चोपनी माण्डो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

madhy pashan se sambandhit yah purasthal ilahabad zile ki meja tahasil men ilahabad shahar se 77 kilomitar door boodhi belan nadi ke bayen tat par hai.

  • is purasthal ko 1967 ee. men khojane ka shrey bi.bi. mishr ko hai.
  • yah purasthal chopani-mando vistrit kshetr men phaila hua hai jisaka kshetraphal 15,000 varg mitar hai.
  • is purasthal ke sampoorn kshetr men laghu pashan upakaran, vibhinn prakar ke patthar ke tukade, ghise se hue batikashm (pebal) adi bikhare pade hain.
  • chopani mando ke utkhanan se uttari vindhay kshetr ki madhy pashanik snskriti par naya prakash pada hai.
  • chopani- mando ke utkhanan ke phalasvaroop madhy pashanakal ke tin sanskritik upakalon ke vishay ka pata chala hai, yahan se prarambhik madhy pashan kal evn vikasit madhy pashan kal ka abhigyan hota hai.
  • prarambhik madhy pashan kal se golakar panch jhopadiyon ke sakshy mile hain.
  • vikasit madhy pashan kal athava ady nav pashanakal se jyamitiy laghu pashan upakaranon ke sath-sath hastanirmit mridbhand bhi mile hain.
  • pramukh upakaranon men samanantar tatha kunthit parshv vale bled, bedhak, chandrik, tribhuj, vishamabahu, samalamb, chatubhurj, kharachani adi ullekhaniy hain.
  • chart ke atirikt charlsadeni ka adhikadhik upayog upakaranon ke nirman ke lie is kal men kiya jane laga tha.
  • is kal ki mili jhopadiyon men 6 golakar aur 7 andakar hain. jo mridbhand mile hain, ye ve atynt bhngur hain tatha bahut achchhi tarah se pake hue nahin hain.
  • bartanon ki mitti bhali-bhanti gunthi huee nahin thi. chhote-chhote katore tatha kalash pramukh patr-prakar hain.
  • bartanon men slip, chamakane tatha rngane ke sakshy mile hain.
  • yahan par lal tatha dhoosar do rngon ke mridbhand mile hain.
  • anek patr khandon men thappa lagakar satah par dijain banaee gee hain.
  • bartanon ki bahari satah par phool-patti tatha shnkh jaisi chhap milati hai.
  • puratatvik adhar par 1700 se 7000 ee.poo. ke bich chopani-mando ke sampoorn sanskritik jamav ki tithi anki gee hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • aitihasik sthanavali | vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah