आरण्यक साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg aranyak ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- aranyak (bahuvikalpi)

brahman granth ke jo bhag arany men pathaniy hain, unhen 'aranyak' kaha gaya ya yon kahen ki ved ka vah bhag, jisamen ygyanushthan-paddhati, yagyik mantr, padarth evn phaladi men adhyatmikata ka snket diya gaya, ve 'aranyak' hain. jo manushy ko adhyatmik bodh ki or jhuka kar sansarik bndhanon se oopar uthate hain. vanaprasthashram men snsar-tyag ke uparant arany men adhyayan hone ke karan bhi inhen 'aranyak' kaha gaya. arayankon men darshanik evn rahasyatmak vishayon yatha, atma, mrityu, jivan adi ka varnan hota hai. in grnthon ko arayank isalie kaha jata hai kyonki in grnthon ka manan arany arthath van men kiya jata tha. ye granth aranyon (jngalon) men nivas karane vale sannyasiyon ke margadarshan ke lie likhe ge thai. aranyakon men aitarey aranyak, shankhayant aranyak, brihadaranyak, maitrayani upanishadh aranyak tatha tavalakar aranyak (ise jaiminiyopanishadh brahman bhi kahate hain) mukhy hain. aitarey tatha shankhayan rigved se, brihadaranyak shukl yajurved se, maitrayani upanishadh aranyak krishn yajurved se tatha tavalakar aranyak samaved se sambaddh hain. atharvaved ka koee aranyak upalabdh nahin hai. aranyak granthon men pran vidya mi mahima ka pratipadan vishesh roop se milata hai. inamen kuchh aitihasik tathy bhi hain, jaise- taittiriy aranyak men kuroo, pnchal, kashi, videh adi mahajanapadon ka ullekh hai.

ved evn snbndhit arayank

ved sambandhit aranyak

1- rigved

aitarey aranyak, shankhayan aranyak ya kaushitaki aranyak

2- yajurved

brihadaranyak, maitrayani, taittiriyaranyak

3- samaved

jaimaniyopanishad ya tavalakar aranyak

4- atharvaved

koee aranyak nahin

aranyak–sahity ki prishthabhoomi

sthool ke viruddh sookshm ke prati akarshan svabhavatah utpann ho jata hai. shrautayagon ke sandarbh men bhi, janamanas men, vishesh roop se prabriddh varg men, isi prakar ka akarshan shanaiahshanaiah uttarottar abhivriddh hua. ygy ke dravyatmak svaroop ke bahuvidh svaroop–vistar men, jab usaka vastavik marm ojhal hone laga, to yah avashyakata gaharaee se anubhav ki gee ki shrautayagon ki adhyatmik vyakhya ki jae. brahman granthon ke uttarardh men, isi drishtikon ko pradhanata prapt huee aur usamen vaidik yagon ke antartam men nihit gambhir arthavatta, vastavik marm aur adhyatmik rahasyon ke sandhan ke lie jis chintan ko akar mila, usi ka namakaran aranyak–sahity ke roop men hua. aranyak granth brahman granthon evn upanishadon ke madhy ki kadi hai. upanishadon men jin adhyatmik tattvon ko ham atyuchch shikhar par aroodh dekhate hain, unaki prishthabhoomi aranyakon men hi nihit hai. vedokt samajik vyavastha men, ashram–pranali ka vishesh mahattv hai. brahmanagranthokt shrautayagon ke anushthan ke adhikari grihasthashrami mane ge hain. isake pashchath vanaprasthashram men pravisht vyaktiyon ke lie, vaidik vanmay men, aranyak–sahity vishesh upadey samajha gaya hai. pachas varsh se adhik avastha vale aise vyaktiyon men jo shrautayogon ke sthool dravyatmak svaroop se suparichit the, ab is svaroop ke vastavik marm ki jigyasa svabhavatah adhik thi. inhin ki bauddhik jigyasaon ke shaman ke lie aranyak–sahity ka pranayan hua.

