मगध महाजनपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(मगध se punarnirdeshit)
magadh mahajanapad
Magadha Great Realm

magadh prachin bharat ke solah mahajanapad men se ek tha . bauddh kal tatha paravartikal men uttari bharat ka sabase adhik shaktishali janapad tha. isaki sthiti sthool roop se dakshin bihar ke pradesh men thi. adhunik patana tatha gaya zila isamen shamil the . isaki rajadhani girivraj thi . bhagavan buddh ke poorv brihadrath tatha jarasndh [1]yahan ke pratishthit raja the . abhi is nam se bihar men ek prnmadal hai - magadh pramndal magadh ka sarvapratham ullekh atharvaved men milata hai . [2] isase soochit hota hai ki pray: uttar vaidik kal tak magadh, ary sabhyata ke prabhav kshetr ke bahar tha. abhiyan chintamani ke anusar magadh ko kikat kaha gaya hai . magadh buddhakalin samay men ek shakh‍tishali rajatantron men ek tha . yah dakshini bihar men sthit tha jo kalantar men uttar bharat ka sarvadhik shakh‍tishali mahajanapad ban gaya . yah gauravamayi itihas aur rajanitik evn dharmikata ka vishh‍v kendr ban gaya .

magadh mahajanapad ki sima uttar men gnga se dakshin men vindhy parvat tak, poorv men champa se pashh‍chim men son nadi tak vistrit thin . magadh ka sarvapratham ullekh se soochit hota hai ki vishvasphatik namak raja ne magadh men pratham bar varnon ki parnpara prachalit karake ary sabhyata ka prachar kiya tha. [3]vajaseniy snhita [4] men magadhon ya magadh ke charanon ka ullekh hai. magadh ki prachin rajadhani rajagrih thi . yah panch pahadiyon se ghira nagar tha . kalantar men magadh ki rajadhani pataliputr men sthapit huee . magadh rajy men tatkalin shakh‍tishali rajy kaushal, vats v avanti ko apane janapad men mila liya . is prakar magadh ka vistar akhand bharat ke roop men ho gaya aur prachin magadh ka itihas hi bharat ka itihas bana .

magadh rajy ka vistar uttar men gnga, pashh‍chim men son tatha dakshin men jagnlachchhadit pathari pradesh tak tha . patana aur gaya zila ka kshetr prachinakal men magadh ke nam se jana jata tha . magadh prachinakal se hi rajanitik utthan, patan evn samajik-dharmik jagriti ka kendr bindu raha hai . magadh buddh ke samakalin ek shakh‍tikali v sngathit rajatanh‍tr tha . gautam buddh ke samay men magadh men binbisar aur tatpashchath usake putr ajatashatru ka raj tha. is samay magadh ki kosal janapad se badi anaban thi yadyapi kosal-naresh prasenajit ki kanya ka vivah binbisar se hua tha. is vivah ke phalasvaroop kashi ka janapad magadharaj ko dahej ke roop men mila tha. yah magadh ke utkarsh ka samay tha aur paravarti shatiyon men is janapad ki shakti barabar badhati rahi.

chauthi shati ee.poo. men magadh ke shasak nav nnd the. inake bad chandragupt maury tatha ashok ke rajyakal men magadh ke prabhavashali rajy ki shakti apane uchchatam gaurav ke shikhar par pahunchi huee thi aur magadh ki rajadhani pataliputr bharat bhar ki rajanitik satta ka kendr bindu thi. magadh ka mahattv isake pashchath bhi kee shatiyon tak bana raha aur gupt kal ke prarnbh men kafi samay tak gupt samrajy ki rajadhani pataliputr hi men rahi. jan padata hai ki kalidas ke samay (snbhavat: 5vin shati ee.) men bhi magadh ki pratishtha poorvavath thi kyonki raghuvnsh men indumati ke svaynvar ke prasng men magadhanaresh parntap ka bharat ke sab rajaon men sarvapratham ullekh kiya gaya hai. isi prasng men magadh-naresh ki rajadhani ko kalidas ne pushpapur men bataya hai. [5]

