अयोध्या  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ayodhya vishay soochi
ayodhya
ayodhya ka ek drishy
vivaran 'ayodhya' uttar pradesh rajy ka ek prasiddh dharmik nagar hai. ayodhya ke raja dasharath ke putr shriram ka janm yahin hua tha. ram ki janm-bhoomi sarayoo nadi ke daen tat par sthit hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila faizabad
kab jaen kabhi bhi ja sakate hain
kaise pahunchen viman, rel, bas, taiksi
havaee adda nikatatam havaee adda lakhanoo men hai jo lagabhag 140 kimi. ki doori par hai.
relave steshan phaijabad ayodhya ka nikatatam relave steshan hai. yah relave steshan mugal saray-lakhanoo lain par sthit hai.
bas adda uttar pradesh sadak parivahan nigam ki basen lagabhag sabhi pramukh shaharon se ayodhya ke lie chalati hain.
yatayat aauto riksha, bas, taimpo, saikil riksha
kya dekhen ramakot, hanuman gadhi, nageshvar nath mndir, kanak bhavan, jain mndir
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
es.ti.di. kod 5278
e.ti.em sabhi
Map-icon.gif ayodhya
bhasha hindi, avadhi, angrezi
any janakari jain mat ke anusar yahan adinath sahit panch tirthnkaron ka janm hua tha.

ayodhya (angrezi: Ayodhya) uttar pradesh rajy ka ek prasiddh dharmik nagar hai. ayodhya faizabad zile men ata hai. ramayan ke anusar dasharath ayodhya ke raja the. shriram ka janm yahin hua tha. ram ki janm-bhoomi ayodhya uttar pradesh men sarayoo nadi ke daen tat par sthit hai. ayodhya hinduon ke prachin aur sat pavitr tirthasthalon men se ek hai. ayodhya ko atharvaved men eeshvar ka nagar bataya gaya hai aur isaki snpannata ki tulana svarg se ki gee hai. ramayan ke anusar ayodhya ki sthapana manu ne ki thi. kee shatabdiyon tak yah nagar soory vnsh ki rajadhani raha. ayodhya ek tirth sthan hai aur mool roop se mndiron ka shahar hai. yahan aj bhi hindoo, bauddh, islam aur jain dharm se jude avashesh dekhe ja sakate hain. jain mat ke anusar yahan adinath sahit panch tirthnkaron ka janm hua tha.

itihas

ayodhya punyanagari hai. ayodhya shriramachandraji ki janmabhoomi hone ke nate bharat ke prachin sahity v itihas men sada se prasiddh rahi hai. ayodhya ki ganana bharat ki prachin saptapuriyon men pratham sthan par ki gee hai.[1] ayodhya ki mahatta ke bare men poorvi uttar pradesh ke janasadharan men nimn kahavaten prachalit hain-

gnga badi godavari,
tirath bado prayag,
sabase badi ayodhyanagari,
jahn ram liyo avatar.

ayodhya raghuvnshi rajaon ki bahut purani rajadhani thi. svayn manu ne[2] ayodhya ka nirman kiya tha. valmiki ramayan[3] se vidit hota hai ki svargarohan se poorv ramachndr ji ne kush ko kushavati namak nagari ka raja banaya tha. shriram ke pashchath ayodhya ujad ho gee thi, kyonki unake uttaradhikari kush ne apani rajadhani kushavati men bana li thi. raghu vnsh[4] se vidit hota hai ki ayodhya ki din-hin dasha dekhakar kush ne apani rajadhani pun: ayodhya men banaee thi. mahabharat men ayodhya ke dirghaygy namak raja ka ullekh hai jise bhimasen ne poorvadesh ki digvijay men jita tha.[5] ghatajatak men ayodhya[6] ke kalasen namak raja ka ullekh hai.[7] gautamabuddh ke samay kosal ke do bhag ho ge the- uttar kosal aur dakshin kosal jinake bich men sarayoo nadi bahati thi. ayodhya ya saket uttari bhag ki aur shravasti dakshini bhag ki rajadhani thi. is samay shravasti ka mahattv adhik badha hua tha. bauddh kal men hi ayodhya ke nikat ek nee basti ban gee thi jisaka nam saket tha. bauddh sahity men saket aur ayodhya donon ka nam sath-sath bhi milata hai[8] jisase donon ke bhinn astitv ki soochana milati hai.

