मुग़ल वंश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugal rajavnsh, jise bharat men babar ne arambh kiya tha, jisane 1526 ee. men lodi vnsh ke antim sultan ibrahim lodi ko panipat ke pratham yuddh men parajit kiya. is vijay se babar ka dilli aur agara par adhikar ho gaya. 1527 ee. men babar ne mevad ke shasak rana sanga ko khanua ke yuddh men parajit kar rajapooton ke pratirodh ka bhi ant kar diya. antat: 1528 ee. men usane ghaghara ke yuddh men afaganon ko bhi parajit kar apana shasan bngal aur bihar tak vistrit kar liya. in vijayon ne babar ko uttari bharat ka samrat bana diya. usake dvara prachalit mugal rajavnsh ne bharat men 1526 ee. se 1858 ee. tak rajy kiya. mugal rajavnsh men jo raja hue, unaka vivaran is prakar se hai-

babar

mugal vnsh ke shasak
shasak shasan kal
babar 1526 - 1530 ee. (4 varsh)
humayoon 1530 - 1540 ee. aur 1555 - 1556 ee.

(lagabhag 11 varsh)

akabar 1556 - 1605 ee. (49 varsh)
jahangir 1605 - 1627 ee. (22 varsh)
shahajahan 1627 - 1658 ee. (31 varsh)
aurngazeb 1658 - 1707 ee. (49 varsh)
bahadurashah pratham 1707 - 1712 ee. (5 varsh)
jahandarashah 1712 - 1713 ee. (1 varsh)
farrukhasiyar 1713 - 1719 ee. (6 varsh)
rafiuddarajat faravari 1719 se joon 1719 ee. (4 mahine)
rafiuddaula joon 1719 se sitambar, 1719 ee. (4 mahine)
nekasiyar 1719 ee. (kuchh din)
muhammad ibrahim 1719 ee. (kuchh din)
muhammadashah raushan akhtar 1719 - 1748 ee. (29 varsh)
ahamadashah 1748 - 1754 ee. (6 varsh)
alamagir dvitiy 1754 - 1759 ee. (5 varsh)
shahalam dvitiy 1759 - 1806 ee. (47 varsh)
akabar dvitiy 1806 - 1837 ee. (31 varsh)
bahadurashah dvitiy 1837 - 1858 ee. (21 varsh)

14 faravari, 1483 ee. ko faragana men 'zahiruddin muhammad babar' ka janm hua. babar apane pita ki or se taimoor ka panchava evn mata ki or se chngez khan (mngol neta) ka chaudahavan vnshaj tha. usaka parivar turki jati ke 'chagataee vnsh' ke antargat ata tha. babar apane pita 'umar shekh mirza' ki mrityu ke bad 11 varsh ki ayu men shasak bana. usane apana rajyabhishek apani dadi ‘aisan daulat begam’ ke sahayog se karavaya. babar ne apane faragana ke shasan kal men 1501 ee. men samarakand par adhikar kiya, jo matr ath mahine tak hi usake qabze men raha. 1504 ee. men qabul vijay ke uparant babar ne apane poorvajon dvara dharan ki gee upadhi ‘mirza’ ka tyag kar nee upadhi ‘padashah’ dharan ki.

humayoon

26 disambar, 1530 ee. ko babar ki mrityu ke bad 30 disambar, 1530 ee. ko 23 varsh ki ayu men humayoon ka rajyabhishek kiya gaya. babar ne apani mrityu se poorv hi humayoon ko gaddi ka uttaradhikari ghoshit kar diya tha. humayoon ko uttaradhikar dene ke sath hi sath babar ne vistrit samrajy ko apane bhaeeyon men bantane ka nirdesh bhi diya tha, atah usane asakari ko sambhal, hindal ko mevat tatha kamaran ko pnjab ki soobedari pradan ki thi. samrajy ka is tarah se kiya gaya vibhajan humayoon ki bhaynkar bhoolon men se ek tha, jisake karan use anek antarik kathinaiyon ka samana karana pada aur kalantar men humayoon ke bhaiyon ne usaka sath nahin diya. vastav men avivekapoornadhng se kiya gaya samrajy ka yah vibhajan, kalantar men humayoon ke lie ghatak siddh hua. yadyapi usake sabase prabal shatru afagan the., kintu bhaiyon ka asahayog aur humayoon ki kuchh vyaiktik kamazoriyan usaki asaphalata ka karan siddh hueen.

akabar

humayoon mushkil se nau varsh hi shasan kar paya tha ki, 26 joon, 1539 ko gnga kinare 'chausa' (shahabad zile) men use sherakhan (sherashah) ke hathon karari har khani padi. chausa apane aitihasik yuddh ke lie aj utana prasiddh nahin hai, jitana apane svadisht amon ke lie. chausa ki har ke bad kannauj men humayoon ne phir bhagy-pariksha ki, lekin sherashah ne 17 mee, 1740 ko apane se kee guna adhik sena ko hara diya. humayoon is bar pashchim ki or bhaga. kitane hi samay tak vah rajasthan ke registanon men bhatakata raha, par kahin se bhi use koee sahayata prapt nahin huee. isi bhatakate hue jivan men usaka parichay hamida bano begam se hua. banoo ka pita shekh ali akabar jami mir baba dost humayoon ke chhote bhaee hindal ka guru tha. hamida ki sagaee ho chuki thi, lekin chahe betakht ka hi ho, akhir humayoon badashah tha. sindh men pat ke mukam par 1541 ee. ke ant ya 1452 ee. ke prarambh men 14 varsh ki hamida ka vivah humayoon se ho gaya. apane pichhale jivan men yahi hamida banoo 'mariyam makani' ke nam se prasiddh huee aur apane bete se ek hi sal pahale (29 agast, 1604 ee. men) mari. us samay kya pata tha ki, humayoon ka bhagy palata khayega aur hamida ki kokh se akabar jaisa ek advitiy putr paida hoga.

jahangir

samrat jahangir ka vyaktitv bada akarshak tha; kintu usaka charitr buri−bhali adaton ka adbhut mishran tha. apane bachapan men kusng ke karan vah anek buraeeyon ke vashibhoot ho gaya tha. unamen kamukata aur madira−pan vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain. gaddi par baithate hi usane apani anek buri adaton ko chhodakar apane ko bahut kuchh sudhar liya tha; kintu madira−pan ko vah ant samay tak bhi nahin chhod saka tha. atishay mady−sevan ke karan usake charitr ki anek achchhaeeyan dab gee thin. madira−pan ke snbndh men jahangir ne svayn apane atmacharit men likha hai−'hamane solah varsh ki ayu se madira pina arnbh kar diya tha. pratidin bis pyala tatha kabhi−kabhi isase bhi adhik pite the. is karan hamari aisi avastha ho gee ki, yadi ek ghadi bhi n pite to hath kanpane lagate tatha baithane ki shakti nahin rah jati thi. hamane niroopay hokar ise kam karana arnbh kar diya aur chhah mahine ke samay men bis pyale se panch pyale tak pahuncha diya.

shahajahan

shahajahan ka vivah 20 varsh ki ayu men noorajahan ke bhaee asaf khan ki putri 'arazumand bano' se sanh 1611 men hua tha. vahi bad men 'mumataz mahal' ke nam se usaki priyatama begam huee. 20 varsh ki ayu men hi shahajahan, jahangir shasan ka ek shaktishali stnbh samajha jata tha. phir us vivah se usaki shakti aur bhi badh gee thi. noorajahan, asaf khan aur unaka pita mirza giyasabeg jo jahangir shasan ke kartta-dhartta the, shahajahan ke vishvasaniy samarthak ho gaye the. shahajahan ke shasan−kal men mugal samrajy ki samriddhi, shan−shauqat aur khyati charam sima par thi. usake darabar men desh−videsh ke anek pratishthit vyakti ate the. ve shahajahan ke vaibhav aur that−bat ko dekh kar chakit rah jate the. usake shasan ka adhikansh samay sukh−shanti se bita tha; usake rajy men khushahali rahi thi. usake shasan ki sab se badi den usake dvara nirmit sundar, vishal aur bhavy bhavan hain. usake rajakosh men apar dhan tha. samrat shahajahan ko sab suvidhaen prapt thin.

