राजघाट उत्खनन वाराणसी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

varanasi varanasi paryatan varanasi zila

rajaghat ki prachinata aur usaka satat itihas kisi puratatvik utkhanan se 1940 ee. tak nishchit nahin tha. isaki prachin sthiti vartaman kashi steshan ke uttar-poorvi men gnga aur varuna ke madhy thi, jise rajaghat tile ke nam se jana jata hai. isaki akasmik khoj 1939 ee. men vartaman kashi steshan ke vistar ke samay relave thikedaron dvara khudaee karate samay huee.[1] khudaee men in thekedaron ko bahut-si prachin vastuen milin jinamen mitti ki muharen evn mudrayen bhi thin. in vastuon ko ab bharat kala bhavan aur ilahabad myoonisipal myoojiyam men rakha gaya hai. in mudraon men mukhyat: yoonani devi-devataon ki akritiyan tatha kuchh yoonani rajaon ke sir ka ankan hai. yahan se mili vastuon se akrisht hokar shri krishnadev ke netritv men bharatiy puratattv vibhag ke ek dal ne yahan utkhanan prarnbh kiya. is dal ne oopari jamav se 20 phut niche tak khudaee ki.

utkhanan men 12 khnbhon se yukt ek mndir tatha eenton ki kuchh any snrachanaen, uttari kali chamakile mrinbhand ke tukade tatha kuchh any vastuen milin.[2] isake atirikt utkhanan men chauthe star (doosari-tisari shatabdi ee.) se anek yoonani devi-devataon ki akritiyon se yukt mudraen bhi mili hain. yahan badi matra men mudraon ke milane ke karan shri krishnadev is nishkarsh par pahunche ki ye mudraen varanasi v pashchimi deshon (yoonan evn rom) ke bich vyaparik snbndh ki dyotak hain.[3] parntu motichndr varanasi aur pashchim ke deshon (yoonani evn rom) ke bich vyaparik snbndh hone ki bat ko asvikar karate hain. unaka kahana hai ki us samay pashchim deshon se vyapar mukhyat: jalamarg se hi hota tha, jo ki arab sagar v bngal ki khadi ke bndaragahon tak hi simit tha aur vahan se bharatiy vyapariyon dvara yah saman desh ke any bhagon men pahunchaya jata tha, jabaki sthalamarg se in videshi vyapariyon ke madhy desh tak pahunchane ke bhi praman nahin milate.[4] yadi in vyapariyon ka vyaparik snbndh madhy desh se man bhi liya jay to isaka praman madhyadesh ke any vyaparik nagaron (kaushanbi, sahajati (adhunik 'bhita') aur shrivasti men kyon nahin milata? yah ek vicharaniy prashn hai. at: yah to nishchit hai ki ye mudrayn vyaparik uddeshy se yahan nahin aeen. snbhav hai ki ye mudraen hind-yavan shasak dremetriyas ya milind (minandar) ke pataliputr vijay abhiyan ke dauran banaras men padav ke samay chhoot gee hon.

yah prachin sthal charon or se surakshit tha. dakshin-poorv ki or se gnga, uttar aur uttar-poorv men varuna nadi tatha pashchim tatha uttar-pashchim ki or se yah ek parikha dvara pariveshtit tha. grib[5] aur shering[6] ne bhi prachin varanasi ki sthiti nagar ke uttar men varuna aur gnga ke milan-bindu par mani hai. at: yah to nishchit hai ki yah sthal varanasi ki prachinatam basti ko nishchit karata hai. samarthan ke lie utkhanan men 1940 men yahin se prapt ek guptakalin muhar par ullekhit lekh ‘varanasyadhishthanidhakaranasy’ ka bhi ullekh samichin hoga. is kshetr ka sarvapratham vaigyanik utkhanan kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke pro. avadh kishor narayan ne 1957 men prarnbh kiya. is kary ka pun: arnbh 1960-61 aur bad ke varshon men bhi chalata raha.[7] utkhanan se nimnalikhit charan prakash men ae hain.