  • puranon men is nagar ke snbndh men koee vishesh ullekh nahin milata hai, parantu is nagar ke shasakon ki vnshavaliyan avashy milati hain, jo is nagar ki prachinata evn mahattv ke pramanik sakshy hain. brahman sahity men isaka varnan ek gram ke roop men kiya gaya hai.[10]
  • soot aur magadh us nagari men bahut the. ayodhya bahut hi sundar nagari thi. ayodhya men oonchi atariyon par dhvajaen shobhayaman thin aur saikadon shataghniyan usaki raksha ke lie lagi huee thin.[11]
  • ram ke samay yah nagar avadh nam ki rajadhani se sushobhit tha.[12]
  • bauddh granthon ke anusar ayodhya poorvavarti tatha saket paravarti rajadhani thi. hinduon ke sath pavitr sthanon men isaka nam milata hai. fahyan ne isaka ‘sha-chen’ nam se ullekh kiya hai, jo kannauj se 13 yojan dakshin-poorv men sthit tha.[13]
  • malalasekar ne pali-parnpara ke saket ko see nadi ke kinare unnav zile men sthit sujanakot ke khndaharon se samikrit kiya hai.[14]
  • naliyaksh datt evn krishnadatt bajapeyi ne bhi isaka samikaran sujanakot se kiya hai.[15] theragatha atthakatha[16] men saket ko sarayoo nadi ke kinare bataya gaya hai. at: snbhav hai ki pali ka saket, adhunik ayodhya ka hi ek bhag raha ho.

ullekh

ayodhya ka ek drishy

shung vnsh ke pratham shasak pushyamitr [17] ka ek shilalekh ayodhya se prapt hua tha jisamen use senapati kaha gaya hai tatha usake dvara do ashvamedh ygyon ke lie jane ka varnan hai. anek abhilekhon se gyat hota hai ki guptavnshiy chndragupt dvitiy ke samay (chaturth shati ee. ka madhyakal) aur tatpashchath kafi samay tak ayodhya gupt samrajy ki rajadhani thi. guptakalin mahakavi kalidas ne ayodhya ka raghu vnsh men kee bar ullekh kiya hai.[18] kalidas ne uttarakaushal ki rajadhani saket[19] aur ayodhya donon hi ka namollekh kiya hai, isase jan padata hai ki kalidas ke samay men donon hi nam prachalit rahe honge. madhyakal men ayodhya ka nam adhik sunane men nahin ata tha. yuvanachvang ke varnanon se gyat hota hai ki uttar buddhakal men ayodhya ka mahattv ghat chuka tha.

mahakavyon men ayodhya

ayodhya ka ullekh mahakavyon men vistar se milata hai. ramayan ke anusar yah nagar sarayoo nadi ke tat par basa hua tha tatha koshal rajy ka sarvapramukh nagar tha.[20]

