तक्षशिला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

takshashila
jauliyan math, takshashila
vivaran 'takshashila' prachin bharat men gandhar desh ki rajadhani aur shiksha ka pramukh kendr tha.
vartaman desh ravalapindi, pakistan
ullekh ramayan men ise bharat dvara rajakumar taksh ke nam par sthapit bataya gaya hai, jo yahan ka shasak niyukt kiya gaya tha.
itihas eeran ke samrat dara ke 520 ee.poo. ke abhilekh men pnjab ke pashchimi bhag par usaki vijay ka varnan hai. yadi yah tathy ho to takshashila bhi is kal men eeran ke adhin rahi hogi.
any janakari mahabharat yuddh ke bad raja parikshit ke vnshajon ne kuchh pidhiyon tak yahan apana adhikar banae rakha aur janamejay ne apana nagaygy bhi yahin kiya tha.[1]

takshashila prachin bharat men gandhar desh ki rajadhani aur shiksha ka pramukh kendr tha. yahan ka vishvavidyalay vishv ke prachinatam vishvavidyalayon men shamil hai. yah hindoo evn bauddh donon ke liye mahatvapoorn kendr tha. chanaky yahan par achary the. 405 ee. men phahyan yahan aya tha. takshashila vartaman samay men pakistan ke pnjab prant ke ravalapindi zile ki ek tahasil hai.

itihas

takshashila adhunik ‘takshita’ ka prachin nam hai. khudaee hone par yah nagar ravalapindi ke samip nikala hai. mahabharat ke anusar yah nagari gandhar men honi chahie. bharat ke putr taksh ki rajadhani yahin thi aur janamejay ne sarp ygy bhi yahin kiya tha. takshashila prachin samay ka vikhyat vidyapith tha tatha snsar prasiddh kootanitigy chanaky (kautily) yahin ka tha.[2]

gndharvadesh

takshashila ke avashesh

gandhar ki charcha rigved se hi milati hai, kintu takshashila ki janakari sarvapratham valmiki ramayan se hoti hai. ayodhya ke raja ram ki vijayon ke ullekh ke silasile men hamen yah gyat hota hai ki unake chhote bhaee bharat ne apane nana kekayaraj ashvapati ke amntran aur unaki sahayata se gndharvon ke desh (gandhar) ko jita aur apane do putron ko vahan ka shasak niyukt kiya. gndharv desh sindhu nadi ke donon kinare sthit tha.[3] aur usake danon or bharat ke taksh aur pushkal namak donon putron ne takshashila aur pushkalavati namak apani-apani rajadhaniyan basaee.[4] takshashila sindhu ke poorvi tat par thi. un raghuvnshi kshatriyon ke vnshajon ne takshashila par kitane dinon tak shasan kiya, yah bata sakana kathin hai. kalidas ne raghuvnsh 15,89 men bhi isi tathy ka ullekh kiya hai.[5] takshashila ka varnan mahabharat men parikshit ke putr janamejay dvara vijit nagari ke roop men hai.

chndragupt maury ka adhikar

mahabharat yuddh ke bad raja parikshit ke vnshajon ne kuchh pidhiyon tak yahan apana adhikar banae rakha aur janamejay ne apana nagaygy bhi yahin kiya tha.[6] gautam buddh ke samay gandhar ke raja 'pukkusati' ne magadh ke raja bimbisar ke yahan apana dootamndal bheja tha. chhathi shati eesa poorv faras ke shasak 'kurush' ne sindh pradeshon par akraman kiya aur bad men bhi usake kuchh uttaradhikariyon ne usaki nakal ki. lagata hai takshashila unake qabze men chali gee aur lagabhag 200 varshon tak us par faras ka adhipaty raha. makadooniya ke akramanakari vijeta sikndar ke samay ki takshashila ki charcha karate hue straibo ne likha hai-ki vah ek bada nagar tha, achchhi vidhiyon se shasit tha, ghani abadi vala tha aur upajaoo bhoomi se yukt tha. vahan ka shasak tha- 'baisiliyas' athava 'taiksilij'.[7] usane sikndar se upaharon ke sath bhent kar mitrata kar li. usaki mrityu ke bad usaka putr bhi jisaka nam ambhi tha, sikndar ka mitr bana raha. kintu thode hi dinon pashchath‌ chndragupt maury ne uttari pashchimi simakshetron se sikndar ke sipahasalaron ko marakar nikal diya aur takshashila par usaka adhikar ho gaya.

takshashila vishvavidyalay

telapatt aur susimajatak men takshashila ko kashi se 2000 kos door bataya gaya he. jatakon men[8] takshashila ke mahavidyalay ki bhi anek bar charcha huee hai. yahan adhyayan karane ke lie door-door se vidyarthi ate the. bharat ke gyat itihas ka yah sarvaprachin vishvavidyalay tha. yahan, buddh kal men kosal- 'naresh prasenajith', kushinagar ka 'bndhulamall', vaishali ka 'mahali', magadh naresh binbisar ka prasiddh rajavaidy 'jivak', ek any chikitsak 'kaumarabhrity' tatha paravarti kal men 'chanaky' tatha 'vasubndhu' isi jagath prasiddh mahavidyalay ke chhatr rahe the. is vishvavidyalay men raja aur rnk sabhi vidyarthiyon ke sath saman vyavahar hota tha. jatak kathaon se yah bhi gyat hota hai ki takshashila men dhanurved tatha vaidyak tatha any vidyaon ki oonchi shiksha di jati thi.