utkhanan ke vibhinn charan

chet sinh ghat, varanasi

pratham kal

rajaghat ki khudaee se prapt avasheshon se yah siddh hota hai ki manav ne sarvapratham 8vin shati ee.poo. ke asapas is daladal vale kshetr ko saf karake nivas prarnbh kiya. us samay yahan ke nivasiyon ka mukhy pesha krishi tha. yahan ke nivasi mitti ke makanon evn phoos ki jhopadiyon men rahate the. simit utkhanan ke karan is kal ke avasiy bhavanon ke bare men vistrit janakari nahin mil saki, parntu aisa abhas hota hai ki is kal men yah kshetr nagarikaran ki prakriya se bilkul anabhigya raha hoga. is kal ke tin charan drishtigat hote hain-

pratham charan ke nichale staron ki simit khudaee se avasiy bhavanon ev smarakon ke avashesh nahin mile hain. yahan se prapt vastuon men lohe ke upakaran, asthinirmit aujar, badi snkhya men mrinmoortiyan, mitti ki tashtariyan tatha abhooshan adi mile hain. dvitiy charan se sarakande (narakul) ke tukade tatha kamaron ke pharshon ke utkhanit ansh prakash men ae hain. is charan se ek prakar ke avashesh bhi mile hai.[8] jise bad ke utkhananon men tatabndh se samikrit kiya gaya hai. snbhavat: gnga ki badh se nagar ki raksha ke lie ukt tatabndh ka nirman kiya gaya tha.[9]nagarikaran ke prarnbh men tatabndh ke nirman ka yah pratham prayas tha. is charan se kisi prakar ki snrachana ke avashesh nahin mile hai. phir bhi pharsh ke utkhanit ansh ke milane se is kal men bhavanon ke hone ki pushti hoti hai. isake atirikt lala evn bhoore rng ki mrinmoortiyan bhi mili hain jinamen hathi aur sand ki akritiyan mukhy hai. is charan ki samapti tisari-chauthi shati ee.poo. ke lagabhag huee. tritiy charan men kachchi mitti ki dival tatha kachche pharsh ke avashesh mile hain.[10] isake atirikt kuchh mrinmoortiyan, tanbe ke sikke tatha mritika valay koop bhi mile hain.

dvitiy kal

dvitiy kal ka prarnbh tisari shati ee. poo. se prarnbh hota hai. yah yug varanasi ke itihas men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhata hai. nagariy sabhyata ke itihas men vikas ka yah pratham kal tha. is kal men krishn-lepit parnpara, krishn lohit patr evn uttari kale chamakile mrinbhandon ka prayog bahutayat men milata hai[11], jo is kal ke arthik aur takaniki vikas ke spasht praman hai. is kal ki sabase mahattvapoorn upalabdhi bhavanon ke nirman men paki eenton ka prayog tha. yada-kada makanon men kachchi eenton ka prayog bhi milata hai. bhavanon men paki eenton ke prayog se jahan ek or inaki takaniki pragati ki janakari milati hai, vahin doosari or janata ki sukh-samriddhi ka bhi gyan hota hai. bhavanon ki ninv men knkad patthar evn eenton ke tukadon ko dala jata tha. utkhanan se ek sthan par knkad-patthar se yukt knkarit ki ninv bhi mili hai.[12]

bhavanon ki chhat ke nirman men khaparail (ruphatails) ka prayog milata hai. inako lohe ke kilon se bandha jata tha. divalon men stnbh-gart (post-hols) ke avashesh bhi mile hain, jisase yah siddh hota hai ki chhat ko tikane ke lie lakadi ya bans ke khnbhon ka prayog kiya jata tha.[13] makan ek sidh men banae jate the aur do makanon ke madhy kuchh sthan chhod diya jata tha. spashtat: shuddh vayu aur nagar ki svachchhata ke lie hi aisa kiya jata tha. in makanon ke madhy golakar kuen bhi milen hain. kabhi-kabhi ye kuen makanon ke andar bhi sthit hote the. poorn khudaee ke abhav men kuchh nishchit kahana kathin hai lekin kamare ke andar aise kuon ke milane se aisa pratit hota hai ki inaka upayog shauch adi ke lie kiya jata raha hoga.[14] utkhanan se pata chalata hai ki pravastha 1 men kamaron ka ausat akar 2.56 mitar x 2.26 tatha pravastha 2 men 1.90 mitar x 2.92 mitar tha. pratyek parivar ke rahane ke lie do kamare the. in kamaron men do daravaze, ek dalan (prakoshth), ek kuan, snanarth chabootara tatha nali sammilit thi. yahan se sokhta ghade aur mritikavalay koop ke bhi avashesh mile hain. isake atirikt paki eenton se nirmit ek nali ke avashesh bhi mile hain. yah nali uttar se dakshin 2.75 mitar lnbaee men vistrit thi, jo bade akar ki eenton se avrit thi. saphaee ki suvidha ke lie nali men lnbavath eenton ka prayog milata hai. is kal men kachchi eenton ka prayog bhi milata hai. utkhanan se char raddon vale ek bhavan ka bhi pata chala hai. is bhavan men prayukt eenton 39x30x7 sentimitar akar ki hai. paki eenton ki map do vargon men drishtigat hoti hai. ek varg men prayukt eenton 50x31x5 sentimitar akar ki hai. tatha doosare varg men 48x28x5 sentimitar akar ki hai. is kal ka ant eesavi sanh ke prarnbh men hua hoga.