  • ayodhya ko dekhane se aisa pratit hota tha ki mano manu ne svayn apane hathon ke dvara ayodhya ka nirman kiya ho.[21]
  • ayodhya nagar 12 yojan lambaee men aur 3 yojan chaudaee men phaila hua tha,[22] jisaki pushti valmiki ramayan men bhi hoti hai.[23]
  • ek paravarti jain lekhak hemachandr[24] ne nagar ka kshetraphal 12×9 yojan batalaya hai[25] jo ki nishchit hi atirnjit varnan hai.
  • sakshyon ke avalokan se nagar ke vistar ke lie kaningham[26] ka mat sarvadhik mahattvapoorn lagata hai. unaki manyata hai ki nagar ki paridhi 12 kosh (24 mil) thi, jo vartaman nagar ki paridhi ke anuroop hai.
  • dharmik mahatta ki drishti se ayodhya hinduon aur jainiyon ka ek pavitr tirthasthal tha. isaki ganana bharat ki sat mokshadayika puriyon men ki gee hai. ye sat puriyan nimnalikhit thin-[27]
  • ayodhya men knbojiy ashv evn shaktishali hathi the. ramayan ke anusar yahan chaturvarny vyavastha thi- brahman, kshatriy, vaishy tatha shoodr. unhen apane vishisht dharmon evn dayitvon ka nirvah karana padata tha. ramayan men ullekh hai ki kaushalya ko jab ram van gaman ka samachar mila to ve moorchchhit hokar gir padin. us samay kaushalya ke samast angon men dhool lipat gayi thi aur shriram ne apane hathon se unake angon ki dhool saf ki.[28]
ayodhya ka ek drishy
varsh-1783

madhyakal men ayodhya

madhyakal men musalamanon ke utkarsh ke samay, ayodhya bechari upekshita hi bani rahi, yahan tak ki mugal samrajy ke snsthapak babar ke ek senapati ne bihar abhiyan ke samay ayodhya men shriram ke janmasthan par sthit prachin mndir ko todakar ek masjid banavaee, jo aj bhi vidyaman hai. masjid men lage hue anek stnbh aur shilapatt usi prachin mndir ke hain. ayodhya ke vartaman mndir kanakabhavan adi adhik prachin nahin hain, aur vahan yah kahavat prachalit hai ki sarayoo ko chhodakar ramachndraji ke samay ki koee nishani nahin hai. kahate hain ki avadh ke navabon ne jab faizabad men rajadhani banaee thi to vahan ke anek mahalon men ayodhya ke purane mndiron ki samagri upayog men laee gee thi.

bauddh sahity men ayodhya

bauddh sahity men bhi ayodhya ka ullekh milata hai. gautam buddh ka is nagar se vishesh sambandh tha. ullekhaniy hai ki gautam buddh ke is nagar se vishesh sambandh ki or lakshy karake majjhimanikay men unhen kosalak (koshal ka nivasi) kaha gaya hai.[29]

  • dharm-prachararth ve is nagar men kee bar a chuke the. ek bar gautam buddh ne apane anuyayiyon ko manav jivan ki nisvarata tatha kshan-bhngurata par vyakhyan diya tha. ayodhyavasi gautam buddh ke bahut bade prashnsak the aur unhonne unake nivas ke lie vahan par ek vihar ka nirman bhi karavaya tha.[30]
  • snyuktanikay men ullekh aya hai ki buddh ne yahan ki yatra do bar ki thi. unhonne yahan phen sookt[31] aur darukkhndhasukt[32] ka vyakhyan diya tha.

ek hi nagar se samikrit

ayodhya aur saket donon nagaron ko kuchh vidvanon ne ek hi mana hai. kalidas ne bhi raghuvnsh[33] men donon nagaron ko ek hi mana hai, jisaka samarthan jain sahity men bhi milata hai.[34] kaningham ne bhi ayodhya aur saket ko ek hi nagar se samikrit kiya hai.[35] isake viparit vibhinn vidvanon ne saket ko bhinn-bhinn sthanon se samikrit kiya hai. isaki pahachan sujanakot,[36] adhunik lakhanoo,[37] kursi,[38] pasha (pasaka), [39] aur tusaran bihar[40]ilahabad se 27 mil door sthit hai) se ki gee hai. is nagar ke samikaran men uparyukt vidvanon ke maton men saval pramanon ka abhav drishtigat hota hai. bauddh granthon men bhi ayodhya aur saket ko bhinn-bhinn nagaron ke roop men prastut kiya gaya hai. valmiki ramayan men ayodhya ko koshal ki rajadhani bataya gaya hai aur bad ke snskrit granthon men saket se mila diya gaya hai. 'ayodhya' ko snyuktanikay men ek or gnga ke kinare sthit ek chhota ganv ya nagar batalaya gaya hai. jabaki 'saket' usase bhinn ek mahanagar tha.[41] atev kisi bhi dasha men ye donon nam ek nahin ho sakate hain.