namakaran aur mahattv

'aranyak' nam se spasht hai ki in granthon ka ghanishth sambandh arany athava van se hai. aranyon ke ekant vatavaran men, gambhir adhyatmik rahasyon ke anusandhan ki cheshta svabhavik hi nahin, sukar bhi thi. aranyakon men sakam karm ke anushthan tatha usake phal ke prati asakti ki bhavana vidyaman nahin dikhalaee deti. isi karan inaka adhyatmik mahattv brahman granthon ki apeksha adhik hai. upanishadon ke tattvgyan ko samajhane ke lie bhi aranyakon ka pahale anushilan avashyak hai. upanishadon men bahusnkhyak aise prasng hain, jinake yatharth parigyan ke lie unake un mooladharon ko janana avashyak hai, jo aranyakon men nihit hain. bhasha ki drishti se bhi aranyak sahity mahattvapoorn hai, kyonki inaka pranayan vaidiki aur laukik snskrit ki madhyavartani bhasha men hua hai. karmakand ki drishti se brahman evn aranyak paraspar atyadhik sambaddh hain, isalie baudhayan dharmasootr men, aranyakon ko bhi 'brahman' akhya se snyukt kiya gaya hai–

"vigyayate karmadishvetairjuhuyath pooto devalokath samashnute iti hi brahmanamiti hi brahmanh".[1]

taittiriyaranyak–bhashyabhoomika men sayanachary ka kathan hai ki aranyon arthath vanon men padhe–padhaye jane ke karan 'aranyak' namakaran sampann hua—'aranyadhyayana–detadaranyakamitiryate. aranye tadadhiyitetyevn vakyn pravakshyate..[2] brahmachary ke niyamon ka palan karane vala hi in granthon ke adhyayan ka adhikari hai–"etadaranyakn sarv navrati shrotumarhati".[3] vyutpatti ki drishti se 'aranyak' shabd 'arany' men 'vunh' (bhavarthak) pratyay ke yog se nishpann hota hai–is prakar se isaka arth hai, 'arany men hone vala' - 'aranye bhavamiti aranyamh.' brihadaranyak men bhi isi ka samarthan kiya gaya hai–'aranyeanoochyamanatvath aranyakamh.' uparyukt vivaran se yah spasht hai ki aranyakon ka adhyayan samanyatah vanon men hi kiya jata tha, kintu yah anivaryata nahin thi. taittiyaranyak ke kuchh anshon se vidit hota hai ki vaidikayug men, vanon ke sath hi gramon men bhi koee bandhan nahin tha.[4] yahi nahin, chalate hue, baithe hue, lete hue tatha nidronmukh sthitiyon men bhi koee yadi inaka adhyayan kar leta tha, to vah sabhi lokon ki upalabdhi ka bhajan ho jata tha.[5] isase spasht hai ki prarambh men, aranyakon ka anushilan sarvatr kiya jata tha, kintu kalantar men inhen vanon men hi padhe jane ko adhik shreyaskar mana jane laga.

pashchaty vidvanon ka man brahman granthon men yadyapi kam rama hai, kintu unhonne bhi aranyakon ki prashnsa unmukt hriday se ki hai. oldenabarg aur maikdaaunel jaise manishi in pavitr granthon ki garima se poornataya ashvast pratit hote hain.[6] mahabharat men kaha gaya hai ki jaise dadhi se navanit, malayagiri se chandan aur aushadhiyon se amrit prapt kiya jata hai, usi prakar vedon se aranyak le liya jata hai.[7]

