महाजनपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahajanapad
mahabharatakalin bharat ka manachitr
vivaran bharat ke solah mahajanapadon ka ullekh eesa poorv chhathi shatabdi se bhi pahale ka hai.
ullekh bauddh aur jain dharm ke prarnmbhik grnthon men mahajanapad nam ke solah rajyon ka vivaran milata hai.
shasan adhikanshatah mahajanapadon par raja ka hi shasan rahata tha parantu gan aur sngh nam se prasiddh rajyon men logon ka samooh shasan karata tha, is samooh ka har vyakti raja kahalata tha.
any janakari shasak kisanon, vyapariyon aur shilpakaron se kar tatha bhent vasool karate the. snpatti jutane ka ek upay padosi rajyon par akraman kar dhan ekatr karana bhi tha.

prarnmbhik bharatiy itihas men chhathi shatabdi eesapoorv ko parivartanakari kal ke roop men mahattvapoorn mana jata hai. yah kal pray: prarnmbhik rajyon, lohe ke badhate prayog aur sikkon ke vikas ke ke lie jana jata hai. isi samay men bauddh aur jain sahit anek darshanik vicharadharaon ka vikas hua. bauddh aur jain dharm ke prarnmbhik grnthon men mahajanapad nam ke solah rajyon ka vivaran milata hai. mahajanapadon ke namon ki soochi in grnthon men saman nahin hai parantu vajji, magadh, koshal, kuru, panchal, gandhar aur avanti jaise nam aksar milate hain. isase yah gyat hota hai ki ye mahajanapad mahattvapoorn mahajanapadon ke roop men jane jate honge. adhikanshatah mahajanapadon par raja ka hi shasan rahata tha parantu gan aur sngh nam se prasiddh rajyon men logon ka samooh shasan karata tha, is samooh ka har vyakti raja kahalata tha. bhagavan mahavir aur bhagavan buddh inhin ganon se snbandhit the. vajji sngh ki hi tarah kuchh rajyon men zamin sahit arthik sroton par raja aur gan samoohik niyntran rakhate the. sroton ki kami ke karan in rajyon ke itihas likhe nahin ja sake parantu aise rajy sambhavatah ek hazar sal tak bane rahe the.

rajadhani

har ek mahajanapad ki ek rajadhani thi jise qile se ghera diya jata tha. qilebnd rajadhani ki dekhabhal, sena aur naukarashahi ke lie bhari dhan ki zaroorat hoti thi. sambhavatah chhathi shatabdi eesa poorv se brahmanon ne snskrit bhasha men dharmashastr grnthon ki rachana prarambh ki. in granthon men raja v praja ke lie niyamon ka nidharran kiya gaya aur yah ummid ki jati thi ki raja kshatriy varn ke hi honge. shasak kisanon, vyapariyon aur shilpakaron se kar tatha bhent vasool karate the. snpatti jutane ka ek upay padosi rajyon par akraman kar dhan ekatr karana bhi tha. kuchh rajy apani sthayi senaen aur naukarashahi tntr bhi rakhate the aur kuchh rajy sahayak-sena par nirbhar karate the jinhen krishak varg se niyukt kiya jata tha.

solah mahajanapad

bharat ke solah mahajanapadon ka ullekh eesa poorv chhathi shatabdi se bhi pahale ka hai. ye mahajanapad the-

  1. kuru- merath aur thaneshvar; rajadhani indraprasth.
  2. panchal- bareli, badayoon aur farrukhabad; rajadhani ahichchhatr tatha kanpily.
  3. shoorasen- mathura ke asapas ka kshetr; rajadhani mathura.
  4. vatsilahabad aur usake asapas; rajadhani kaushanbi.
  5. koshal - avadh; rajadhani saket aur shravasti.
  6. mallzila devariya; rajadhani kushinagar aur pava (adhunik padarauna)
  7. kashi- varanasi; rajadhani varanasi.
  8. ang - bhagalapur; rajadhani chnpa.
  9. magadh – dakshin bihar, rajadhani girivraj (adhunik rajagrih).
  10. vrijji – zila darabhnga aur mujaphpharapur; rajadhani mithila, janakapuri aur vaishali.
  11. chedi - bundelakhnd; rajadhani shuktimati (vartaman banda ke pas).
  12. matsy - jayapur; rajadhani virat nagar.
  13. ashmak – godavari ghati; rajadhani pandany.
  14. avnti - malava; rajadhani ujjayini.
  15. gandhar- pakistan sthit pashchimottar kshetr; rajadhani takshashila.
  16. knboj – kadachit adhunik afaganistan; rajadhani rajapur.

inamen se kram snkhya 1 se 7 tak tatha snkhya 11,ye ath janapad akele uttar pradesh men sthit the. kashi, koshal aur vats ki sarvadhik khyati thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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