Blockquote-open.gif takshashila bharat ka ek prachin aur mahattvapoorn vidya kendr tatha gandhar prant ki rajadhani. ramayan men ise bharat dvara rajakumar taksh ke nam par sthapit bataya gaya hai, jo yahan ka shasak niyukt kiya gaya tha. janamejay ka sarpaygy bhi isi sthan par hua tha. Blockquote-close.gif

vidyarthi solah-satrah varsh ki avastha men yahan shiksha ke lie pravesh karate the. ek shikshak ke niyntran men bis ya pachchis vidyarthi rahate the. shikshakon ka nirikshak dishapramukh achary (disapamokkhachariyan) kahalata tha. kashi ke ek rajakumar ka bhi takshashila men jakar adhyayan karane ka ullekh ek jatak katha men hai.

achary chanaky

kunbhakarajatak men nagnajit namak raja ki rajadhani takshashila men bataee gee hai. alakshyendr ke bharat par akraman karane ke samay yahan ka raja anbhi (omphis) tha jisane alakshendr ko puroo ke viruddh sahayata di thi. mahavnsh tika men arthashastr ke prasiddh rachayita chanaky ko takshashila ka nivasi bataya gaya hai. chanaky ne prachin arthashastron ki parnpara men anbhiy ke arthashastr ki charcha ki hai.[9] chanaky svayn bhi takshashila vidyalay men achary rahe the. unhonne apane parishkrit evn vikasit mastishk dvara bharat ki tatkalin rajanitik duravastha ko pahachana tatha usake pratikar ke lie mahanh prayatn kiya jisake phalasvaroop vishal maury-samrajy ki sthapana huee. bauddh sahity se gyat hota hai ki takshashila vishvavidyalay dhanurvidya tatha vaidyak ki shiksha ke lie tatkalin sabhy snsar men prasiddh tha. jaisa oopar kaha gaya hai., gautam buddh ke samakalin magadh-samrat binbasar ka rajavaidy 'jivak' isi mahavidyalay ka ratn tha.

ashok shasanakal

takshashila ka pradesh atiprachin kal se hi videshiyon dvara akrant hota raha hai. eeran ke samrat dara ke 520 ee.poo. ke abhilekh men pnjab ke pashchimi bhag par usaki vijay ka varnan hai. yadi yah tathy ho to takshashila bhi is kal men eeran ke adhin rahi hogi. panini ne 4,3,93 men takshashila ka ullekh kiya hai. alakshendr ke itihasalekhakon ke anusar 327 ee. poo. men is desh ke nivasi sukhi tatha samriddh the. lagabhag 320 ee.poo. men uttari bharat ke any sabhi kshudr rajyon ke sath hi takshashila bhi chandragupt maury dvara sthapit samrajy men vilin ho gayi. bauddh granthon ke anusar bindusar ke shasanakal men takshashila ke nivasiyon ne vidroh kiya kintu is pradesh ke prashasak ashok ne us vidroh ko shantipoorvak daba diya. ashok ke rajy-kal men 'takshashila' 'uttarapath' ki rajadhani thi. kunal ki karunajanak kahani ki ghatanasthali takshashila hi thi, jisaka smarak 'kunal stoop' aj bhi yahan vidyaman hai.

ashok ke bad

ashok ke pashchath uttar-pashchimi bharat men bahut samay tak rajanitik asthirata rahi. baiktriya ya balkh ke yoonaniyon (232-100 ee.poo.) tatha shak ya sithiyanon (pratham shati ee.) tatha tatpashchath parthiyanon aur kushanon ne tisari shati ee. tak takshashila tatha parshvavarti pradeshon par rajy kiya. chauthi shati ee. men takshashila gupt samraton ke prabhavakshetr men rahi kintu panchavi shati ee. men hone vale barbar hoonon ke akramanon ne takshashila ki sari prachin samriddhi aur sabhyata ko nasht kar diya. satavin shati ee. ke tritiy dashak men chini yatri yuvanachvang ne takshashila ko ujada paya tha. usake lekh ke anusar us samay takshashila kashmir ka ek karad rajy tha. isake pashchath takshashila ka agale 1200 varshon ka itihas vismriti ke andhakar men vilin ho jata hai.