tritiy kal

is kal ka prarnbh eesavi shati se lekar tisari shatabdi ee. ke madhy mana jata hai. avasiy snrachana ki drishti se yah kal sarvadhik samriddh tha. is kal ke sabhi bhavan paki eenton se nirmit hain. inamen prayukt eenten mukhyat: do akar ki hain- is prakar ki eenten jinaki map 40x25x5 sentimitar hai tatha doosare prakar ki eenten 39x29x5 sentimitar map ki hai.[15] is kal ki utkhanit snrachana ko adhyayan ki suvidha ki drishti se utkhananakartaon ne tin snrachanatmak pravasthaon men vibhakt kiya hai.

snrachanatmak pravastha 1 men aise bhavanon ki ninv milati hai jinamen kamare ka akar 4x4.21 mitar lnba hai aur ek-doosare ko poorv ke chhor par katate hain. isaki ninv ki motaee 20 sentimitar chaudi thi. isake sath do mudi huee divalen bhi thin. is snrachana se bade akar ke kamare ka pata chalata hai, jisaka ek parshv 6.06 mitar lnba tha. yahin se eenton ke pletapharmayukt ek kuan bhi mila tha. pharsh ke kone men vrittakar dhnsa hua ek sthan tha. snbhavat: yahan sokhta ghade (sokej jars) ya koee upakaran rakha gaya hoga.[16]

snrachanatmak pravastha 3 men knkarit ki ek 24 sentimitar moti pharsh aur kuchh divalon ke avashesh milen hain isamen ek dival 2.27 mitar thi, jisamen prayukt eeton ki 11 paraten hain. isake atirukt kee any divalon ke avasheshon ka bhi pata chala hai, lekin bhagnavastha men hone ke karan inase kisi nishchit yojana ki janakari nahin ho pati. bhavanon ki nirman yojana se yah spasht parilakshit hota hai ki unaki rachana dishaon ko dhyan men rakhakar ki jati thi.[17]

is kal ke utkhanit sabhi mridabhand lal rng ke hain. rochak hai ki dvitiy kal men is prakar ke mridabhandon ka prayog apekshakrit kam milata hai, jabaki is kal men inaka prayog akar aur pakane ki nee prakriya ke roop men drishtigat hota hai. any mahattvapoorn vastuon men sikkon evn muharon ka prayog mukhy hai. yahan se 400 muharen evn rajamudrank (silings) parishkrit evn aparishkrit roop men mili hain. ullekhy hai ki isi prakar ke rajyamudrank (silings) agiyabir se bhi mili hain jinaka vivaran adhyay 9 men diya gaya hai. puralipi snbndhi chihnon se ye muharen pahali shatabdi aur tisari shatabdi ke madhy ki pratit hoti hain. is kal men pahali bar daeestrak sikkon ka prayog milata hai. yahan se kaushanbi aur ayodhya ke do sikke bhi mile hain, jin par lekh kramash: ‘navash’ aur ‘shivadattas’ ankit hain. is kal se badi snkhya men muharon evn rajamudrankon ka milana tatha samarthanasvaroop sikkon ka prapt hona, is tathy ka spasht pramanh hai ki is kal men vyapar aur vanijy ke kshetr men ullekhaniy pragati huee.[18]

chaturth kal

yah kal 300 se 700 ee. ke bich vikasit tha. is kal ke nirmit bhavan poorv-yug ke bhavanon se bhinn the. is kal ke sabhi avashesh guptayugin hain. is kal ke makan sabhi suvidhaon se yukt the. in makanon men snanagrih, pakashala evn bhndarakaksh ityadi milate hain. is kal ki prapt vastuon men do kund, bartan rakhane ke martaban, ek knkarit ki jali mukhy hain kamaron men prayukt iten 41.5x26.5x5 sentimitar akar ki hain.

