पाल वंश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pal vnsh ka udbhav bngal men lagabhag 750 ee. men gopal se hua. is vnsh ne bihar aur akhandit bngal par lagabhag 750 se 1174 ee. tak shasan kiya. is vnsh ki sthapana gopal ne ki thi, jo ek sthaniy pramukh tha. gopal athavin shatabdi ke madhy men arajakata ke mahaul men sattadhari ban baitha. usake uttaradhikari dharmapal (shasanakal, lagabhag 770-810 ee.) ne apane shasanakal men samrajy ka kafi vistar kiya aur kuchh samay tak kannauj, uttar pradesh tatha uttar bharat par bhi usaka niyntran raha.

utthan v patan ka kram

pal vnshiy shasak
shasak shasanakal
gopal pratham (lagabhag 750 - 770 ee.)
dharmapal (lagabhag 770 - 810 ee.)
devapal (lagabhag 810 - 850 ee.)
vigrahapal (lagabhag 850 - 860 ee.)
narayanapal (lagabhag 860 - 915 ee.)
gopal dvitiy (lagabhag 940 - 957 ee.)
mahipal pratham (lagabhag 978 - 1030 ee.)
nayapal (lagabhag 1030 - 1055 ee.)
mahipal dvitiy (lagabhag 1070 - 1075 ee.)
ramapal (lagabhag 1075 - 1120 ee.)
gopal tritiy (lagabhag 1145 ee.)
madanapal (lagabhag 1144 - 1162 ee.)
govind pal (lagabhag 1162 - 1174 ee.)

devapal (shasanakal, lagabhag 810-850 ee.) ke shasanakal men bhi pal vnsh ek shakti bana raha, unhonne desh ke uttari aur pray:dvipiy bharat, donon par hamale jari rakhe, lekin isake bad se samrajy ka patan shuroo ho gaya. kannauj ke gurjar pratihar vnsh ke shasak mahendr pal (nauvin shatabdi ke uttarardhd se arnbhik dasavin shatabdi) ne uttari bngal tak hamale kie. 810 se 978 ee. tak ka samay pal vnsh ke itihas ka patan kal mana jata hai. is samay ke kamazor evn ayogy shasakon men vigrahapal ki ganana ki jati hai. bhagalapur se prapt shilalekh ke anusar, narayan pal ne buddhagiri (munger), tirabhukti (tirahut) men shiv ke mandir hetu ek ganv dan diya, tatha ek hazar mandiron ka nirman karaya. pal vnsh ki satta ko ek bar phir se mahipal, (shasanakal, lagabhag 978 -1030 ee.) ne punarsthapit kiya. unaka prabhutv varanasi (vartaman banaras, uttar pradesh) tak phail gaya, lekin unaki mrityu ke bad samrajy ek bar phir se kamazor ho gaya. pal vnsh ke antim mahattvapoorn shasak ramapal (shasanakal, lagabhag 1075 -1120) ne bngal men vnsh ko takatavar banane ke liye bahut kuchh kiya aur apani satta ko asam tatha udisa tak phaila diya.

sen vnsh ka utkarsh

'sndhyakar nndi' dvara rachit aitihasik snskrit kavy 'ramacharit' men ramapal ki upalabdhiyon ka varnan hai. ramapal ki mrityu ke bad sen vnsh ki badhati huee shakti ne pal samrajy par vastut: grahan laga diya, halanki pal raja dakshin bihar men agale 40 varshon tak shasan karate rahe. aisa pratit hota hai ki, pal rajaon ki mukhy rajadhani poorvi bihar men sthit 'mudagiri' (munger) thi.

bauddh dharm ka snrakshan

pal naresh bauddh matanuyayi the. unhonne aise samay bauddh dharm ko snrakshan diya, jab bharat men usaka patan ho raha tha. dharmapal dvara sthapit vikramashila vishvavidyalay us samay nalanda vishvavidyalay ka sthan grahan kar chuka tha. is kal ke pramukh vidvanon men 'sandhyakar nandi' ullekhaniy hain, jinhonne 'ramacharit' namak aitihasik kavyagranth ki rachana ki. isamen pal shasak ramapal ki jivani hai. any vidvanon men 'haribhadr yakrapanidatt', 'brajadatt' adi ullekhaniy hai. chakrapanidatt ne chikitsasngrah tatha ayurvedipika ki rachana ki. jimootavahan bhi pal yug men hi hua. usane 'dayabhag', 'vyavahar malava' tatha 'kal vivek' ki rachana ki. bauddh vidvanon men kamalashil, rahalubhadr, aur dipnkar shrigyan atish adi pramukh hain.

vajradatt ne 'lopeshvarashatak' ki rachana ki. kala ke kshetr men bhi pal shasakon ka mahattvapoorn yogadan raha. smith ne pal yug ke do mahanh shilpakar 'dhinaman' tatha 'bitapal' ka ullekh kiya hai. pal vnsh ke shasakon ne bngal par 750 se 1155 ee. tak tatha bihar par musalamano ke akraman (1199 ee.) tak shasan kiya. is prakar pal rajaon ka shasan kal un rajavnshon men se ek hai, jisamen prachin bharatiy itihas men sabase lambe samay tak shasan kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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