lakshman ghat, ayodhya

jain granth ke anusar

jain granth vividhatirthakalp men ayodhya ko rishabh, ajit, abhinndan, sumati, anant aur achalabhanu- in jain muniyon ka janmasthan mana gaya hai. nagari ka vistar lambaee men 12 yojan aur chaudaee men 9 yojan kaha gaya hai. is granth men varnit hai ki chakreshvari aur gomukh yaksh ayodhya ke nivasi the. gharghar-dah aur sarayoo ka ayodhya ke pas sngam bataya hai aur snyukt nadi ko svargadvara nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai. nagari se 12 yojan par ashtavat ya ashtapad pahad par adi-guru ka kaivalyasthan mana gaya hai. is granth men yah bhi varnit hai ki ayodhya ke charon dvaron par 24 jain tirthnkaron ki moortiyan pratishthapit thin. ek moorti ki chaluky naresh kumarapal ne pratishthapana ki thi. is granth men ayodhya ko dasharath, ram aur bharat ki rajadhani bataya gaya hai. jainagranthon men ayodhya ko 'vinita' bhi kaha gaya hai.[42]
jain grnth mahapuran (adipuran) ke anusar karodon varsh poorv ayodhya men panch tirthnkaron ke janm to hue hi hain, sath hi vahan any anek itihas bhi juden. ayodhya men vartaman men rayagnj parisar men 31 phut uttung bhagavan rishabhadev ki khadgasan pratima virajaman hai. vahan prativarsh chaitr krishn navami ke din bhagavan rishabhadev ke janm kalyanak divas ka varshik mela ayojit hota hai. jisamen hazaron shraddhalu bhakt bhag lekar punyalabh prapt karate hain. ayodhya men svargadvar mohalle men rishabhadev ka sundar jin mndir bana hai. vah bhagavan ka vastavik janm sthan mana jata hai. sarayoo nadi ke nikat hi bhagavan rishabhadev udyan bahut sundar bana hua hai, jahan desh- videsh ke hazaron paryatak pratidin akar prakritik saundary ka annd lete hain.

raj devids ke anusar

raj devids ka kathan hai ki donon nagar vartaman lndan aur vestaminstar ke saman ek-doosare se sate rahe honge[43] jo kalantar men vikasit hokar ek ho gaye. ayodhya sambhavat: prachin rajadhani thi aur saket paravarti rajadhani [44]. vishuddhanand pathak bhi raj devids ke mat ka samarthan karate hain aur parivartan ke lie sarayoo nadi ki dhara men parivartan ya kisi prakritik karan ko uttaradayi manate hain, jisake karan ayodhya ka snkuchan hua aur doosari taraf nee disha men paravarti kal men saket ka udbhav hua.[45]

sakshyon ke avalokan ke anusar

sakshyon ke avalokan se donon nagaron ke alag-alag astitv ki sarthakata siddh ho jati hai tatha saket ke paravarti kal men vikas ki bat saty ke adhik samip lagati hai. is sandarbh men ee. je. thamas ramayan ki parampara ko bauddh parampara ki apeksha uttarakalin manate hain. unaki manyata hai ki pahale koshal ki rajadhani shravasti thi aur jab bad men koshal ka vistar dakshin ki or hua to ayodhya rajadhani bani, jo ki saket ke hi kisi vijayi raja dvara diya hua nam tha.[46]