uparyukt tathyon ke vivechan se yah spasht hai ki vibhinn yugon men bhavan-nirman ki prakriya men paryapt antar milata hai. nirman ki pratham prakriya ke pashchath uttarottar parivarddhan ka kram parilakshit hota hai. sarvapratham 8vin shati eesavi poorv men manav mukhyat: kachchi mitti ke makanon evn jhopadiyon men nivas karata tha. parntu nagarikaran ki prakriya ke pranrabh ke phalasvaroop doosari-tisari sadi ee.poo. men bhavanon ke nirman men paki eenton ka prayog hone laga. is kal men kachchi eenton ka prayog bhi milata hai. logon ko lohe ka gyan ho chuka tha, isalie bhavanon men lohe ki kilon ka upayog avashyakatanusar hone laga.[19] eesavi sanh ke prarnbh se tisari shatabdi tak in bhavanon men paki eenton ka prayog bahulata se milata hai. is kal ke kamare poorvavarti kamaron se baden hote the. bhavanon ki ninv knkarit evn eenton ke tukadon se bhari jati thi. tisari shatabdi se satavin shatabdi ke bhavanon men bhi paki eenton ka prayog milata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vidya prakash evn ti.en. ray, buletin aauf d yoo.pi. histarikal sosaiti, snkhya 4 (saits end manuments aauf yoo.pi.) lakhanoo, 1965 prishth 33
  2. krishnadev, enual bibaliyographi aauf indiyan histri end indolaji (1947), prishth 49-51
  3. krishnadev, kvayns divaises phram rajaghat sils, jarnal aauf di nyoomisamaitiks sosayati aauf indiya 3, (disnbar 1941), prishth 77
  4. motichndr kashi ka itihas, prishth 56
  5. ee. gribj, kashi, prishth 3-4
  6. em.e. shering, di sekred siti aauf hindooj, prishth 291
  7. indiyan arkiyolaji, e rivyoo, 1957-58, prishth 64
  8. ee. gribj, kashi, prishth 3-4
  9. e.ke. narayan evn purushottam sinh, eksakeveshns et rajaghat, khnd 3, prishth 6. virendr pratap sinh ne uparyukt mat ka khndan karate hue yah pramanit kiya hai ki yah prakar hi rahe honge. apane mat ke samarthan men unhonne un khaton ka ullekh kiya hai jahan prakar ke avashesh mile hain, jisaka ullekh utkhananakartaon ne bhoolavashn nahin kiya hai. dekhen, virendr pratap sinh, sam asapekts aauf laiph in ainshyent varanasi ej rivild thro di arkiyolajikal sorsej 1980, adhyay 2
  10. e.ke. narayan aur ti.en.ray, eksakeveshns ait rajaghat, bhag 1, prishth 22-25
  11. tatraiv, bhag 2, prishth 10
  12. tatraiv, bhag 1, prishth 26
  13. e.ke. narayan aur ti.en. ray, eksakeveshns ait rajaghat, bhag 1, prishth 26, chitr 5, plet 4, 5
  14. virendr pratap sinh, sam asapekts aauf laiph in ainshyent varanasi ej rivild thro di arkiyolajikal sorsej, prishth 88 aur chitr snkhya-2
  15. avadhakishor narayan aur ti.en. ray. eksakeveshns ait rajaghat, bhag 1, prishth 28, plet 10 ., 18
  16. ullekhaniy hai gharon men sokhta ghadon ko gadhdha khodakar rakha jata tha. jisamen ghar ki gndagi adi ikattha ki jati thi.
  17. e.ke. narayan evn ti.en. ray, eksakaveshns ait rajaghat, prishth 28
  18. tatraiv bhag 3, prishth 14
  19. ullekhaniy hai ki lohe ki kilon ka prayog khaparailon ko bandhane ke lie kiya jata tha.
  • aitihasik sthanavali | vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar

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