gupt samrajy ki avanati ke sath-sath hi magadh ki pratishtha bhi kam ho chali aur chhathi-satavin shatiyon ke pashchath magadh bharat ka ek chhota sa prant matr rah gaya. madhyakal men yah bihar namak prant men vilin ho gaya aur magadh ka poorv gaurav itihas ka vishay ban gaya. jain sahity men anek sthalon par magadh tatha usaki rajadhani rajagrih (prakrit rayagih) ka ullekh hai. [6] kalantar men magadh ka uttarottar vikas hota gaya aur magadh ka itihas (bharatiy snskriti aur sabhyata ke vikas ke pramukh stambh ke roop men) sampoorn bharatavarsh ka itihas ban gaya . bimbisar ne haryak vnsh ki sthapana 544 ee. poo. men ki . isake sath hi rajanitik shakh‍ti ke roop men bihar ka sarvapratham uday hua . bimbisar ko magadh samrajy ka vastavik snsthapak/raja mana jata hai . bimbisar ne girivraj [7] (rajagir) ko apani rajadhani banayi . isake vaivahik sambandhon (kaushal, vaishali evn pnjab) ki niti apanakar apane samrajy ka vistar kiya . yah " magadh' namak kshetr madhy bihar ka ek bhaugolik kshetr hain . rajanitik evn prashasanik manachitr men yah mukhyat: magadh pramndal ke roop men hai . is magadh pramndal ke zile hain- gaya, aurngabad, jahanabad, navada . pramndal ka mukhyalay gaya men hi hai aur yahi hai magadhanchal ka sanskriti, rajanitik tatha vyavasayik kendr . bihar rajy aur nepal ke taraee kshetr men boli jane vali bihari bhashaon men magadhi ko magadhi prakrit ka adhunik pratinidhi mana jata hai.

is kshetr men vibhinn prakar ki kalaen prachinakal se hi hai aur yahi kalantar men kalakaron ki roji-roti tatha vyavasay ka mukhy sadhan banin. halanki adhunik kalaon, utpadon aur vyavasayon se parnparik vyavasay prabhavit jarur hua hai, phir bhi in vyavasayon evn parnparik utpadon ka apana mahattv evn bazar men poochh bhi hai. isalie yah kahana ki " aj ke parnparik udyogon par snkat hi snkat hai' poornat: uchit nahin hai .

ham ab magadh kshetr ke parnparik udyog se parichit ho len tatha inase jude parnparik vyavasay vyapakata, vayaparik ghata labh, sthaniy samasyaen v unake samadhan tatha any takaniki pakshon par bhi n dalate chalen . yahan ke pramukh parnparik udyogon men vasr-udyog, mishtann udyog bans se utpadit vastu udyog, pashan evn kashth moorti udyog, vady yntr udyog, oon evn knbal udyog, hastakala ke any udyog, sharab evn tadi udyog tatha gitti udyog mukhy hain . uparokt sabhi parnparik guru chele vale parnpara chakr se hi chalate a rahe hain aur isi parnpara ke tahat isamen avashyak anavashyak rupantaran hote rahe hain .


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahabharat ke samay men magadh men jarasndh ka rajy tha jisaki rajadhani girivraj men thi. jarasndh ke vadh ke lie shrikrishn arjun aur bhim ke sath magadh desh men sthit isi nagar men ae the-'gorathn girimasady dadrishurmagadhn puramh'- maha0 sabha0 20,30. jarasndh ke vadh ke pashchath bhim ne jab poorv disha ki digvijay ki to unhonne jarasndh ke putr sahadev ko, apane snrakshan men le liya aur usase kar grahan kiya 'tat: suhmanh prasuhmanshch sapakshanativiryavantrijity yudhakaunteyan magadhanabhyadhadbali' 'jarasndhi santvayitva kare ch viniveshy h' sabha0 30,16-17
  2. atharvaved 5,22,14 men hai- 'gndharimbhyon moojavadbhyodagebhyomagadhebhy: praishyanh janamiv shevadhin takmann paridadmasi'.
  3. 'magadhayan tu vishvasphatikasngyoanyanvanani parishyati'. vishnupuran (4,24,61
  4. vajaseniy snhita (30,5
  5. 'prasadava tayan snshritanan netrotsavn pushpapurangananamh' raghuvnsh 6,21
  6. prgyapan sootr
  7. valmiki ramayan (bal0 32,8-9) men magadh ke girivraj ka nam vasumati kaha gaya hai aur sumagadhi nadi ko is nagar ke nikat bahati huee bataya gaya hai- 'esha vasumati nam vasostasy mahatman:, ete shailavara: pnch prakashante satntat:, suma gadhinadi ramya magadhanvishrutaaayayau, pnchanan shailamukhyanan madhye manev shaubhate'

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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