khndaharon ki khoj

1863 ee. men janaral kaningham ne takshashila ko yahan ke khndaharon ki janch karake khoj nikala. tatpashchath 1912 se 1929 tak, sar jon marshal ne is sthan par vistrit khudaee ki aur prachur tatha moolyavan samagri ka udghatan karake is nagari ke prachin vaibhav tatha aishvary ki kshin jhalak itihasapremiyon ke samaksh prastut ki. utkhanan se takshashila men tin prachin nagaron ke dhvnsavashesh prapt hue hain, jinake vartaman nam 'bhir ka tila', 'sirakap' tatha 'sirasukh' hain. sabase purana nagar 'bhir ke tile' ke asthan par tha. kaha jata hai ki yah poorv buddh-kalin nagar tha yahan takshashila ka prakhyat vishvavidyalay sthit tha. sirakap ke charon or parakote ki divar thi. yahan ke khndaharon se anek bahumooly ratn tatha abhooshan prapt hue. jinase is nagari ke is bhag ki jo kushan rajyakal men poorv ka hai, samriddhi ka pata chalata hai. sirasukh jo snbhavat: kushan rajaon ke samay ki takshashila hai, ek chaukor nakshe par bana hua tha. in tin nagaron ke khndaharon ke atirikt, takshashila ke bhagnavasheshon men anek bauddhabiharon ki nasht-bhrasht imaraten aur kee stoop hain jinamen kunal, dharmaralik aur bhallar mukhy hain. inase bauddhakal men, is nagari ka bauddh dharm ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr hona pramanit hota hai. takshashila prachin kal men jainon ki bhi tirthasthali thi. puratan prabndhasngrah namak grnth men[10] takshashila ke antargat 105 jain-tirth batae ge hain. isi nagari ko snbhavat: tirthamala chaityavndan men dharmachakr kaha gaya hai.[11]

aitihasik evn pauranik sndarbh

  • taksh nam ke raja (jise taksh khand bhi kaha gaya hai) se takshashila nam hua. jisaka snskrit arth hota hai "raja taksh ke lie " ramayan ke anusar taksh, bharat aur mandavi ka putr tha.
  • eesa poorv 5vin shati men takshashila mukhy shiksha kendr ban chuka tha. isake vishvavidyalay hone par kuchh vivad hain, jo ki nalanda vishvavidyalay ko lekar nahin hai jisaka svaroop adhunik vishvavidyalay ki tarah hi mana jata hain. 5vin shatabdi ki jatak kathao men bhi isaka ullekh hai.
  • takshashila ki prasiddhi mahanh arthashastri chanaky (vishnugupt) ke karan bhi hai jo ki yahan pradhyapak the aur inhonne chandragupt ke sath milake maury samrajy ki ninv dali.
  • ayurved ke mahanh vidvanh charak ne bhi takshashila men hi shiksha grahan ki thi.
  • pataliputr se takshashila jane vala mukhy vyaparik marg mathura se gujarata tha. bauddh dharm ki mahayan shakha ka vikas takshashila vishvavidyalay men hi hone ke ullekh milate hain.
  • mahabharat athava ramayan men isake vidyakendr hone ki charcha nahin hai, kintu ee.poo. saptam shatabdi men yah sthan vidyapith ke roop men poorn roop se prasiddh ho chuka tha tatha rajagrih, kashi evn mithila ke vidvanon ke akarshan ka kend ban gaya tha.
  • ramayan men ise bharat dvara rajakumar taksh ke nam par sthapit bataya gaya hai, jo yahan ka shasak niyukt kiya gaya tha.
  • janamejay ka sarpaygy isi sthan par hua tha.[12]
  • sikandar ke akraman ke samay yah vidyapith apane darshanikon ke lie prasiddh tha.
  • kosal ke raja prasenajin ke putr tatha bimbisar ke rajavaidy jivak ne takshashila men hi shila payi thi. kuru tatha kosalarajy nishchit sakhya men yahan prati varsh chhatron ko bhejate the.
  • takshashila ke ek dhan:shastr ke vidyalay men bharat ke vibhinn bhagon se saikadon rajakumar yuddhavidya sikhane ate the.
  • jatakon men yahan padhaye jane vale vishayon men vedatrayi evn atharah kalaon evn shilpon ka varnan milata hai.
  • satavin shati men jab hvenasang idhar bhraman karane aya tab isaka gaurav samapt pray tha.
  • fahyan ko bhi yahan koee shaikshanik mahattv ki bat nahin prapt huee thi. vastav men isaki shiksha vishayak charcha maury kal ke bad nahin suni jati. sambhavat: barbar videshiyon ke akramanon ne ise nasht kar diya, snrakshan dena to door ki bat thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahabharat, svargarohan parv, adhyay 5
  2. pauranik kosh |lekhak: rana prasad sharma |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 557, parishisht 'k' |
  3. sindhorubhayat: parshve desh: paramashobhan:, valmiki ramayan, saptam, 100-11
  4. raghuvnsh pndrahavan, 88-9; valmiki ramayan, saptam, 101.10-11; vayupuran, 88.190, mahabharat, pratham 3.22).
  5. 's takshapushkalau putrau rajadhanyau tadakhyayau, abhishichyabhishekarhi ramantikamagath pun:.'
  6. mahabharat, svargarohan parv, adhyay 5
  7. haimiltan aur phakanar ka angreji anuvad, tritiy, prisht 90
  8. udyalak tatha setaketu jatak
  9. tamas-barhaspaty arthashastr-bhoomika pri. 15
  10. pri. 107
  11. de. enshent jain hims, pri.55
  12. mahabharat 1.3.20

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