कंबोज महाजनपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(कम्बोज se punarnirdeshit)

knboj mahajanapad prachin samay men bharatavarsh ke pramukh janapadon men gina jata tha. prachin snskrit sahity men knboj desh ya yahan ke nivasi kanbojon ke vishay men anek ullekh hain, jinase jan padata hai ki knboj desh ka vistar sthool roop se kashmir se hindookush tak tha. vnsh brahman men knboj aupamanyav namak achary ka ullekh hai.


'kanboj vishaye jatairbalhikaishch hayottamai: vanayujairnadijaishch poornaharihayottamai:[1]
  • mahabharat ke anusar arjun ne apani uttar disha ki digvijay-yatra ke prasng men dardaron ya dardistan ke nivasiyon ke sath hi kanbojon ko bhi parast kiya tha- 'grihitva tu baln sarn phalgun: pandunandan: daradanh sah kambojairajayath pakashasani:'[2]
  • anguttaranikay [3] aur ashok ke panchaven shilalekh men knboj ka gndhar ke sath ullekh hai.
  • mahabharat [4] aur rajatarngini [5] men knboj ki sthiti uttarapath men bataee gee hai.
  • mahabharat men kaha gaya hai ki karn ne rajapur pahunchakar kanbojon ko jita, jisase rajapur knboj ka ek nagar siddh hota hai- 'karn rajapurn gatva kambojanirjitastvaya'. [6]
  • eeshanapur prachin kambodiya ka ek nagar tha.
  • karnigham ke anusar rajapur kashmir men sthit rajauri hai [7]
sinh shirsh
  • kalidas ne raghuvnsh men raghu ke dvara kanbojon ki parajay ka ullekh kiya hai— 'kamboja: samare sodhun tasy viryamanishvara:, gajalanh pariklishtairakshotai: sardhamanata:'[8] is uddharan men kalidas ne knboj desh men akharot vrikshon ka jo varnan kiya hai vah bahut samichin hai. isase bhi is desh ki sthiti kashmir men siddh hoti hain.
  • yuvanachvang ne bhi rajapur ka ullekh kiya hai [9].
  • vaidik kal men knboj ary-snskriti ka kendr tha jaisa ki vnsh-brahman ke ullekh se soochit hota hai, kintu kalantar men jab aryasabhyata poorv ki or badhati gee to knboj ary-snskriti se bahar samajha jane laga.
  • yask aur bhooridattajatak [10] men knbojon ke prati avamanyata ke vichar prakat kie ge hain. yuvanachvang ne bhi kanbojon ko asnskrit tatha hinsatmak pravrittiyon vala bataya hai. knboj ke rajapur, nndinagar [11] aur raisadeviz ke anusar dvaraka namak nagaron ka ullekh sahity men milata hai.
  • mahabharat men knboj ke kee rajaon ka varnan hai jinamen sudarshan aur chndravarman mukhy hain. kautily arthashastr men knboj ke 'vartashastropajivi'[12] sngh ka ullekh hai jisase gyat hota hai ki mauryakal se poorv yahan ganarajy sthapit tha. mauryakal men chndragupt ke samrajy men yah ganarajy vilin ho gaya hoga.

knboj uttarapath ke gandhar ke nikat sthit prachin bharatiy janapad isaki thik-thak sthiti dakshin pashchim ke punchh ke ilake ke antargat mani ja sakati hai. prachin snskrit evn pali sahity men knboj aur gandhar ka nam pray: sath-sath ata hai. jis prakar gandhar ke utkrisht oon ka varnan rigved men milata hai (1,126) usi prakar knboj ke knbalon ka ullekh yask ke nirukt men hua hai (2, 2). vastav men yask ne 'knboj' shabd ki vyutpatti hi sundar knbalon ka upabhog karanevale ya vikalp men sundar bhojan karanevale log-is prakar ki hai. gandhar aur knboj in donon janapadon ke abhinn snbndh ki parnpara se hi inaka sannidhy siddh hua hai. gandhar aphaganistan (kndahar) ka snvarti pradesh tha aur isi ke pados men poorv ki or knboj ki sthiti thi.

