दक्षिणपथ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sthiti

moolaroop se dakshin athava dakshinapath ka prayog us kshetr ke liye kiya jata tha, jo ki uttar men vindhy parvat aur narmada se lekar dakshin men kanyakumari tak vistrit tha. bad men dakshin ka arth vah kshetr mana jane laga, jo ki uttar men narmada tak, dakshin men tungabhadra tatha krishna nadi ke bich sthit hai, arthath dakshini pathar ke mukhy bhag ko dakshin kaha jane laga, jisake antargat ajakal ka madhyapradesh tatha maharashtr aur andhr pradesh ata hai. krishna aur tungabhadra ke dakshin ke kshetr ko kabhi-kabhi 'tamilahamh' arthath 'tamil desh' kaha jata tha. yahan par dakshin ka arth hai narmada aur krishna nadiyon ke bich ka dakshini pathar. bhoogarbhiy drishti se sindhu aur gnga ke maidanon ki apeksha yah pathar bahut prachin mana jata hai.

puratatvik itihas

dakshin men jo puratatvik avashesh mile hain, ve uttari bharat (himalay ke kshetr ko chhodakar) men prapt avasheshon se adhik prachin hain. dakshini pathar vastut: ek parvatiy trikon par sthit hai. jisaka shirshabindu nilagiri hai. pashchimi ghat evn poorvi ghat is trikon ki do bhujaen hain tatha vindhy parvat shreni isaka adhar hai. vindhy parvat shreni ke karan koee nadi uttar se dakshin ki or nahin bahati. choonki pashchimi ghat poorvighat ki apeksha adhik oonche hain, atev dakshin ki sabhi nadiyan satapuda pahadiyon ke niche pashchim se poorv ki or bahati hain aur bngal ki khadi men girati hain.

pauranik mat

ramayan tatha mahabharat men surakshit prachin anushrutiyon ke anusar sarvapratham agasty muni dakshin gaye the. vahan par unhonne vanaron, asuron tatha rakshason ko prabhavit kiya aur vahan par apana sammajanak ek sthan banaya. vishvas kiya jata hai ki dakshinavasi dravid the, jinaki bhautik sabhyata aryon ki apeksha kafi oonchi thi.

aitihasik mat

aitihasik drishtikon se hamen dakshin ke sambandh men jo janakari milati hai, vah uttar bharat ki tulana men kafi arvachin hai. nand vnsh se pahale hamen dakshin ke bare men janakari nahin milati. in nnd rajaon (ee. poo. chauthi shatabdi) ke samrajy men kaling shamil tha. ho sakata hai ki sampoorn dakshin unek samrajy ke antargat hi raha ho. ashok ke samrajy men yadyapi kaling hi shamil tha, tathapi usaka samrajy penar nadi tak phaila hua tha. usake samrajy ki dakshini simaen cher, chol, pandy tatha satiyaputron ke rajyon ko chhooti thi. maury vnsh ke patan ke pashchath satavahanon ne, jo ki 'andhr' bhi kahe jate the, ek vishal samrajy ki sthapana ki aur ee. poo. 50 se 225 ee. tak shasan kiya. isi kal men shakon ki ek shakha ne dakshin pashchimi bhag par adhikar kar liya.

satavahanon ke patan ke pashchath dakshin ke vividh bhagon men anek chhote-chhote rajavnshon ka uday hua. inamen gng, vakatak tatha kadamb mukhy the. gng vnsh ki ek shakha ne doosari se gyarahavin shatabdi tak maisoor ke ek bade kshetr par rajy kiya. shravan belagola ki pahadi par sthapit 53॥ fut oonchi gomateshvar ki vishal pratima inhin rajaon ki yad dilati hai. gng vnsh ki ek shakha ne udisa men bhi chhathi se 16vin shatabdi tak shasan kiya. isi vnsh ke annt varma chodagng ne puri ke vikhyat jagannath mandir ko banavaya tha. kadamb rajaon ne tisari se chhathi shatabdi tak dakshin karnatak aur pashchimi maisoor men shasan kiya, jabaki vakatakon ne chaturth se chhathi shatabdi tak madhy pradesh tatha dakshin ke pashchimi bhag par shasan kiya. chaturth shatabdi ke madhy men samudragupt ne, jo gupt vnsh dvitiy samrat tha, dakshin ki or abhiyan kiya aur vahan ke anek rajaon ko apane adhin kiya. jisamen pallav raja vishnugop bhi tha, jisaki rajadhani kanchi thi, jise ajakal kanjivaram kahate hain. gupt vnsh ke tritiy samrat chndragupt vikramadity ne ujjayini ke shak kshatrap ko parajit kar sampoorn malava aur gujarat ko apane adhin kar liya.

