us mantr ya karm ka prayog tatha sakshatkar ati shraddhapoorvak kiya hai.
  • vaidik granthon visheshataya puran-granthon ke manan se yah bhi pata lagata hai ki jin vyaktiyon ne kisi mantr ka ek vishesh prakar ke prayog tatha sakshatkar se saphalata prapt ki hai, ve bhi us mantr ke rishi mane gaye hain.

ukt nirdeshon ko dhyan men rakhane ke sath yah bhi samajh lena chahiye ki ek hi mantr ko ukt charon prakar se ya ek hi prakar se dekhane vale bhinn-bhinn vyakti rishi hue hain. phalat: ek mantr ke anek rishi hone men paraspar koee virodh nahin hai, kyonki mantr rishiyon ki rachana ya anubhooti se sambandh nahin rakhata; apitu rishi hi us mantr se bahirng roop se sambaddh vyakti hai.

chhand

mantr se sambandhit (mantr ke svaroop men anusyoot) akshar, pad, viram ki visheshata ke adhar par di gayi jo sngya hai, vahi chhand hai. ek hi padarth ki sngya vibhinn siddhant ya vyakti ke vishleshan ke bhav se nana prakar ki ho sakati hai. at: ek hi mantr ke bhinn nam ke chhand shastron men paye jate hain. kisi bhi sngya ka niyaman usake tattvgy apt vyakti ke dvara hi hota hai. at: katyayan, shaunak, pingal adi 'chhand:shastr' ke acharyon ki evn sarvanukramanikaron ki uktiyan hi is sambandh men many hoti hain. isaliye ek mantr men bhinn namon ke chhandon ke milane se bhram nahin hona chahiye.

devata

mantron ke akshar kisi padarth ya vyakti ke sambandh men kuchh kahate hain. yah kathan jis vyakti ya padarth ke nimitt hota hai, vahi us mantr ka devata hota hai, parntu yah smaran rakhana chahiye ki kaun mantr, kis vyakti ya padarth ke liye kab aur kaise prayog kiya jay, isaka nirnay ved ka brahman-bhag ya tattvgy rishiyon ke shastr-vachan hi karate hain. ek hi mantr ka prayog kee ygyiy avasaron tatha kee kamanaon ke liye milata hai. aisi sthiti men us ek hi mantr ke anek devata bataye jate hain. at: un nirdeshon ke adhar par hi koee padarth ya vyakti 'devata' kaha jata hai. mantr ke dvara jo prarthana ki gayi hai, usaki poorti karane ki kshamata us devata men rahati hai. laukik vyakti ya padarth hi jahan devata hain, vahan vastut: vah drishy jad padarth hi jahan devata hain, vahan vastut: vah drishy jad padarth ya aksham vyakti devata nahin hai, apitu usamen antarhit ek prabhu-shaktisampann devata-tattv hai, jisase ham prarthana karate hain. yahi bat 'abhimanivyapadesh' shabd se shastron men spasht ki gayi hai. laukik padarth ya vyakti ka adhishthata devata-tattv mantratmak shabd-tattv se abhinn hai, yah mimansa-darshan ka vichar hai. vedantashastr men mantr se pratipadit devata-tattv ko shariradhari chetan aur atindriy kaha gaya hai. puranon men kuchh devataon ke sthan, charitr, itihas adi ka varnan karake bharatiy snskriti ke is devata-tattv ke prabhutv ko hridayngam karaya gaya hai. nishkarsh yahi hai ki ichchha ki poorti kar sakane vale atindriy mantr se pratipadit tattv ko devata kahate hain aur us devata ka snket shastr-vachanon se hi milata hai. at: vachanon ke anusar avasar-bhed se ek mantr ke vibhinn devata ho sakate hain.

ved ke ang, upang evn upaved

vedon ke sarvaginn anushilan ke liye shiksha, kalp, vyakaran, nirookt chhand aur jyotish-in 6 angon ke granth hain. pratipadasootr, anupad, chhandobhasha (pratishakhy), dharmashastr, nyay tatha vaisheshik- ye 6 upang granth bhi upalabdh hain. ayurved, dhanurved, gandharvaved tatha sthapatyaved-ye kramash: charon vedon ke upaved katyayan ne batalaye hain.

vishesh upayogi granth

vaidik shabdon ke arth evn unake prayog ki poori janakari ke liye vedang adi shastron ki vyavastha mani gayi hai. usamen vaidik svar aur shabdon ki vyavastha ke liye shiksha tatha vyakaran donon angon ke granth ved ke vishisht shabdarth ke upayog ke liye alag-alag upang granth 'pratishakhy' hain, jinhen vaidik vyakaran bhi kahate hain. prayog-paddhati ki suvyavastha ke liye kalpashastr mana jata hai. isake char bhed hain- (1) shrautasootr, (2) grihyasootr, (3) dharmasootr aur (4) shulbasootr. inaka spashtikaran nimn prakar hain-

shrautasootr

isamen shraut-agni (avahaniy-garhapaty evn dakshinagni)- men hone vale ygy-sambandhi vishayon ka spasht niroopan kiya gaya hai.

grihyasootr

isamen grihy (aupasan)-agni men hone vale karmon evn upanayan, vivah adi snskaron ka niroopan kiya gaya hai.

dharmasootr

isamen varn tatha ashram-sambandhi dharm, achar, vyavahar adi ka niroopan hai.

shulbasootr

isamen ygy-vedi adi ke nirman ki jyamitiy prakriya tatha any tatsambaddh niroopan hai. is prakar se pratyek shakha ke liye alag-alag vyakaran aur kalpasootr hain, jisase us shakha ka poora gyan ho jata hai aur karmanushthan men suvidha hoti hai. is bat ko bhi dhyan men rakhana chahiye ki yatharth men gyanasvaroop hote hue bhi ved; koee vedant-sootr ki tarah keval darshanik granth nahin hain, jahan keval adhyatmik chintan ka hi samavesh ho. gyan-bhandar men laukik aur alaukik sabhi vishayon ka samavesh rahata hai aur sakshat ya parampara se ye sabhi vishay param tattv ki prapti men sahayak hote hain. yadyapi kisi darshanik vishay ka sangopang vichar ved men kisi ek sthan par nahin milata, kintu chhote-se-chhote tatha bade-se-bade tattvon ke svaroop ka sakshat darshan to rishiyon ko hua tha aur ve sab anubhav ved men vyakt roop se kisi n kisi sthan par varnit hain. unamen laukik aur alaukik sabhi baten hain. sthoolatam tatha sookshmatam roop se bhinn-bhinn tattvon ka parichay ved ke adhyayan se prapt hota hai. at: ved ke sambandh men yah nahin kaha ja sakata ki ved ka ek hi pratipady vishay hai ya ek hi darshan hai ya ek hi mantavy hai. yah to sakshat –prapt gyan ke svaroopon ka shabd-bhandar hai. isi shabdarashi ke tattvon ko nikal kar acharyon ne apani-apani anubhooti, drishti evn guru-parampara ke adhar par vibhinn darshanon tatha darshanik prasthanon (maulik drishti se suvicharit maton)- ka snchayan kiya hai. is karan bharatiy drishti se ved vishv ka snvidhan hai. anuvrat: pitu: putro matra bhavatu snmana:.
jaya patye madhumatin vachn vadatu shantivamh॥ [1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. putr pita ke anukool karm karane vala ho aur mata ke sath saman man vala ho. patni pati se madhur aur sukhad vani bole.(atharv 3.30.2

sabhar:da. shrishrikishoraji mishr

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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