aurngazeb

sinhasan par baithane ke uparant aurngazeb ne bijapur ke shasak ali adilashah dvitiy ko 1657 ee. ki sndhi ka palan n karane ke karan dand dene ke lie jayapur ke raja jayasinh ko 1665 ee. men dakshin bheja. jayasinh ne bijapur ke poorv shivaji ke khilaf mahattvapoorn ladaee men saphalata prapt kar 1665 ee. men ‘purandar ki sandhi’ ki. purandar ke bad jayasinh ne shivaji ke sahayog se bijapur par navambar, 1665 ee. men akraman kiya. prarambhik saphalata se utsahit hokar jayasinh ne kee galat nirnay liye, jis karan vah bijapur par adhikar karane men asaphal raha. aurngazeb ne naraz hokar jayasinh ko 1666 ee. men vapas ane ka adesh diya. raste men ‘burahanapur’ ki samip 11 julaee, 1666 ee. ko jayasinh ki mrityu ho gee. disambar, 1672 ee. men adilashah ki mrityu ke bad usaka alpavayask putr sikandar adilashah bijapur ka samrat bana. usake samay men bijapur men do gut-ek khavas khan ke netritv men evn doosara bahalol khan ke netritv men sakriy tha. donon guton ke antarik matabhedon ka fayada uthakar mugal soobedar bahadur khan ne 1676 ee. men bijapur par akraman kiya, parantu abhiyan asaphal raha. 1679 ee. men diler khan ko dakkan ka soobedar bana kar bijapur ko jitane ka adhikar saunpa gaya.

bahadurashah pratham

bahadur shah pratham ka janm 14 aktoobar, sanh 1643 ee. men burahanapur, bharat men hua tha. bahadur shah pratham dilli ka satavan mugal badashah (1707-1712 ee.) tha. 'shahazada muajzam' kahalane vale bahadurashah, badashah aurngazeb ke doosare putr the. apane pita ke bhaee aur pratidvndvi shahashuja ke sath bade bhaee ke mil jane ke bad shahazada muajzam hi aurngazeb ke snbhavi uttaradhikari the. bahadur shah pratham ko 'shahalam pratham' ya 'alamashah pratham' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. badashah bahadur shah pratham ke char putr the- jahandarashah, ajimushshan, rafiushshan aur jahanashah.

jahandarashah

pramukh mugal shasakon ke maqabare ka sthan
shasak maqabara
babar kabul
humayoon dilli
akabar sikandara, agara
jahangir shahadara, lahaur
shahajahan agara
aurngazeb daulatabad

jahandarashah ke shasanakal men prashasan ki poori bagador zulfiqar khan ke hathon men thi. darabar men apani sthiti mazaboot banane tatha samrajy ko bachane ke lie yah avashyak tha ki, rajapoot rajaon tatha marathon ke sath maitripoorn sambandh sthapit kiya jay. isalie jahandarashah ne rajapooton ki taraf maitripoorn qadam badhate huye, amer ke jayasinh ko malava ka soobedar niyukt kiya, tatha 'mirja raja' ki padavi di. maravad ke ajit sinh ko 'maharaja'ki padavi di aur gujarat ka shasak niyukt kiya. usane jajiya kar ko bhi samapt kar diya. zulfiqar khan ne choodaman jat tatha chhatrasal bundela ke sath bhi mel-milap kiya tatha keval banda bahadur ke viruddh daman ki niti ko jari rakha.

farrukhasiyar

saiyad bandhu abdulla khan aur husain ali khan ki madad se farrukhasiyar 11 janavari, 1713 ko mugal rajasinhasan par baitha. farrukhasiyar mugal vnsh ke ajimushshan ka putr tha. usane abdulla khan ko vazir ka pad evn 'kutubulamulk' ki upadhi tatha husain ali khan ko 'amir-ul-umara' tatha 'mir bakhshi' ka pad diya. sinhasan par baithane ke bad farrukhasiyar ne zulfiqar khan ki hatya karava di aur sath hi usake pita asad khan ko qaid kar liya. isake kal men mugal sena ne 17 disambar, 1715 ko sikkh neta banda sinh ko usake 740 samarthakon ke sath bandi bana liya.

rafiuddarajat

rafiuddarajat bahut hi alp samay (28 faravari se 4 joon, 1719 ee.) tak hi shasan kar saka. saiyyad bandhuon ne farrukhasiyar ke viruddh shadayantr rachakar 28 aprail, 1719 ko gala ghont kar usaki hatya kar di. mugal samrajy ke itihas men kisi amir dvara kisi mugal badashah ki hatya ka yah pahala udaharan tha.