aranyakon ka brahmanon ke sath sambandh

aranyak–granth brahman–granthon ki hi shrinkhala men, vastutah, unake uttarardh bhag men snkalit hain. karmakand ke sath donon ka hi sambandh hai, isalie ye ek hi parampara se anusyoot hain. raja janak ke dvara sarvashreshth sattvetta ko 100 gay dene ki akhyayika shatapath brahman ke sath hi brihadaranyak men bhi upalabdh hoti hai. brihadaranyak men keval itani vishishtata hai ki usamen yagyvalky aur tatkalin any tatvachintakon ke madhy hua darshanik tatvon par vishad vichar–vimarsh bhi sammilit hai. isase spasht hai ki aranyak bhag brahmanagranthon par nirbhar hai. is sandarbh men, itana aur gyatavy hai ki aranyak–granth brahmanagranthon ke vishad tatha darshanik svaroop ke parichayak hai. daau. radhakrishnan ke anusar brahmanagranthon men un karmakandon ka vivechan hai, jinaka vidhan grihasth ke lie tha, kintu vriddhavastha men jab vah vanon ka ashray leta hai to, karmakand ke sthan par kisi any vastu ki use avashyakata hoti thi aur aranyak usi vishay ki poorti karate hain.[8]

aranyakon ka mukhy pratipady vishay bhi yagyik karmakand ke darshanik paksh ka udaghatan hai. durgachary ne nirukt–bhashy[9] men 'aitareyake rahasy–brahmane' kahakar aranyakon ke lie 'rahasy–brahman' nam ka ullekh kiya hai. gopath brahman[10] men bhi 'rahasy' shabd ka vyavahar is sandarbh men dikhalaee deta hai.

aranyakon ka mukhy pratipady–vishay

achary baladev upadhyay ke anusar, aranyak ygy ke goodh rahasy ka pratipadan karate hain. 'rahasy' shabd se abhihit ki jane vali brahmavidya ki bhi isamen satta hai. aranyakon ka mukhy pratipady vishay pranavidya tatha pratikapasana hai. ve pranavidya ko apani anokhi soojh nahin batalate, pratyut rigved ke mantron[11] ko apani pushti men udadhrit karate hain, jinamen pranavidya ki dirghakalin parampara ka itihas milata hai.[12] upanishadon ke saman aranyak–granth bhi ek hi moolasatta ko manate hain, jisaka vikas is srishti ke roop men hua hai. vibhinn vastuon men ek hi tattv kaise anusyoot hai, isaka niroopan aitareyaranyak men is prakar se hua hai—

"etn hyev bahvricha mahatyukthe mimansant etamagnavadhvaryav etn mahavrate chhandoga etamasyametn divyetn vayavetamakash
etamapsvetamoshadhishvetn vanaspatishvetn chandramasyetn nakshatreshvetn sarveshu bhooteshvetamev brahm ityachakshate."

taittiriy–aranyak men kal ka nidarshan bahut sundarata se kiya gaya hai. kal nirantar pravahaman hai. akhand snvatsar ke roop men ham isi paramarthik kal ke darshan karate hain. vyavaharik kal anek tatha anity hai. vyavahar ki drishti se usake anek bhag muhoortt, din, rat, paksh, mas ityadi roopon men kie jane par bhi vastutah vah ekaroop athava ekakar hi rahata hai. is sandarbh men nadi ka drishtant diya gaya hai, jo akshayy srot se pravahit hoti hai, jise nana sahayak nadiyan akar pusht banati hain, tatha jo vistirn hokar bhi nahin sookhati hain. yahi sthiti kal ke sandarbh men snvatsar ki hai–

nadiv prabhavath kachidakshayyath syandate yatha.
tan nadyoabhisamayanti soruah sati n nivartate..
evn nana samutthanaah kalaah snvatsarn shritaah.[13]

  pranavidya ke mahattv ka niroopan aranyakon men vishesh roop se hai. aiterey–aranyak ka yah vishisht pratipady hai. tadanusar pran is vishv ka dharak hai, pran ki shakti se jaise yah akash apane sthan par sthit hai, usi prakar sarvochch prani se lekar chinti tak samast prani isi pran ke dvara pratishthit hain–