gupt samrajy ke patan ke pashchath uttar bharat dakshin se alag ho gaya tatha dakshin men chaluky vnsh ka rajy sthapit hua, jo ki kadachit uttar bharat ke kisi rajapoot vnsh ki ek shakha the. chalukyon ki rajadhani vatapi athava badami thi, jo ajakal maharashtr ke bijapur zile men hai. is vnsh ne lagabhag do sau varsh tak shasan kiya. is vnsh ka sabase pratapi raja pulakeshi dvitiy tha, jisane 608-42 ee. tak shasan kiya aur 641 ee. men narmada nadi ke kinare uttar bharat ke suprasiddh samrat harshavardhan ko parajit kiya tatha is prakar uttar tatha dakshin ke bich narmada nadi ki prakritik sima ko qayam rakha. padosi kanchi ke pallav usake sabase shaktishali pratidvandvi the. pallav raja narasinh dev varma ne 642 ee. men chaluky naresh pulakeshi dvitiy ko parajit kar mar dala.

32 varsh pashchath rashtrakoot vnsh ke dntidurg ne chaluky vnsh ka moolochchhed kar diya. rashtrakooton ke naye vnsh ne manyakhet (adhunik malakhet) ko apani rajadhani banakar dakshini bharat par shasan kiya. is vnsh ka sabase pratapi raja amoghavarsh (lagabhag 815-77 ee.) tha, jisaka ullekh arab yatriyon ne dvitiy vallabharay ke nam se kiya hai. 973 ee. men dvitiy chaluky vnsh ne rashtrakoot vnsh ka moolochchhed kar diya. is dvitiy chaluky vnsh ne dakshini bharat par 1190 ee. tak shasan kiya.

dvitiy chaluky vnsh ke patan ke pashchath dakshinapath tin rajavnshon men vibhajit ho gaya. yadavon ne devagiri ko apani rajadhani banakar dakshin ke pashchimi bhag par shasan kiya. hoyasal vnsh ne dvarasamudr ko apani rajadhani banakar maisoor par shasan kiya. kakatiy vnsh ne barngal ko apani rajadhani banakar dakshin ke poorvi bhag (telngana) par shasan kiya. dakshin ke in rajaon ke bich barabar yuddh hote rahe. phalat: dilli ke sultan alauddin khilaji ne ek-ek karake sabhi ko apani adhin kar liya. yadav raja 1296 aur 1313 ee. bich men parajit hue, kakatiy raja 1310 ee. men tatha hoyasal naresh 1311 ee. men. isake bad hoyasalon ne nam matr ke lie 1424-25 ee. tak shasan kiya. inake rajy ko bad men bahamani sultanon ne apane rajyon men mila liya. is prakar uttar bharat ki bhanti dakshin men bhi hindoo rajy samapt ho gaya.

sanskritik aur dharmik paksh

yadyapi rajanitik drishti se nndon, mauryon tatha gupton ko chhodakar kal men dakshin uttar bharat se lagabhag alag hi raha, tathapi sanskritik aur dharmik drishti se vah sadaiv hindoo bharat ka abhinn ang raha. yadyapi dakshinavasi uttar bharatiyon se bhinn bhashaen bolate the, tathapi uttar ke hinduon ki bhanti dakshin ki bhi rajabhasha snskrit hi rahi. brahman dharm, bauddh dharm aur jain dharm ka dakshin men utana hi adar hua, jitana uttar men. yadi dakshin ne uttar se bahut kuchh prapt kiya, to usane uttar ko bahut kuchh diya bhi. adi shnkarachary dakshin ke hi the. jinhonne vedant darshan ka pratipadan kiya. ramanujachary ne vaishnav dharm ki sthapana ki. vikhyat smritikar vigyaneshvar ne 'mitakshara siddhant' pratipadit kiya jo bngal aur asam ko chhodakar shesh bharat ke samajik jivan ka niyaman karata hai. kala aur vastukala men dakshin ne hindoo parampara ko jivit rakhan kala, vastushilp, moortikala aur chitrakala ke kshetr men hinduon ki unnati ka parichay dakshin jane par hi milata hai. jahan par vishal mandiron ke roop men atyant sundar kalakritiyan vidyaman hain. elora-ajanta ki gufaen aur ye mandir hinduon ke kala vaibhav ka jo chitr prastut karate hain, usaki kalpana uttar bharat ke mandiron ko dekhakar nahin ki ja sakati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah