उत्तर वैदिक काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hastalikhit grnth, eeshavasyopanishad

uttar vaidik kal (1000-600 ee.poo.) bharatiy itihas men us kal ko, jisamen samaved, yajurved evn atharvaved tatha brahman grnthon, aranyakon evn upanishad ki rachana huee, ko uttar vaidik kal kaha jata hai. chitrit dhoosar mridbhand is kal ki vishishtata thi, kyonki yahan ke nivasi mitti ke chitrit aur bhoore rng ke katoron tatha thaliyon ka prayog karate the. ve lohe ke hathiyaron ka bhi prayog karate the. 1000 ee.poo. men pakistan ke gandhar men lohe ke upakaran prapt hue hain. vahan qabr men mritakon ke sath lohe ke upakaran prapt hue hain. 800 ee.poo. ke as-pas isaka upayog gnga - yamuna doab men hone laga tha. uttari doab men chitrit dhoosar mridbhand ke 700 sthal mile hain jisamen char ki khudaee huee hai-

  1. atarnjikheda
  2. jakheda
  3. hastinapur
  4. noh.

abhi tak utkhanan men keval atarnjikheda se hi lauh upakaran ke sakshy mile hain. uttar vaidik granthon men lohe ke lie lauh ayas evn krishn shabd ka prayog hua hai. atarnjikheda men pahali bar krishi se sambandhit lauh upakaran prapt hue hain.

uttar vaidikakalin sabhyata

uttar vaidik kal men aryo ne yamuna, gnga evn sadanira (gandak) nadiyon ke maidanon ko jitakar apane adhikar men kar liya. dakshin men aryo ka phailav vidarbh tak hua. uttar vaidikakalin sabhyata ka mukhy kendr 'madhy pradesh' tha, jisaka prasar sarasvati se lekar gnga doab tak tha. yahi par kuru evn panchal jaise vishal rajy the. yahin se ary snskriti ki poorvi or prasthan kar koshal, kashi evn videh tak phaili. gotr vyavastha ka prachalan bhi uttar vaidik kal se hi prarambh hua mana jata hai. manav evn ang pradesh ary sabhyata ke kshetr ke bahar the. magadh men nivas karane vale logon ko atharvaved men 'vraty' kaha gaya hai. ye prakrit bhasha bolate the. uttar vaidik kal men puru aur bharat kabila milakar 'kuru' tatha 'turvash' aur 'krivi' kabila milakar 'pnchal' (panchal) kahalaye. arambh men kuruon ki rajadhani asanadivant men thi jisame antargat kurukshetr (sarasvati aur drishadvati ke bich bhoomi) sammilit tha. shighr hi kuruon ne dilli evn uttari doab par adhikar kar liya. ab unaki rajadhani hastinapur ho gayi. balihav pratipiy, raja parikshit, janamejay adi isi rajavnsh ke pramukh raja the. parikshit ka nam atharvaved men milata hai. janamejay ke bare men mana jata hai ki usane sarpasatr evn do ashvamedh ygy karaya tha. kuru vnsh ka antim shasak nichakshu tha. vah hastinapur se rajadhani kaushambi le aya, kyonki hastinapur badh men nasht ho gaya tha. panchal kshetr ke antargat adhunik bareli, badayoon, evn farrukhabad ata hai. inaki rajadhani kampily thi. panchalon ke ek mahattvapoorn shasak pravahan jaivali the, jo viddhanon ke snrakshak the. panchal darshanik rajaon ke lie bhi jana jata tha. aruni shvetaketu panchal kshetr ke hi the. uttaravaidik kalin sabhyata ka kendr madhy desh tha. yah sarasvati se gnga ke doab tak phaila hua tha. gnga yamuna doab se sarayoo nadi tak hua. isake bad aryo ka vistar varuna-asi nadi tak hua aur kashi rajy ki sthapana huee. shatapath brahman men yah ullekh milata hai ki videdhamadhav ne apane guru rahugan ki sahayata se agni ke dvara is kshetr ka saphaya kiya tha. ajatashatru ek darshanik raja mana jata tha. vah banaras se sambaddh tha. sindhu nadi ke donon taton par gandhar janapad tha. gandhar aur vyas nadi ke bich kaikey desh sthit tha. chhandogy-upanishad ke anusar usane dava kiya ki mere rajy men chor, madvasevi, kriyahin, vyabhichari aur avidyan nahin hai.