rafiuddaula

rafiuddaula ne 6 joon se 17 sitambar, 1719 ee. tak hi shasan kiya tha. rafiuddarajat ki mrityu ke bad saiyyad bandhuon ne rafiuddaula ko dilli men mugal vnsh ki gaddi par baithaya. yah gyarahavan mugal badashah tha. gaddi par baithane ke bad isane 'shahajahan shani', 'shahajahan dvitiy' ki upadhiyan dharan ki thin.

nekasiyar

nekasiyar aurngazeb ka pautr aur akabar dvitiy ka putr tha. vah un panch kathaputali badashahon men se tisara tha, jinhen saiyad bandhuon ne sinhasanasin kiya tha. saiyad bandhuon ne use 1719 ee. men dilli men mugal gaddi ka adhikari banaya tha. vah keval thode dinon ke lie hi badashah ban paya.

muhammad ibrahim

muhammad ibrahim mugal vnsh ka 13van badashah tha. yah bahadurashah pratham (1707 - 1712 ee.) ke tisare putr rafiushshan ka putr tha. saiyad bandhuon ne jin char namamatr ke mugal badashahon ko gaddi par baithaya tha, yah unamen se ek tha. ise bhi kuchh samay bad hi saiyad bandhuon ne gaddi se utar diya, aur dhokhe se marava diya.

muhammadashah raushan akhtar

muhammadashah raushan akhtar ne lambe samay 1719 se 1748 ee. tak mugal samrajy par shasan kiya. rafiuddaula ki mrityu ke bad saiyyad bandhuon ne muhammadashah raushan akhtar ko gaddi par baithaya. vah jahanashah ka chautha beta tha. isake kal men bngal, bihar tatha udisa men murshid kuli khan, avadh men sadat khan tatha dakkan men nijamulamulk ne apani svatntr satta sthapit kar li. isake atirikt isake kal men gnga tatha doab kshetr men rohila saradaron ne bhi apani svatntr satta sthapit kar li thi. muhammadashah ek ayogy shasak tha. vah apana adhikansh samay pashuon ki ladaee dekhane tatha veshyaon aur madira ke bich gujarata tha.

ahamadashah

badashah ahamadashah ne mugal samrajy par 1748 se 1754 ee. tak shasan kiya tha. ahamadashah ka janm ek nartaki ke garbh se hua tha. muhammadashah raushan akhtar ki mrityu ke bad uttaradhikari ke roop men ahamadashah gaddi par baitha. usane avadh ke soobedar 'safadarajng' ko apana vazir ya pradhanamntri niyukt kiya. rajy ka kamakaj 'hijadon' tatha 'auraton' ke ek giroh ke hathon tha, jisaki mukhiya 'rajamata udhamabaee' thin, jo muhammadashah ke sath vivah karane se pahale logon ke samane nachane-gane vali ek ladaki thi.

alamagir dvitiy

alamagir dvitiy ke shasan kal men samrajy ki sainik aur vittiy sthiti poornatah ast-vyast ho chuki thi. bhookh se marate sainikon ke dnge aur upadrav alamagir dvitiy ke shasan kal men din-pratidin ki ghatana thi. vazir gaziuddin ki manamani se bhi alamagir apane ko mukt karana chahata tha. jab usane gaziuddin ke niyntran se apane ko mukt karane ka prayas kiya, to 1759 ee. men vazir ne usaki bhi hatya karava di. usaki lash ko lal qile ke pichhe yamuna nadi men phenk diya gaya.

shahalam dvitiy

shahalam dvitiy ne apane takht ke lie abdali ko sabase zyada khataranak samajha. isalie usane abdali ke pnje se bachane ke lie marathon ko apana snrakshak bana liya. lekin 1761 ee. men panipat ki tisari ladaee men abdali ne marathon ko hara diya. usane shahalam dvitiy ko dilli ke takht par bane rahane diya. yadyapi bad men usaki ichchha huee ki vah use hatakar svayn dilli ka takht hastagat kar le, tathapi usaki yah yojana poori nahin huee. kintu, abdali ki is viphalata se badashah shahalam dvitiy ko koee labh prapt nahin pahuncha. 1764 ee. men usane apani shakti badhane ka doosara prayas kiya aur bngal se angrezon ko nikal bahar karane ke lie avadh ke navab shujauddaula aur bngal ke bhagode navab mir qasim se sandhi kar li, parantu angrezon ne baksar ki ladaee (1764 ee.) men shahi sena ko hara diya aur badashah shahalam dvitiy ne eest indiya kampani se ilahabad ki sandhi kar li.