puratattvavidon ke anusar

pichhale samay men kuchh puratattvavidon yatha-pro. brajavasi lal[47] tatha hnsamukh dhirajalal sankaliya[48] ne ramayan ityadi men varnit ayodhya ki pahachan nagar ki bhaugolik sthiti, prachinata evn sanskritik avasheshon ka adhyayan kiya, ramayan men varnit uparyukt vivaranon ke antar ki vyakhya bhi prastut ki hai. in donon vidvanon ka yah mat tha ki puratatvik drishti se n keval ayodhya ki pahachan ki ja sakati hai, ramayan men varnit any sthan yatha- nandigram, shrringaverapur, bharadvaj ashram, pariyar evn valmiki ashram bhi nishchit roop se pahachane ja sakate hain. is sandarbh men pro. brajavasi lal dvara vishad roop men kie ge puratatvik sarvekshan evn utkhanan ullekhaniy hai. puratatvik adhar par pro. lal ne ramayan men uparyukt sthanon ki prachinata ko lagabhag satavin sadi ee. poo. men rakha. is sakshy ke karan ramayan evn mahabharat ki prachinata ka jo kram tha, vah parivartit ho gaya tatha mahabharat pahale ka pratit hua. is prakar pro. lal tatha sankaliya ka mat hemachandr ray chaudhari[49] ke mat se milata hai. shri rayachaudhari ka bhi kathan tha ki mahabharat men varnit sthan evn ghatanaen ramayan men varnit sthan evn ghatanaon ke poorv ki hain.

munish chandr joshi ke anusar

shri munish chandr joshi[50] ne pro. lal evn sankaliya ke is mat ki khulakar alochana ki, tatha taittiriy aranyak[51] men uddhrit ayodhya ke ullekh ka varnan karate hue yah mat prastut kiya-

  • jab taittiriy aranyak ki rachana huee, us samay manishiyon ki nagari ayodhya evn usaki snskriti (agar yah thi to) ko log poornat: bhool gaye the.
  • ayodhya poornat: pauranik nagari pratit hoti hai.
  • adhunik ayodhya aur ram se isaka sahachary paravarti kal ka pratit hota hai.
hanuman gadhi, ayodhya

in adharon par shri joshi ne kaha ki vaidik ya pauranik samagri ke adhar par puratatvik sakshyon ka samikaran n to grahy hai aur n hi uchit. unaka yah bhi kathan tha ki adhikatar bharatiy pauranik evn vaidik samagri ka upayog dharm evn anushthan ke lie kiya gaya tha. aitihasik roop se unaki satyata sndigdh hai.

brajavasi lal ke anusar

shri joshi ke maton ka khandan pro. brajavasi lal ne puratattv men chhape apane ek lekh men[52] kiya hai. shri lal ka kahana hai ki shri joshi ka pratham mat unake tritiy mat se mel nahin khata. unaka kahana hai ki pratham to joshi yah manane ko taiyar hi nahin hote evn dvitiy yah spasht nahin hai ki ram evn adhunik ayodhya ka sambandh kis kal men evn kaise joda gaya. pro. lal ka kahana hai ki ayodhya shabd n keval taittiriy aranyak men hai, balki isaka ullekh atharvaved[53] men bhi milata hai. isake vistrit adhyayan se ayodhya shabd ka prayog ayodhya nagari se hi nahin balki 'ajey' se liya ja sakata hai. taittiriy aranyak men varnit ayodhya nagari ka samikaran unhonne manushy sharir se kiya hai tatha shrimadbhagavadagita[54] men ae us shlok ka jiqr kiya hai, jisamen sharir namak nagar ka varnan hai. shri lal ka kahana hai ki taittariy aranyak,[55] atharvaved tatha shrimadabhagavadagita men sharir ke ek saman ullekh milate hain. jisamen kaha gaya hai ki devataon ki is svarnim nagari ke ath chakr (parikshetr) aur nau dvar hain, jo ki hamesha prakashaman rahata hai. nagar ke prakashaman hone ki vyakhya manushy ke dhyanamagn hone ke pashchath gyan jyoti ke prapt hone ki sthiti se ki gee hai. ath chakron (parikshetron) ka samikaran ath dhamaniyon ke jal-niche ki mooladhara se shuroo hokar oopar ki sahasr dhara tak-se ki gee hai. navadvaron ka samikaran sharir ke navadvaron-do ankhen, nak ke do dvar, do kan, mukh, guda evn shishn- se kiya gaya hai.