madr desh pnjab men siyalakot aur usake as-pas sthit tha. matsy rajy ke antargat rajasthan ke jayapur, alavar, bharatapur the. aryon men vindhyachal tak apana vistar kiya. gnga-yamuna doab evn usake as-pas ka kshetr brahmarshi desh kahalata tha. himachal aur vindhyachal ka bich ka kshetr madhy desh kahalata tha. upanishad kal men videh ne panchal ka sthan grahan kar liya. videh ke raja janak prasiddh darshanik the. dakshin men aryo ka phailav vidarbh tak hua. magadh aur ang pradesh ary kshetr se bahar the.

kul aur qabile

uttar vaidik kal men chhote kabile ek doosare men vilin hokar bade kshetragat janapadon ko janm de rahe the. udaharan ke lie 'puru' evn 'bharat' milakar kuru aur 'turvash' tatha 'krivi' milakar panchal kahalae. is prakar uttar vaidik kal men kuru, panchal, kashi ka videh pramukh rajy the. in 'kuru' aur 'panchalon' ka adhipaty dilli par evn doab ke madhy evn oopari bhagon par phaila tha. uttar vaidik kal men aryo ka vistar adhik kshetr par isalie ho gaya kyonki ab ve lohe ke hathiyar evn ashvachalit rath ka upayog jan ge the. uttar vaidik kal men panchal sarvadhik vikasit rajy tha. shatapath brahman men inhe vaidik sabhyata ka sarvashreshth pratinidhi kaha gaya hai.

'atharvaved' men kuru rajy ki samriddhi ka chitran hai. parikshit aur janamejay yahan ke pramukh raja the. parikshit ko mrityu lok ka devata kaha gaya hai. atharvaved ke 'chhandogyopanishad' men kaha gaya hai ki kuru janapad men kabhi-kabhi bhi ole nahin pade aur n hi tiddiyon ke upadrav ke karan akal pada. kuru kul ka itihas mahabharat yu़ddh[1] ke nam se vikhyat hai.[2]

  • uttar vaidik kal men trikakud, kainj tatha mainam (himalay kshetr men sthit) parvaton ka ullekh bhi milata hai.

rajanitik sngathan

uttar vaidik kal men 'rajatntr' hi shasan tntr ka adhar tha, par kahin-kahin par ganarajyon ke udaharan bhi mile hai. sarvapratham aitarey brahman men hi raja ki utpatti ka siddhant milata hai. is kal men raja ka adhikar rigved kal ki apeksha kuchh badha. ab use badi-badi upadhiyan milane lagin jaise- adhiraj, rajadhiraj, samrat, ekarath. aitarey brahman ke anusar praty (poorv) ka shasak samrat ki upadhi dharan karate the, pashchim ke svarat, uttar ke virath, dakshin ke bhoj tatha madhy desh ke raja hote the. pradesh ka snket karane vala shabd 'rashtr' sarvapratham uttar vaidik kal men hi prayog kiya gaya. is kal ke upalabdh sakshyon ke adhar par aisa anuman lagaya jata hai ki shayad raja ka chunav pahale janata (vish) dvara evn kalantar men janata ke pratinidhiyon dvara hota tha, par antatah raja ka pad vnshanugat ho gaya.