valmiki ramayan men knboj ka vatahik aur vanayu janapadon ke sath varnan hai aur in deshon men utpann shreshth kale ghodon se ayodhya nagari ko bhari poori bataya gaya hai (bal. 6, 22). mahabharat men arjun ki digvijay ke prasng men paramakanboj ka loh aur rishik janapadon ke sath ullekh hai (sabha. 27, 25). (rishik yoochi ka roopantaran jan padata hai. yoochi jati ka nivasasthan dakshin-pashchim chin ya chini turkistan ke antargat tha. prasiddh bauddh samrath kanishk ka raktasnbndh isi jati ke kushan namak kabile se tha.) dronaparv men satyaki dvara kanbojon, yavanon, shakon, kiraton aur barbaron adi ki durmad sena ko harane aur unake mundit mastakon aur lnbi dadhiyon ka chitramay ullekh (199, 45-48)-he rajanh‌, satyaki ne apaki (dhritarashtr ki) sena ka snhar karate hue hajaron kanbojon, shakon, shabaron, kiraton aur barbaron ke shavon se ranabhoomi ko pathakar vahan mans aur rudhir ki nadi baha di thi. un dasyuon ke, shirastranon se yukt mundit aur lnbi dadhiyonvale siron se ranabhoomi pnkhahin pakshiyon se bhari huee si dikhaee de rahi thi. mahabharat ke yuddh men kabojon ne kauravon ka sath diya tha. yah drashtavy hai ki kanbojadi ko akriti snbndhi jin visheshataon ka varnanamahabharat ke is prasng men hain ve aj bhi is pradesh ke nivasiyon men vidyaman hain. mahabharat men kanbojon ke rajapur namak nagar ka bhi ullekh hai jise karn ne jita tha (dron. 4, 5).

kaningham ne apane suprasiddh grnth 'enshent jiyographi aauv indiya' (pri. 142) men rajapur ka abhigyan dakshin-pashchim kashmir ke rajauri namak nagar (jila punchh, kashmir) ke sath kiya hai. is prakaraknboj desh ki avasthiti ka gyan hamen pray: nishchit roop se ho jata hai. rais devids ne is pradesh ki poorvabauddhakalin dvaraka namak nagari ka ullekh kiya hai. loodars ke abhilekhon (snkhya 176, 412) men knboj janapad ke ek doosare sthan nndinagar ka bhi ullekh hai jisaki sthiti ka thik pata nahin.

prasiddh vaiyakaran panini ne, jo svayn knboj ke sahavarti pradesh ke nivasi the 'knbojalluk' sootr se (ashtadhyayi 4, 1, 173) is janapad ke bare men apani janakari prakat ki hai. patnjali ne bhi mahabhashy men knboj ka ullekh kiya hai.

sikndar ke akraman ke samay (327 ee.poo.) knboj pradesh ki sima ke antargat urasha (jila hajara) aur abhisar (jila punchh) namak chhote-chhote rajy base hue the.

pali grnth anguttaranikay men bharat ke 16 mahajanapadon men knboj ki bhi ganana ki gee hai (1,213; 4,252-256-261). ashok ke abhilekhon men kanbojon ka ullekh, simavarti yavanon, nabhakon, nabhapnktiyon, bhojapitinakon aur gndharon adi ke sath kiya gaya hai (shilalekh 13). is dharmalipi se gyat hota hai ki yadyapi knboj janapad ashok ka simavarti pant tha tathapi vahan bhi usake shasan kapoorn roop se prachalan tha. vidvanon ka mat hai ki shahabajagadhi (jila peshavar) aur manasehara (jila hajara) men prapt abhilekhon se, ashok ke samay men (mashy tritiy shatabdi ee.poo.), kramash: gandhar aur knboj janapadon ki sthiti ka gyan hota hai.

mahabharat ke varnan men knboj desh ke anary riti rivajon ka abhas milata hai. bhishm. 9,65 men kanbojon ko mlechchhajatiy bataya gaya hai. manu ne bhi kanbojon ko dasyu nam se abhihit kiya hai tatha unhen mlechchh bhasha bolanevala bataya hai (manusmriti 10, 44-45). manu ki hi bhanti niruktakar yask ne bhi kanbojon ki boli ko ary bhasha se bhinn kaha hai aur is tathy ke praman men unhonne udaharan bhi diya hai (11-2). isi prakar bhooridatt jatak men bhi kanbojon ke anaryacharan tatha anary dharm ka ullekh hai.

