अकथा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

akatha
kagyoo tibbati math, saranath
vivaran 'akatha' ek aitihasik purasthal hai, jo saranath se se 2 kilomitar ki doori par dakshin-pashchim men sthit hain. yahan se pura mahattv ki kee vastuen prapt huee hain.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila saranath
sthiti 83°0’ poorvi akshansh aur 25°22’ uttari deshantar ke madhy
utkhanan faravari-aprail, 2002 ke madhy; pun: pun: faravari-aprail, 2004 ke madhy
snbndhit lekh saranath, rajaghat
any janakari 'kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay' ke pro. vidula jayasaval evn daau. birendr pratap sinh ke snyukt nirdeshan men unake vibhagiy sahayogi daau. ashok kumar sinh dvara 2002 ke madhy men akatha ka utkhananakiya gaya tha.

akatha ek aitihasik purasthal hai, jo saranath (uttar pradesh) se se 2 kilomitar ki doori par dakshin-pashchim men sthit hain. yah purasthal 83°0’ poorvi akshansh aur 25°22’ uttari deshantar ke madhy sthit hai. narokhar nala ke dakshini kinare par sthit yah purasthal char varg kilomitar men phaila hua hai. yahan utkhanan kary mukhy roop se akatha-1 aur akatha-2 men kiya gaya. akatha utkhanan ka navinatam sakshy varanasi ki prachinata ko barahavin-terahavin shatabdi eesa poorv men sthapit karata hai. is pariprekshy men saranath aur rajaghat ke prarnmbhik staron ke punarmoolyankan ki avashyakata hai.

utkhanan kary

akatha ka utkhanan 'prachin bharatiy itihas', 'snskriti evn puratattv vibhag', 'kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay' ke pro. vidula jayasaval evn daau. birendr pratap sinh ke snyukt nirdeshan men unake vibhagiy sahayogi daau. ashok kumar sinh dvara faravari-aprail, 2002 ke madhy kiya gaya tha.[1] yah utkhanan kary pun: 2004 faravari-aprail ke madhy pro. vidula jayasaval evn lekhak ke snyukt nirdeshan men sampann hua. narokhar nala ke dakshini kinare par sthit yah purasthal char varg kilomitar, men phaila hua hai.

sanskritik kal

utkhanan kary mukhy roop se 'akatha-1' aur 'akatha-2' men kiya gaya. utkhanan men char sanskritik kalon ki samagri prakash men aee-

  • pratham kal- poorv uttari krishn parimarjit snskriti (pri en. bi. pi. kal) (lagabhag 1200 ee. poo. se 600 ee. poo. tak)
  • dvitiy kal- uttari krishn parimarjit snskriti (600 ee.poo. se 200 ee. poo. tak)
  • tritiy kal- shung kushan kal (200 ee. poo. se 300 eesavi tak)
  • chaturth kal- guptakalin snskriti (300 eesavi se 600 eesavi tak)

purasthal-1 - vartaman akatha ganv ke dakshin-pashchim kinare par sthit hai, jahan badi snkhya men prastar pratimaen bikhari padi hain. yah vahi sthan hai, jahan se kuchh varsh poorv ek 'yaksh' pratima mili thi. yah ab saranath sngrahalay men surakshit hai. yah yaksh pratima pratham-dvitiy shatabdi eesa poorv ki hai. is kshetr ke utkhanan men eenton se nirmit tin snrachanaen (snrachana-1, snrachana-2, aur snrachana-3) mili hai. snrachana-1 ke nirman men khnut eenton ka prayog kiya gaya hai. banavat ke adhar par yah snrachanaen gupt kal ki pratit hoti hain.

snrachana-2 aur 3 ek divar ke kshatigrast bhag hain. is divar men prayukt eenton ki map 44 X27.5 X6 se.mi. aur 44 X26 X6 se.mi. akar ki hain. yah snrachanaen kushan kal ki hain. in sarnchanaon ke niche shung kalin tin kramagat farshon ke praman mile hain. in farshon ko mridabhand ke tukadon aur mitti ko kootakar banaya gaya hai. 2004 ke utkhanan men mukhy sthal par kuchh kushan kalin snrachanaon ke avashesh mile hain, jo avasiy praman nahin pratit hote hain. isake atirikt do muharen evn badi snkhya men tanbe ke sikke bhi mile hain.

akatha- 1

akatha- 1 se prapt mukhy mridabhand parnparaen krishn lohit, krishn lepit, uttari krishn parimarjit mridabhand, bhoore rng ke mritpatr evn lal rng ke mritpatr hain. krishn lohit[2] mridabhand ke katore, tasale, ghade, krishn lepit mridabhand[3], uttari krishn parimarjit mridabhand[4]evn bhoore rng ki thaliyan evn katore mukhy hain. lal mridabhand ke katore, ghade, avath rahit handiyan[5] evn gulabapash[6] badi snkhya men prapt hue hain. any vastuon men tamr-shalaka, tanbe, mitti aur arddhamoolyavan pattharon ke bane manake, lodhe evn khilaune tatha paki mitti ki manav evn pashu moortiyan hain.

akatha-2

akatha-2 mukhy tile se ½ kilomitar dakshin men sthit hai, jo ‘qabragah’ ke nam se jana jata hai. yah kshetr apane men ekal snskrit ka astitv chhipae hue hain. avasiy bastiyon ke nirman ke lie thekedaron dvara in tilon ko samatal kiye jane ke karan yayan tvarit nistaran kary karana pada. yahan 3 mi X 3 mi. ki 6 khattiyon men utkhanan kary kiya gaya. utkhanan men yahan se poorv krishn-parimarjit snskriti ke avashesh prakash men ae hain, jo tamr pashan kalin hai. akatha se abhi koee karban tithi nahin mili hai, lekin any sthalon se prapt mridabhandon ke sath tulanatmak adhyayan ke adhar par is ekal snskriti ki tithi 1200-1300 ee.poo. men nirdharit ki ja sakati hai.

pratham kal ki snskriti ke log apane makanon ke nirman men mitti, lakadi evn phoos ka prayog karate the. utkhanan men char stnbh garton ye yukt ek pharsh mila hai, jise mitti ke bartanon ke chhote-tukadon evn mitti ko kootakar sudridh banaya gaya hai. pharsh par ek choolhe ke avashesh bhi mile hain. yah pharsh akatha men avasiy praman ka sabase prachin sakshy hai. utkhanan men pashuon ki jali huee haddiyan badi snkhya men mili hain. isamen se kuchh haddiyan par katane ke nishan bhi hain, jisase gyat hota hai ki mans-bhakshan ke lie in pashuon ka vadh kiya gaya tha. is kal ke prapt auzaron men pashu-asthiyon se bane banagr ullekhy hain.

akatha-2 ke utkhanan se prapt mridabhand krishn lohit, krishn lepit evn lal prakar ke hain. lal mridabhandon par lep ka prayog bhi milata hai. yahan ke nivasiyon ko mridabhand alnkaran ka bhi vishesh gyan tha. utkhanan se dori chhapit, chataee ki chhap yukt evn chipakava paddhati se alnkrit mridabhangon ke tukade pratham kal ke nichale star se prapt hue hain. akatha utkhanan ka navinatam sakshy varanasi ki prachinata ko barahavin-terahavin shatabdi eesa poorv men sthapit karata hai. is pariprekshy men saranath aur rajaghat ke prarnmbhik staron ke punarmoolyankan ki avashyakata hai. nagarikaran ke sndarbh men yah navinatam sakshy ek nee disha pradan karata hai evn kashi ke ek janapad ke roop men vikasit hone ki prakriya men isaka mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hoga.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vi. jayasaval, akatha : e saitelaia setilament aauf saranath, varanasi (riport aauf eksakaiveshans kandakted in d iyar 2002), bharati, ank 26, 2000-2002, pri. 61-180.
  2. blaik end red veyar
  3. blaik slipd
  4. en.bi.pi. veyar)
  5. karineted
  6. sprinkalar

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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