shatapath brahman ke anusar

shatapath brahman men raja ke nirvachan ki charcha hai aur aise raja vishapati kahalate the. atyachari shasak ko janata padachyut bhi kar deti thi. udaharan ke lie srijnyon ne dusht ritu se paushayan ko bahar nikal diya tha. tandy brahman praja ke dvara raja ke vinash ke lie ek vishesh ygy kie jane ka bhi ullekh hai. vairajy ka arth us rajy se hai jahan raja nahin hota tha. shatapath brahman men us rajy ke lie rashtri shabd ka prayog kiya gaya hai jo nirnkushata poorvak janata ki sampatti ka upabhog karata tha. atharvaved me raja ko vishamatta (janata ka bhakshak) kaha gaya. atharvaved men kaha gaya hai ki samudr paryant prithvi ka shasak ekarat hota hai.

aitarey brahman tatha shatapath brahman men aise rajaon ki soochi milati hai. atharvaved ke ek parichchhed men kaha gaya hai ki raja rashtr (kshetr) ka svami hota hai aur raja ko varun, brihaspati, indr tatha agni devata dridhata pradan karate hain. raja ke rajyabhishek ke samay 'rajasooy ygy' ka anushthan kiya jata tha. jisamen raja dvara rajy ke 'ratniyon' ko havi pradan ki jati thi. yahan havi se matalab hai ki rajy pratyek ratni ke ghar jakar unaka samarthan evn sahayog prapt karata tha. rajasooy ygy ke anushthan se yah samajha jata tha ki raja ko divy shakti mil gayi hai. rajasooy ygy ka varnan shatapath brahman men milata hai. yah do din tak chalata tha. rajasooy ygy men varun devata parthiv sharir men prakat hote the. raja ki shakti men abhivridvay ke lie ashvamedh aur vajapey ygyon ka bhi vidhan kiya gaya. ashvamedh ygy se samajha jata tha. raja dvara is ygy men chhoda gaya ghoda jin-jin kshetron se berok gujarega, un sare kshetron par raja ka ek chhatr adhipaty ho jayega.

shatapath brahman men bharaton ke do rajaon bharat daushayanti aur shatanik satrajit dvara ashvamedh ygy karane ka ullekh hain. vajapey (rathadaud) ygy men raja ka rath any sabhi bandhuon ke rathon se age nikal jata tha. in sabhi anushthanon se praja ke chitt par raja badhati shakti aur mahima gahari chhap padati thi. gopath brahman ke anusar raja ko rajasooy ygy, samrat ko vajapey, svarat ko ashvamedh, virat ko purushamegh aur sarvarat ko sarvamegh karana chahie. kintu apastambh shrot sootr ke anusar ashvamedh ygy keval sarvabhaum hi kar sakata hai. vajapey ygy shakti prapt karane vala ek som ygy tha jo sal men 17 din tak chalata tha. rajasooy ygy karane purohitadhyaksh ko dakshina ke roop men 240,000 gayen di jati thi.

shatapath brahman men 13 ratniyon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai-

  1. brahman (purohit)
  2. rajany
  3. bavata (priyarani)
  4. parivritti (raja ki upekshit pratham patni)
  5. senani (sena ka nayak)
  6. soot (sarathi)
  7. gramani (gram pradhan)
  8. kshatri (koshadhikari)
  9. sngahitt (sarathi ya koshadhyaksh)
  10. bhagadudh (kar sngrahakarta)
  11. akshavap (pase ka adhikshak athava pasa phenkane vala)
  12. govikartan (akhetak)
  13. palagal (sandeshavahak)

aitarey brahman men varnit shasan pranali

kshetr shasan upadhi
poorv samrajy samrat
pashchim svarajy svarat
uttar vairajy virat
dakshin bhojy bhoj
madhy pradesh rajy raja

inhen bhi dekhen: vaidik kal


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (18 dinon tak chalane vala, snbhavatah 950 ee.poo. ke as-pas)
  2. (mahabharat mahakavy par adharit)

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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