पुरातत्त्व  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

puratattv vidya, jisamen mukhyatah itihas ki vastuon evn ghatanaon ke adhar par purane agyat itihas ka pata lagaya jata hai. is vigyan ko "puratattv vigyan" ya "puratattv vidya" kaha jata hai. puratatvik sakshy ke antargat mukhyatah abhilekh, sikke, smarak, bhavan, moortiyan chitrakala adi ate hain.

abhilekh

itihas nimarn men sahayak puratattv samagri men abhilekhon ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. ye abhilekh adhikanshatah stambhon, shilaon, tamrapatron, mudraon patron, moortiyon, guhaon adi men khude hue milate hain. yadyapi prachinatam abhilekh madhy eshiya ke ‘bogajakoee‘ nam sthan se qarib 1400 ee.poo. men paye gaye jinamen anek vaidik devataon - indr, mitr, varun, nasaty adi ka ullekh milata hai.

apane yatharth roop men abhilekh hamen sarvapratham ashok ke shasan kal men hi milaten hain. ek abhilekh, jo haidarabad men 'maski' namak sthan par sthit hai, men ashok ke nam ka spasht ullekh milata hai. isake atirikt 'gurjara', madhy pradesh, 'panagudhiya',madhy pradesh se prapt lekhon men bhi ashok ka nam milata hai. any abhilekhon men usako devataon ka priy ‘priyadarshi‘ raja kaha gaya hai. ashok ke abhilekh mukhyatah brahyi, kharoshthi tatha aramaik lipiyon men milaten hain jisamen adhikansh brahyi men khude hue hain. is lipi ko banyi se dayin or likha jata hai. pashchimottar prant men prayukt hone vali ‘kharoshthi lipi‘ dayin se bayin or likhi jati thi. pakistan aur afaganistan, men paye gaye ashok ke abhilekhon men prayukt lipi aramaik v yoonani thi.

ashok ke bad abhilekhon ki parampara se jude any abhilekh is prakar hain- kharavel ka kharavel ka hathigumpha, shak kshatrap pratham rudradaman ka joonagadh abhilekh, satavahan naresh pulumavi ka nasik guhalekh, harishen dvara likhit samudragupt ka prayag stambh lekh, malav naresh yashovarman ka mandasaur abhilekh, chaluky naresh pulakeshin dvitiy ka aihol abhilekh, pratihar naresh bhoj ka gvaliyar abhilekh, skandagupt ka bhitari tatha joonagadh lekh, bngal ke shasak vijay sen ka devapada abhilekh ityadi. kuchh gair sarakari abhilekh hain jaise yavan rajadoot heliyadoras ka besanagar, vidisha se prapt garud stambh lekh. isase dvitiy shatabdi ee.poo. men bharat men bhagavat dharm ke vikasit hone ke sakshy milate hain. madhy pradesh ke eran se prapt varah pratima par hoon raja toraman ke lekhon ka vivaran hai.

mudrayen

bharatiy itihas adhyayan men mudraon ki ativ mahatta hai. bharat ki prachinatam mudraen chhathi shati ee.poo. men prachalit huee. in par lekh nahin hote the. kuchh pratik jaise parvat, vriksh, pakshi, manav, pushp, jayamitiy akriti adi ankit rahate the. inhen ahat mudra (pnch markd kvayans) kaha jata tha. sarvapratham bharat men shasan karane vale yoonani shasakon ki mudraon par lekh evn tithiyan utkirn milati hain. sarvadhik mudraen uttar maury kal men milati hain jo pradhanatah sise, potin, taben, kanse, chandi aur sone ki hoti hain. kushanon ke samay men sarvadhik shuddh suvarn mudraen prachalan men the, par sarvadhik suvarn mudraen gupt kal men jari ki gayi. samudragupt ki kuchh mudraon par 'yoop' par 'ashvamedh ygy' aur kuchh par vina bajate hue dikhaya gaya hai. kanishk ki mudraon se yah pata chalata hai ki vah bauddh dharm ka anuyayi tha. satavahan naresh shatakarni ki ek mudra par jalapot ka chitr utkirn hai jisase anuman lagaya jata hai ki usane samudr vijay ki thi. chandragupt dvitiy ki vyaghrashaili ki mudraon se usaki pashchimi bharat ke shakon ki vijay soochit hoti hai.

smarak evn bhavan

itihas nirman men bharatiy sthapatyakaron, vastukaron aur chitrakaron ne apane hathiyar, chheni, kanni, aur toolika ke dvara vishesh yogadan diya. inake dvara nirmit prachin imaraten, mndir moortiyon ke avasheshon se bharat ki prachin samajik, arthik evn dharmik paristhitiyon ka gyan hota hai. khudaee men mile mahattvapoorn avasheshon men hadappa sabhyata, pataliputr ki khudaee men chandragupt maury ke samay lakadi ke bane rajaprasad ke dhvnsavashesh, kaushambi ki khudaee se maharaj udayan ke rajaprasad evn 'ghoshitaram bihar' ke avashesh antarajikheda men khudaee se lohe ke prayog ke sakshy, pandicheri ke arikamedu men khudaee se roman mudraon, bartan adi ke avasheshon se tatkalin itihas evn snskriti ki janakari prapt hoti hai. us samay mndir nirman ki prachalit nagar shailiyon men ‘ nagar shaili‘ uttar bharat men prachalit thi jabaki dravid shaili dakshin bharat men prachalit thi. dakshinapath men nirmit ve mndir jisamen nagar evn dravid donon shailiyon ka samavesh hai use ‘vesar shaili‘ kaha gaya hai. 8vin shatabdi men java men nirmit borabudur mndir se bauddh dharm ki pahachan shakha ke prachalit hone ka praman milata hai.

moortiyan

prachin kal men moortiyon ka nirman kushan kal se arambh hota hai. kushanen, gupt shasakon evn uttar guptakal men nirmit moortiyon ke vikas men janasamany ki dharmik bhavanaon ka vishesh yogadan raha hai. kushanakalin moortiyon evn guptakalin moortiyon men vyapt moolabhoot antar is prakar hai-

  • kushanakalin moortiyan videshi prabhav se otaprot hain vahin par guptakalin moortiyan svabhavikata se ot-prot hain.
  • bharahut, bodhagaya, sanchi aur amaravati men mili moortiyan, moortikala men janasamany ke jivan ki ati sajiv jhanki prastut karati hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: moorti kala mathura


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
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madhyamik
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