'soayamakashah pranen brihatya vishtabadhah, tadyathayamakashah pranen brihatya
vishtabdh evn sarvani bhootanyapipilikabhyah pranen brihatya vishtabdhanityevn vidyath'[14]

pran hi ayu ka karan hai, kaushitaki–upanishadh se bhi isaki pushti hoti hai–'yavaddhyasminh sharire prano vasati tavadayuah.' isilis jaise putr apane satkarmon se pita ki seva karata hai, usi prakar antariksh aur vayu bhi pran ki seva men snlagn rahate hain–

'pranen srashtavantarikshn ch vayushch.
antarikshn va anucharanti antarikshamanushrrinvanti.
vayurasmai punyn gandhamavahati.
evametau prannpatarn paricharatoantarikshn ch vayushh'.[15]

sabhi richaen, yahan tak ki sabhi ved aur dhvaniyan pran men hi sannihit hain—

'ta va etaah sarva richah sarve ghoshaah ekaiv vyahatiah
pran ev pran rich ityevn vidyath'.[16]

pran ke vibhinn roopon ke dhyan se dhyata ko vibhinn phalon ki prapti hoti hai. ahoratr ke roop men pran kalatmak hai. pratahkal pran ka prasaran dikhalaee padata hai. saynkal indriyon men jo snkoch ata hai, vah pran ke karan hi hai. hiranyadan namak rishi ne pran ki devatmak roop men upasana ki thi. aitarey aranyak men hi pranon ki rishiroop men bhi upasana nirdisht hai. gritsamad, vishvamitr, vamadev, atri, bharadvaj, vasishth prabhriti sabhi rishi pran hi hain. 'gritsamad' nam men vidyaman 'grits' aur 'mad' ka, is sandarbh men prithak–prithakh nirvachan karate hue kaha gaya hai ki shayan hi ke samay vakh, chakshu ityadi indriyon ke nigaran karane ke karan 'grits' hai aur riti–kriya ke samay viryaslakhan roop 'mad' ko utpann karane ke karan 'mad' kahalata hai. is prakar 'gritsamad' ka tatpary hai pran aur apan ka snyog. pran hi vishvamitr hai, kyonki samast vishv is pran devata ka bhogy hone ke karan mitr hai–'vishvah mitrn yasy asau vishvamitrah.' 'vamadev' namagat 'vam' shabd pran ki vandaniya, bhajaniyata aur sevaniyata ka dyok hai. samast vishv ko pap se bachane ke karan atri bhi pran hi hai–'sarv papmanoatrayat iti atriah.' 'bharadvaj' ke sandarbh men kaha gaya hai ki gati sampann hone se manushy deh 'vaj' hai aur pran is sharir men pravesh karake nirantar usaka bharan karata hai. 'vasishth' bhi pran hi hai, kyonki is sharir men indriyon ke nivas karane ka karan pran hi hai. is prakar, rishi–bhavana se pranopasana ka nirdesh aranyakon men antyant vistar se upalabadh hota hai. maitrayani–aranyak men pran, agni aur paramatma shabdon ko samanarthak batalaya gaya hai–'pranoagniah paramatma'.[17]

aitihasik sandarbhon men upadey anek tathyon ka parigyan bhi aranyakon se hota hai. tadanusar ygyopavit ka sarvapratham ullekh taittiriy aranyak men hai. vahan kaha gaya hai ki ygyopavit–dharan karake jo vyakti ygyanushthan karata hai, usaka ygy bhalibhanti svikar kiya jata hai–aisa ygyopavitadhari vyakti jo kuchh bhi padhata hai, vah ygy hi hai.[18] 'shraman' shabd ka prayog taittiriy aranyak men tapasvi ke arth men hua hai. kalantar se, bauddh kal men, yah shabd bauddhabhikshuon ka gyapak ban gaya.[19] isi aranyak men ek sahasr dhuron vale, bahusnkhyak chakron vale tatha sahasr ashvon vale ek vilakshan rath ka varnan hai. kanvashakhiy brihadaranyak men sannyas ka vidhan spasht shabdon men hai. kaha gaya hai ki atma ka gyan prapt karane ke pashchath hi koee muni hota hai. isi brahmalok ki ichchha se snnyasi sannyas dharan karate hain.[20]

