कुषाण वंश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'yuishi jati', jise 'yoochi qabila' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai, ka mool abhijan tibbat ke uttar-pashchim men 'takala maqan' ki marubhoomi ke simant kshetr men tha. hoonon ke akraman prarambh ho chuke the yuishi logon ke lie yah sambhav nahin tha ki ve barbar aur prachand hoon akrantaon ka muqabala kar sakate. ve apane abhijan ko chhodakar pashchim v dakshin ki or jane ke lie vivash hue. us samay sir nadi ki ghati men shak jati ka nivas tha. yoochi qabile ke logon ne kushan vnsh prarambh kiya.

yuishi logon ke panch rajyon men anyatam ka kueee-shuanga tha. 25 ee. poo. ke lagabhag is rajy ka svami kushan nam ka vir purush hua, jisake shasan men is rajy ki bahut unnati huee. usane dhire-dhire any yuishi rajyon ko jitakar apane adhin kar liya. vah keval yuishi rajyon ko jitakar hi sntusht nahin hua, apitu usane samip ke parthiyan aur shak rajyon par bhi akraman kie. anek aitihasikon ka mat hai, ki kushan kisi vyakti vishesh ka nam nahin tha. yah nam yuishi jati ki us shakha ka tha, jisane any charon yuishi rajyon ko jitakar apane adhin kar liya tha. jis raja ne panchon yuishi rajyon ko milakar apani shakti ka utkarsh kiya, usaka apana nam kujul kadafaisis tha. paryapt praman ke abhav men yah nishchit kar sakana kathin hai ki jis yuishi vir ne apani jati ke vividh rajyon ko jitakar ek sootr men sngathit kiya, usaka vaiyaktik nam kushan tha ya kujul tha. yah asndigdh hai, ki bad ke yuishi raja bhi kushan vnshi the. raja kushan ke vnshaj hone ke karan ve kushan kahalae, ya yuishi jati ki kushan shakha men utpann hone ke karan—yah nishchit n hone par bhi isamen sandeh nahin ki ye raja kushan kahalate the aur inhin ke dvara sthapit samrajy ko kushan samrajy kaha jata hai.

kushan bhi shakon ki hi tarah madhy eshiya se nikale jane par qabul-kndhar ki or yahan a gaye the. us kal men yahan ke hindi yoonaniyon ki shakti kam ho gee thi, unhen kushanon ne saralata se parajit kar diya. usake bad unhonne qabul-kndhar par apana rajyadhikar qayam kiya. unake pratham raja ka nam kujul kadafaisis tha. usane qabul – kndhar ke yavanon (hindi yoonaniyon) ko hara kar bharat ki uttar-pashchimi sima par base hue pahlavon ko bhi parajit kar diya. kushanon ka shasan pashchimi pnjab tak ho gaya tha. kujul ke pashchath usake putr vim taksham ne kushan rajy ka aur bhi adhik vistar kiya. bharat ki tatkalin rajanitik paristhiti ka labh utha kar ye log age badhe aur unhonne hind yoonani shasakon ki shakti ko kamazor kar shung samrajy ke pashchimi bhag ko apane adhikar men kar liya. vijit pradesh ka kendr unhonne mathura ko banaya, jo us samay uttar bharat ke dharm, kala tatha vyaparik yatayat ka ek pramukh nagar tha.[1]

kushan vnsh

kushan vnsh (lagabhag 30 ee. se lagabhag 225 ee. tak) ee. sanh ke arnbh se shakon ki kushan namak ek shakha ka prarambh hua. vidvanon ne inhen yuishi, turooshk (tukhar) nam diya hai . yuishi jati prarambh men madhy eshiya men thi. vahan se nikale jane par ye log kamboj-bahyik men akar bas gaye aur vahan ki sabhyata se prabhavit rahe. hindukush ko par kar ve chitaral desh ke pashchim se uttari svat aur hazara ke raste age badhate rahe. tukhar pradesh ki unaki panch riyasaton par unaka adhikar ho gaya. ee. poorv pratham shati men kushanon ne yahan ki sabhyata ko apanaya. kushan vnsh ke jo shasak the unake nam is prakar hai-

  1. kujul kadafaisis: shasan kal (30 ee. se 80 ee tak lagabhag)
  2. vim taksham: shasan kal (80 ee. se 95 ee tak lagabhag)
  3. vim kadafaisis: shasan kal (95 ee. se 127 ee tak lagabhag)
  4. kanishk pratham: shasan kal(127 ee. se 140-50 ee. lagabhag)
  5. vasishk pratham: shasan kal (140-50 ee. se 160 ee tak lagabhag)
  6. huvishk: shasan kal (160 ee. se 190 ee tak lagabhag)
  7. vasudev pratham
  8. kanishk dvitiy
  9. vashishk
  10. kanishk tritiy
  11. vasudev dvitiy
is soochi se alag bhi kushan raja hue hain jinaka adhik mahattv nahin hai aur itihas bhi spasht gyat nahin

kujul kadafaisis

kushanon ke ek saradar ka nam kujul kadafaisis tha . usane qabul aur kandahar par adhikar kar liya . poorv men yoonani shasakon ki shakti kamazor ho gee thi, kujul ne is ka labh utha kar apana prabhav yahan badhana shuroo kar diya . pahlavon ko parajit kar usane apane shasan ka vistar pnjab ke pashchim tak sthapit kar liya. mathura men is shasak ke tanbe ke kuchh sikke prapt hue hai .

vim taksham

vim taksham lagabhag 60 ee. se 105 ee. ke samay men shasak hua hoga. vim bada shaktishali shasak tha. apane pita kujul ke dvara vijit rajy ke atirikt vim ne poorvi uttar pradesh tak apane rajy ki sima sthapit kar li. vim ne rajy ki poorvi sima banaras tak badha li. is vistrit rajy ka pramukh kendr mathura nagar bana. vim ke banaye sikke banaras se lekar pnjab tak bahut badi matra men mile hai.

kanishk

kanishk kushan vnsh ka pramukh samrat kanishk bharatiy itihas men apani vijay, dharmik pravritti, sahity tatha kala ka premi hone ke nate vishesh sthan rakhata hai. kumaralat ki kalpanamnd tika ke anusar isane bharatavijay ke pashchath madhy eshiya men khotan jita aur vahin par rajy karane laga. isake lekh peshavar, manikyal (ravalapindi), suyivihar (bahavalapur), jeda (ravalapindi), mathura, kaushanbi tatha saranath men mile hain, aur isake sikke sindh se lekar bngal tak pae ge hain. kalhan ne bhi apani 'rajatarngini' men kanishk, jhushk aur hushk dvara kashmir par rajy tatha vahan apane nam par nagar basane ka ullekh kiya hai. inake adhar par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki samrat kanishk ka rajy kashmir se uttari sindh tatha peshavar se saranath ke age tak phaila tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. snbhavatah isi samay se janapad ka nam bhi shoorasen ke sthan par 'mathura' prasiddh ho gaya.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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