akabar dvitiy

kabar dvitiy mugal vnsh ka 18van badashah tha. vah shahalam dvitiy ka putr tha aur usane 1806-37 ee. tak raj kiya. usake samay tak bharat ka adhikansh raj angrezon ke hathon men chala gaya tha aur 1803 ee. men dilli par bhi unaka qabza ho gaya. badashah shahalam dvitiy (1769-1806 ee.) apane jivan ke antim dinon men eest indiya kampani ki penshan par jivan yapan karata tha. usaka putr badashah akabar dvitiy eest indiya kampani ki kripa ke sahare nam matr ka hi badashah tha.

bahadurashah dvitiy

bahadurashah dvitiy, akabar dvitiy aur lalabaee ke doosare putr the. apane shasanakal ke adhikansh samay unake pas vastavik satta nahin rahi aur vah angrezon par ashrit rahe. 1857 ee. men svatntrata sngram shuroo hone ke samay bahadurashah dvitiy 82 varsh ke boodhe the, aur svayn nirnay lene ki kshamata ko kho chuke the. vidrohiyon ne unako azad hindustan ka badashah banaya. is karan angrez unase kupit ho gaye aur unhonne unase shatruvath vyavahar kiya. sitambar 1857 ee. men angrezon ne dubara dilli par qabza jama liya aur bahadurashah dvitiy ko giraftar karake un par muqadama chalaya gaya tatha unhen rngoon (ab yangoon) nirvasit kar diya gaya.

mugal samrajy ke patan ke karan

mugal samrajy, jisane apani visheshataon se sampoorn madhyayugin bharat ko prabhavit kiya, usaka patan n to achanak hua aur n hi kisi ek karak ne isake patan men apani bhoomika nibhayi. mugal samrajy ke patan ke lie zimmedar mahattvapoorn karan is prakar hain-

  1. mugal samrajy ka patan aurngazeb ke vyaktitv evn kary nitiyon ke karan hua. isake antargat usaki dharmik niti, dakkan niti evn rajapoot niti ka mahattvapoorn yogadan hai.
  2. ayogy uttaradhikariyon ne bhi mugalon ke patan men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ka nirvah kiya. isaki mahattvapoorn kadi men bahadurashah pratham, jahandarashah se lekar bahadurashah zafar tak shamil hain.
  3. mugalakalin kulin varg apani yogyataon ke abhav ke karan ek bade samrajy par se apana prabhav khota ja raha tha. inaki yuddh ke prati ghrina v raja ko galat salah, nirantar chapaloosi se grast rahana adi karakon ne usake patan men bhoomika nibhayi.
  4. darabar men vyapt gutabandi ne bhi mugal shasan ke patan men bhoomika nibhayi. saiyad bandhu, zulfiqar khan v nizamulamulk, gaziuddin firoz jng jaise log patan ke mahattvapoorn abhineta ke roop men samane aye.
  5. mugal kal ke dauran uttaradhikar ka koee nishchit niyam nahin tha. aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad to yah lagabhag vismriti ke gart men chala gaya. 1748 - 1749 ee. ke bich nirmamatapoorvak ek hi varsh men qarib 4 badashahon ka katl kar diya gaya.
  6. dakkan ke shivaji ka jananayak ke roop men ubharana bhi mugal samrajy ke patan ka ek karan bana.
  7. mugal samrajy men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ke nirvah ke bad bhi manasabadari vyavastha doshamukt n rahi. mugal samrajy ke patan men isaka bhi yogadan raha.
  8. aurngazeb ki dakkan niti ki asaphalata ke karan hue nirantar yuddhon ne mugal samrajy ko antarik roop se khokhala kar diya. arthik kamazori bhi patan ka ek karan thi.
  9. nadirashah evn ahamadashah abdali ke akramanon ne to jaise mugal samrajy ke taboot men antim kil thokane ka kary kiya.
  10. mugal samrajy ki vishalata ke sath hi aurngazeb ke bad kushal shasakon ka abhav bhi patan ka ek karan bana.
  11. mugal kal ke dauran yooropiy kampaniyon jaise angrez, den, dach, phransisi adi ka pravesh bharat men ho chuka tha. antatah angrejon ne bharat men sarvochchata sthapit karate hue mugal samrat ko antim roop se bharat se bahar khaded diya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah