उत्खनन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

utkhanan ko hindi bhasha men 'khudaee' aur angrezi bhasha men 'Excavation' kaha jata hai. aj-kal mukhy roop se zamin khodane ki vah kriya hai, jo gaharaee men dabe hue prachin avasheshon, imarati pattharon ka pata lagane ke lie ki jati hai use utkhanan kaha jata hai. vah sthan, jahan se patthar nikale jate hain, use pashan khan kahate hain. pashan khan sadharanataya khule sthan men hi banaee jati hai. imarati pattharon men grenait, baisalt, baloo ke patthar, choone ke patthar, slet aur sngamaramar mukhy hain. grainait shabd ke antargat sadharanataya halke rng ki sabhi agney shilaen mani jati hain. in shilaon ki rachana kvarth‌z, felspar, abhrak aur haaurn blend namak khanijon se hoti hai. baisalt pray: kale rng ki shilaen hoti hain. ye traip bhi kahalati hain. inamen felspar aur pairaauksin khanijon ki prachur matra hoti hai. in shilaon men kee prakar ke bhng hote hain, jinase inhen khodane men suvidha hoti hai. ye samanyat: kadi hoti hain.

kayantarit shilaen

grenait shabd ke antargat hi 'nais' namak kayantarit shilaon ko bhi gin liya jata hai. abhrak adi khanij ke samantar talon men vyavasthit hone se inamen anek durbal dharatal ban jate hain, jinake karan inhen khodane men saralata ho jati hai. bhngon ki upasthiti men ise aur bhi saralata se khoda ja sakata hai. balukashm[1] evn choone ka patthar jalaz shilaen hain. at: inamen svabhavik roop se star hote hain. staron ki upasthiti ke karan inaka khodana aur inhen silliyon ka roop dena atynt saral ho jata hai. kayantaran ke prabhav se choone ke patthar sngamaramar ki shilaon men parivartit ho jate hain, parntu unaki star rachana nasht ho jati hai. sngamaramar ki shilaon ko todane ke lie bhngon ka sahara lena padata hai. slet bhi kayantarit shila hai. isamen samantar tadakan hoti hai, at: isaki atynt patali paraten nikali ja sakati hain.

patthar pariksha

kisi bhi patthar ko khod nikalane ke poorv usaki kathorata, shakti, khanij rachana, radhrnta aur chikana karane par prapt aur sundarata ki pariksha ki jati hai. khodane ke sthan par pattharon men atyadhik bhng, darar athava aise any durbal dharatal nahin hone chahie, jinase pusht aur badi salliyan n mil saken, parntu yadi aise dharatal hon hi nahin to bhi kathinaee padegi. tab khode hue pattharon ko charon or se ghisane ka vyay badha jaega. pattharon men atyadhik tatha aniyamit apakshay[2] bhi nahin hona chahie. pattharon ki kathorata, durbal dharatalon ki upasthiti, silliyon ki map aur khadan ki vistriti par khodane ki kriya ka nirnay kiya jata hai. chhoti pashan khan men pray: sabhi kary hath se kiya jata hai. visphot kriya dvara chattanen todi jati hain. bhngon ki anupasthiti men nishchit doori par khade chhidr banae jate hain aur unamen visphot kiya jata hai. jalaj shilaon men staron ke samantar kshaitij chhidr banakar visphot kiya jata hai. sadharanat: khadan sidhinuma banaee jati hai. bahut badi pashan khanon men adhikadhik kary mashinon se liya jata hai.

imarati pattharon ke utkhanan

bharat men imarati pattharon ke utkhanan ka kary bahut prachin kal se hota raha hai. dakshin bharat ke grenait adi pattharon se bane pragaitihasik kal ke mndir abhi tak vidyaman hai. andhr tatha maisoor rajyon men is prakar ke pattharon ki khadanen aj kal bhi hain. inase patthar nikal kar videshon ko bheje jate hain. maharashtr aur as-pas ke kshentron men baisalt athava traip namak lava ki shilaon ka prayog imarati pattharon ke roop men kiya jata hai. ajnta tatha elora ki guphaen inhin pattharon men khodi gee hain. vindhy shreni ke balua patthar dirgh kal se hamari moolyavanh‌ nidhi rahe hain. gnga aur yamuna ke kinare khade vishal ghat tatha mndir hi nahin varanh‌ anek prachin ashok stnbh bhi inhin se nirmit hue hain. in pattharon ki mukhy khadan kaimoor, chunar, bharatapur, fatehapur sikari adi sthanon men sthit hain.[3]

samast uttar bharat men ashok kal se lekar aj tak imarati pattharon men vindhy shreni ke balua pattharon ka yogadan sabase adhik raha hai. gondavana yug ke balua pattharon bihar, udisa evn madhy pradesh men tatha mahasarat[4] yug ke patthar kachchh men nikale jate hain. kayantarit balua pattharon ki shilaen alavar tatha ajamer men khodi jati hain. saurashtr men kee sthanon par pashan khanen hain, inamen 'porabndar patthar' ki khan sabase mukhy hai. bijapur, varngal, boondi, udayapur, madhy pradesh, andhr pradesh tatha tamilanadu rajyon men bhi is prakar ke patthar nikale jate hain. slet ki khadanen [[kumayun]], gadhaval, mndi, chnba, kangada adi parvatiy pradeshon men bahulata se milati hain. andhr ke kurnool zile men bhi slet shilaen atyadhik matra men vidyaman hain. revadi tatha gudaganv men bhi slet milati hai. sngamaramar shilaon ke lie jodhapur ke nikat makarana ki pashan khanen dirghakal se prasiddh hain. agara ka tajamahal evn kalakatta ka 'viktoriya memoriyal makarana' sngamaramar ka hi bana hai. rajasthan men alavar, jayapur, nathadvara, rajanagar, ramalo, adi sngamaramar ke any prasiddh kshetr hain. dakshin bharat men chital durg, maisoor, selam aur maduraee zile tatha madhy pradesh men jabalapur, chhindavada aur maharashtr men nagapur tatha sivani zile sundar sngamaramar ke lie prasiddh hain. asadharan rng ke sngamaramar pattharon ke lie gujarat men harikuva, revakantha aur sandara tatha andhr men kurnool, krishna aur guntoor zile prasaddhi hain.[5]


inhen bhi dekhen: rajaghat utkhanan varanasi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. saindaston
  2. vayu aur jal se katan
  3. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 66-67 |
  4. juraisik
  5. vimalakant dave, hindi vishvakosh, khand 2, prishth snkhya 66

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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