chini yatri yuvanachvang ne (madhy 7vin sadi ee.) bhi rajapur ke snvarti pradesh ke nivasiyon ko bharat ke aryajanon ki sanskritik parnpara ke bahirgat mana hai aur unhen uttar-pashchim ki simavarti asabhy jatiyon ke antargat bataya hai. yuvanachvang ne rajapur ko chini bhasha men holoshipulo likha hai (dr. yuvanachvang, vatars 1,284). kintu isake sath yah bat bhi dhyan dene yogy hai ki knboj men bahut prachin kal se hi aryon ki bastiyan bidyaman thin. isaka spasht nirdesh vnshabrahman ke us ullekh se hota hai jisamen kanboj aupamanyav namak achary ka prasng hai. yah achary upamanyu gotr men utpann, madragar ke shashy aur knboj desh ke nivasi the. kith ka anuman hai ki is prasng men varnit aupamanyav kanboj aur unake guru madragar ke namon se uttaramadr aur knboj deshon ke sannikat snbndh ka abhas milata hai. (dr. vedik indeks-knboj). pali grnth majjhimanikay se bhi knboj men ary snskriti ki vidyamanata ke bare men soochana milati hai.

mahabharat men knboj desh ke kamath aur sudakshin namak rajaon ke nam milate hain-(sabha. 4, 22-udyog. 166, 1). kintu kautily ke arthashastr se gyat hota hai ki chaturth shatabdi ee.poo. men kanboj men sngh ya ganarajy ki sthapana bhi ki gee thi. arthashastr (pri. 318) men kanbojon ko vartashastropajivi sngh arthath‌ krishi aur shastron se jivika arjan karanevale sngh ki sngya di gee hai. maha. 7, 89, 38 men bhi 'kabojanan ch ye gana:', aisa varnan milata hai.

snskrit ke kavy grnthon men bhi knboj ke vishay men anek ullekh milate hain; udaharanarth, kalidas ne raghuvnsh men raghu ki digvijayayatra ke prasng men kanbojon par unaki vijay ka sundar varnan is prakar kiya hai-(raghu. 4, 69)-'raghu ke prabhav ko sahane men asamarth knboj-nivasiyon ko apane desh ke akharot ke vrikshon, jinase raghu ki sena ke madamatt hathiyon ki shrrinkhalaen bandhi gee thin, ki bhanti hi vinat hona pada.' yah drashtavy hai ki kalidas ke samay men bhi aj hi ki tarah bharat ke is pradesh ke akharot prasiddh the.

itihasakar kalhan ke anusar kashmir naresh lalitadity ne uttarapath ke any kee deshon ke sath knboj ko bhi jita tha. usake varnan men bhi knboj ki parnpara se prasiddh ghodon ka ullekh (4, 163). is varnan se yah bhi pramanit hota hai ki bharatiy itihas ke pray: madhyakal (11vin-12vin sadi ee.) tak knboj desh ke nam ka prachalan tha tatha isaki simaen bhi pray: poorvavath‌ hi thin, kintu yah jan padata hai ki tatpashchath‌ dhire-dhire is janapad ka vilay kashmir rajy men ho jane se isaki prithak satta ka ant ho gaya aur isake sath hi isaka nam bhi vismriti ke gart men ja pada. phir bhi abhi tak knboj ke nam ki smriti kaphiristan ke nikatavarti pradesh ke kuchh kabilon ke namon, jaise knboji, kamoj aur kamoje adi men surakshit hai (dr. elafinstan : ain ekaunt aauv d kingadam aauv kabul, jild 2, pri. 375).[13]

inhen bhi dekhen: knbuj evn knbupuri


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • aitihasik sthanavali | prishth snkhya= 123-124| vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar
  1. valmiki ramayan bal kand 6,22
  2. sabha parv mahabharat 27,23. shantiparv mahabharat 207,43;
  3. anguttaranikay 1,213; 4,252, 256-261
  4. shantiparv mahabharat 207,43
  5. rajatarngini 4,163-165
  6. dron parv mahabharat 4,5
  7. eshent jyogrephi aph indiya, pri. 148
  8. raghuvnsh 4,69.
  9. yuvanachvang, bhag 1, pri. 284
  10. kanvel 6,110
  11. loodars, isnkripshns, 176, 472
  12. kheti aur shastron se jivika chalane vale
  13. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 359-60 |

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