aranyakon ke pravachanakarta

adhikansh aranyak brahmanagranthon ke antim bhag hain, isalie un brahmanon ke pravachanakarta hi, katipay apavadon ko chhodakar, aranyakon ke pravachanakarta hain. udaharan ke lie aitarey aranyak parampara ke anusar, aitarey–brahman ka antim bhag hai, isalie aitarey–brahman ke pravakta mahidas aitarey ko hi aitarey–aranyak (tritiy aranyak tak) ka bhi pravachanakarta mana jata hai. is prakar ka ullekh bhi aitarey–aranyak men hai–'etaddh sm vai tadvidvanah mahidas aitareyah'.[21] yadyapi pro. kith is ullekh ko hi adhar manakar mahidas ko aitareyaranyak ki rachana ka shrey nahin dete[22], kintu adhikansh vidvanh unase asahamat hain. isalie yah nishchit hai ki aitarey aranyak ke tritiy aranyakant bhag ke pravachanakarta mahidas aitarey hi hain. inaka vishad parichay aitarey–brahman ke antargat diya ja chuka hai. aitarey aranyak ke antargat chaturtharanyak ke pravachanakarta ashvalayan tatha pancham ke shaunak mane jate hain. aitareyaranyak ke bhashy men sayan ki bhi yahi dharana hai–'atev panchame shaunakenodahataah. tashch panchame shaunaken shakhantaramashrity pathitaah.'

shankhayan–aranyak ke drashta ka nam gunakhy shankhayan hai. inake guru ka nam tha kahol kaushitaki, jaisa ki is aranyak ke 15ven adhyay men suspasht ullekh hai–'namo brahmane nam acharyebhyo gunakhyachchhankhayanadasmabhiradhitn gunakhyah shankhayanah kaholatkaushitakeah.' brihadaranyak k pravachanakarta, parampara se maharshi yagyvalky mane jate hain, kyonki vahi sampoorn shatapath–brahman ke pravakta hain aur brihadaranyak shatapathantargat hi hai. sayanachary ke anusar taittiriy–aranyak ke roop men prakhyat krishnayajurvediy aranyak ke drishta rishi kath hain–is prakar ise kathak–aranyak ke nam se abhihit kiya jana chahie—

'kathan munina drishtn kathakn parikirtyate.
savitro nachiketashch chaturhotrastritiyakah..
turyo vaishvasrijastadvadh vahnirarunaketukah.
svadhyayabrahmann cheti sarv kathakamiritamh..'[23]

maitrayaniy–aranyak hi maitrayaniy–upanishadh ke roop men vikhyat hai. jaiminiyopanishad brahman, samaved ke antargath 'talavakar–aranyak' ke nam se prasiddh hai. isake ant men kashyap se gupt lauhity tak rishi–namon ki sudirgh shrinkhala di gee hai.

aranyakon ka desh–kal

aranyakon ka desh–kal vahi hai, jo brahmanagranthon ka hai. taittiriyaranyak men gnga–yamuna ka tatavarti madhyadesh atyant pavitr tatha muniyon ka nivas batalaya gaya hai.[24] isi aranyak men age kurukshetr tatha khandavan ka varnan hai, jisase gyat hota hai ki isaka sambandh kurupanchal janapadon se raha hai. shankhayan aranyak men ushinar, matsy, kuru–panchal aur kashi tatha videh janapadon ka varnan hai.[25] maitrayaniy–aranyak men tatkalin bharat ke anek pratapi samraton ke nam milate hain– 'ath kimetairva pareanye mahadhanurdharashchakravartinah.

kechith sudyumn–bhooridyumn–indradyumn–kuvalayashch–yauvanashvavadhrayashv–ashvapati–shashabindu–harishchandr–ambarishananktu–sharyati–yayati–anarani–akshasenadayah'.[26]
uparyukt ullekhon se spasht hai ki aranyakagranthon ka pradesh prachin bharat ka prayah madhyabhag hai.

aranyakon ki bhasha evn shaili

aranyakon ki bhasha samanyatah brahmanon ke sadrish hi hain aitarey–aranyak men, anek sthalon par aitarey–brahman ke vaky bhi jyon ke tyon udadhrit hain. prayah yah vaidiki aur laukik–snskrit ke madhy ki bhasha hai. jaiminiy shakha ke talavakar–aranyak ki bhasha men any aranyakon ki apeksha, adhik prachin roop surakshit hai. shaili men varnanatmakata adhik hai. mantron ke uddharanapoorvak apane pratipady ka niroopan karane ki shaili aranyakagranthon men prayah paee jati hai. aranyakon ke un bhagon men, jo aj upanishad ke roop men pratishthit hain, snvadamoolak snprashn–shaili dikhalaee deti hai.

aranyakon ka parichay

  • samprati keval chhah aranyak hi upalabdh hote hain.
  • rigved ke do aranyak hain–aitarey aur shankhayan.
  • shuklayajurved se samabaddh brihadaranyak hai jo kanv aur madhyandin donon shakhaon men prapt hai.
  • krishnayajurved ki taittiriy aur kathak shakhaon ka ek hi pratinidhi brahman hai–taittiriyaranyak.
  • maitrayaniyaranyak nam se maitrayani–shakha ka aranyak prithakh se upalabdh hai.
  • samaved ki kauthumashakha men chhandogyopanishad ke antargat aranyak bhag bhi mila hua hai, kintu prithakh se usaka aranyak–roop men adhyayan prachalit nahin hai. vishayavastu ki drishti se, pranavidya ka bhi usamen vishad varnan hai.
  • talavakar–aranyak (jaiminishakhiy) ka kauthumashakhiy snpadit snskaran hi hai chhandogyopanishadh.
  • atharvaved ka prithakh se koee aranyak yadyapi prapt nahin hota, lekin usase sambaddh gopath–brahman ke poorvardh men bahut–si samagri aisi hai jo aranyakon ke anuroop hi hai.
  • charon vedon ke aranyakon ke nam hain-
  1. rigved (aitarey aranyak, shankhayan aranyak);
  2. yajurved-
    1. shukl yajurved (shatapath brahman ke madhyndin shakha ka 14van kand evn kanvashakha ka 17van kand);
    2. krishn yajurved (taittiriy aranyak);
  3. samaved (talavakar aranyak ya jaiminiyopanishad).
  4. atharvaved ka prithakh se koee aranyak prapt nahin hota hai.

aranyak–sahityah snkshipt moolyankan

uparyukt prishthon men aranyak sahity ki jo vishad samiksha ki gee, use nishkarsh roop men is prakar vyakt kiya ja sakata hai–

  1. ygy–snstha ke adhyatmik aur pratikatmak pakshon ki abhivyakti ki disha men yah sahity mahiyasi bhoomika ka nirvahak hai.
  2. upanishadon ke tattvik anushilan ke sandarbh men aranyak–sahity poorv pithika ka nirmata hai.
  3. anek naye aur aitihasik aur sanskritik tathyon ki prastuti ke karan yah sahity vishesh upadey hai.
  4. brahmanon aur upanishadon ke madhy ki bhasha aur shaili ke vikas–kram ka isase parigyan hota hai.
  5. naitikata aur achar–darshan ki drishti se aranyak–sahity manaviy manas ke oordhvarohan men param sahayak hai.

aranyakon ke snskaran tatha un par hue shodhakary

sampoorn vaidik–vanmay men aranyakon ki samiksha atisvalp huee hai. jo bhi kary hua hai, usaka vivaran is prakar hai–

  1. aitarey–aranyak, sayan–bhashyasahit, anandashram snskrit granthavali men, poona se 1898 men prakashit.
  2. aitarey–aranyak (angrezi anuvad), anuvadak pro.e.bi. kith, landan, sanh 1909 men prakashit.
  3. aitarey–aranyak ek adhyayan–daau. sumanasharma, eestarn buk linkars, dilli se sanh 1981 men prakashit.
  4. shankhayan–aranyak, sn. shridharashastri pathak, anandashram, poona se sanh 1922 men prakashit.
  5. taittiriyaranyak, sayan–bhashyasahit, anandashram, poona se sanh 1926 ee. men prakashit.
  6. brihadaranyak–gitapres, anandashram ityadi se anekadha prakashit.
  7. jaiminiyopanishadh brahman–talavar aranyak.
    1. sn. da. raghuvir tatha lokeshachandr, nagapur se 1954 men prakashit.
    2. sn. ramadev lahaur se 1921 men prakashit.
    3. sn. bi.a.sharma, tirupati se 1937 ee. men prakashit.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 3.7.7.7.16
  2. shlok, 6
  3. shlok, 9
  4. grame manasa svadhyayamadhiyit diva naktn utaranyeabal ut vachot tishthannut vrajannutasin ut shayanoadhiyitaiv svadhyayama–taittiriyaranyak 2.12.2
  5. y evn vidvanh maharatr ushasyudite vrajnstishthannasinah shayanoaranye grame va yavatrarasn svadhyayamadhite sarvallokan jayati sarvallokananrinoanusanvarit. –vahi 2.15.1
  6. A Further development are the AranyaKas or 'forest treatises' the later age of which is indicated both by the position they occupy at the end of the Brahmanas and by their theosophical character. These works are generally represented as meant for the use of pious men who have retired to the forest and no longer perform sacrifices. According to the view of Prof. oldenberg they are, however rather treatises, which, owing to the superior to mystic sanctity of their contents, were intended to be communicated to the pupil by his teachera—maikadanal, hi. sn. li., pri. 172-73
  7. 'navanitn yatha dadhno malayachchandann yatha.
    aranyakn ch vedebhy aushadhibhyoamritn yatha (331.3)..

  8. bharatiy darshan, pratham bhag, prishth 59
  9. nirukt–bhashy (1.4
  10. gopath brahman (2.10
  11. rigved, 6.164.31;1.164.38
  12. vaidik sahity aur snskriti, (pncham snskaran) prishth 234-35
  13. taittiriy–aranyak. 1.2
  14. aitarey aranyak, 2.1.6
  15. aitarey aranyak 2.1.7
  16. aitarey aranyak 2.2.2
  17. mai. aranyak 6.9
  18. 'prasrito h vai ygyopavitino ygyoapasritoanupavitino yatkinch brahmano ygyopavityadhite yajat ev tath' (2.1.1
  19. 'vatarashana h va rishayah shramana oordhvamanthino babhoovustanrishayoarthamaynste
    nilayamacharnsteanupravishuah kooshmandani tansteshvanvavindanchhraddhaya ch tapasa ch' (2.7.1).

  20. 'aitamev viditva munirbhavati.
    evamev pravrajino lokamichchhantah pravrajanti' (4.4.22).

  21. aitarey–aranyak, (2.1.8
  22. aitarey–aranyak (kith–sampadit tatha anudit) prishth 210
  23. bhashyopakramanika, shlok 10-11
  24. 'namo gngayamunayormadhye ye vasanti te me prasannatmanashchirn jivitn vardhayanti namo gngayamunayomurnibhyashch' (taittiriyaranyak 2.20
  25. 'ath h vai gargyo balakiranoochanah snsprisht as soavasadushinareshu s vasanmatsyeshu kurupanchaleshu kashivideheshviti' (6.1
  26. maitrayaniy–aranyak 6.9

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