pro. brajavasi lal[56] ne shri munishachandr joshi[57] ke shodhapatr evn sambandhit samagri ka vistrit vivechan karake apane is mat ka pushtikaran kiya ki adhunik ayodhya evn ramayan men varnit ayodhya ek hi hai. yadi puratatvik samagri evn ramayan men varnit samagri men mel nahin khata to isaka arth yah nahin ki ayodhya ki pahachan galat hai ya ki vah pauranik evn kalpanik nagar tha. vastav men donon samagriyon ke mel n khane ka mukhy karan ramayan ke mool men kiya gaya bar-bar parivartan hai.

chini yatriyon ka yatra vivaran

fahyan

chini yatri fahyan ne ayodhya ko 'sha-che' nam se abhihit kiya hai. usake yatra vivaran men is nagar ka atyant snkshipt varnan milata hai. fahyan ke anusar yahan bauddhon evn brahmanon men sauhard nahin tha. usane yahan un sthanon ko dekha tha, jahan buddh baithate the aur tahalate the. is sthan ki smritisvaroop yahan ek stoop bana hua tha.[58]

hven tsang

hven tsang navadevakul nagar se dakshin-poorv 600 li yatra karake aur gnga nadi par karake ayudha (ayodhya) pahuncha tha. yah sampoorn kshetr 5000 li tatha isaki rajadhani 20 li men phaili huee thi.[59] yah asng evn basubndhu ka asthayi nivas sthan tha. yahan fasalen achchhi hoti thin aur yah sadaiv prachur haritima se achchhadit rahata tha. isamen vaibhavashali phalon ke bag the tatha yahan ki jalavayu svasthyavardhak thi. yahan ke nivasi shisht acharan vale, kriyashil evn vyavaharik gyan ke upasak the. is nagar men 100 se adhik bauddh vihar aur 3000 se adhik bhikshuk the, jo mahayan aur hinayan maton ke anuyayi the. yahan 10 dev mandir the, jinamen abauddhon ki snkhya apekshakrit kam thi.

hven tsang ke anusar rajadhani men ek prachin sngharam tha. yah vah sthan hai jahan deshabndhu[60] ne kathin parishram se vividh shastron ki rachana ki thi. in bhagnavasheshon men ek mahakaksh tha. jahan par basubndhu videshon se ane vale rajakumaron evn bhikshuon ko bauddhadharm ka upadesh dete the.

hven tsang likhate hain ki nagar ke uttar 40 li doori par gnga ke kinare ek bada sngharam tha, jisake bhitar ashok dvara nirmit ek 200 phut ooncha stoop tha. yah vahi sthan tha jahan par tathagat ne dev samaj ke upakar ke lie tin mas tak dharm ke uttamottam siddhanton ka vivechan kiya tha. is vihar se 4-5 li pashchim men buddh ke asthiyukt ek stoop tha. jisake uttar men prachin vihar ke avashesh the, jahan sautantrik sampraday sambandhi vibhasha shastr ki rachana ki gee thi.

hven tsang ke anusar nagar ke dakshin-pashchim men 5-6 li ki doori par ek amravatika men ek prachin sngharam tha. yah vah sthan tha jahan asang[61]bodhisatv ne vidyadhyayan kiya tha.

amravatika se pashchimottar disha men lagabhag 100 qadam ki doori par ek stoop tha, jisamen tathagat ke nakh aur bal rakhe hue the. isake nikat hi kuchh prachin divaron ki buniyaden thin. yah vahi sthan hai jahan par vasubndhu bodhisatv tushit[62]svarg se utarakar asang bodhisatv se milate the.[63]

ayodhya ka puratatvik utkhanan

ayodhya ke simit kshetron men puratattvavettaon ne utkhanan kary kie. is kshetr ka sarvapratham utkhanan profesar avadh kishor narayan ke netritv men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke ek dal ne 1967-1970 men kiya. yah utkhanan mukhyat: jain ghat ke samip ke kshetr, lakshman tekari evn nal tile ke samipavarti kshetron men hua.[64] utkhanan se prapt samagri ko tin kalon men vibhakt kiya gaya hai-

pratham kal

digambar jain mndir, ayodhya

utkhanan men pratham kal ke uttari kale chamakile mrinbhand parampara (en. bi. pi., beyar) ke bhoore patr evn lal rng ke mrinbhand mile hain. is kal ki any vastuon men mitti ke katore, goliyan, khilauna, gadi ke chakr, haddi ke upakaran, tanbe ke manake, sphatik, shisha adi ke manake evn mrinmoortiyan adi mukhy hain.

dvitiy kal

is kal ke mrinbhand mukhyat: eesa ke pratham shatabdi ke hain. utkhanan se prapt mukhy vastuon men makaramukhakriti toti, davat ke dhakkan ki akriti ke mritpatr, chipate lal rng ke chapate adharayukt lambavat dharadar katore, stainp aur mritpatr khand adi hain.

tritiy kal

is kal ka arambh ek lambi avadhi ke bad milata hai. utkhanan se prapt madhyakalin chamakile mritpatr apane sabhi prakaron men milate hain. isake atirikt kahi evn proklen mrinbhand bhi mile hain. any pramukh vastuon men mitti ke daibar, lodhe, lohe ki vibhinn vastuen, manake, bahumooly patthar, shishe ki ekarngi aur bahurngi choodiyan aur mitti ki pashu akritiyan (visheshakar chidiyon ki akriti) hain. .

ayodhya ke kuchh kshetron ka pun: utkhanan

ayodhya ke kuchh kshetron ka pun: utkhanan do satron 1975-1976 tatha 1976-1977 men brajavasi lal aur ke. vi. sundarajan ke netritv men hua. yah utkhanan mukhyat: do kshetron- ramajanmabhoomi aur hanumanagadhi men kiya gaya.[65] is utkhanan se snskritiyon ka ek vishvasaniy kalakram prakash men aya hai. sath hi is sthan par prachinatam basti ke vishay men janakari bhi mili hai. utkhanan men sabase nichale star se uttar kalin chamakile mrinbhand evn dhoosar mrinbhand parampara ke mritpatr mile hain. dhoosar parampara ke kuchh mrinbhandon par kale rng men chitrakari bhi milati hai.

hanumanagadhi kshetr men utkhanan

hanumanagadhi kshetr se bhi uttari kali chamakili mrinbhand snskriti ke avashesh prakash men ae hain. sath hi yahan anek prakar ke mritika valay koop tatha ek kuen men prayukt kuchh shnkvakar eenten bhi mili hain. utkhanan se badi matra men vibhinn prakar ki vastuen mili hain, jinamen mukhyat: adha darjan muharen, 70 sikke, ek sau se adhik laghu mrinmoortiyan adi ullekhaniy hain.

lakshman qila, ayodhya

mahattvapoorn upalabdhi

is utkhanan men sabase mahattvapoorn upalabdhi ady aitihasik kal ke roleted mrinbhandon ki prapti hai. ye mrinbhand pratham-dvitiy shatabdi ee. ke hain. is prakar ke mrinbhandon ki prapti se yah siddh hota hai ki tatkalin ayodhya men vanijy aur vyapar bade paimane par hota tha. yah vyapar sarayoo nadi ke jalamarg dvara gnga nadi se sambaddh tha.

brajavasi lal ke netritv men utkhanan

ady aitihasik kal ke pashchath yahan ke malabon aur gaddhon se prapt vastuon ke adhar par vyavasayik kram men avarodh drishtigat hota hai. sambhavat: yah kshetr pun: 11vin shatabdi men adhivasit hua. yahan se utkhanan men kuchh paravarti madhyakalin eenten, knkad, evn choone ki farsh adi bhi mile hain. ayodhya se 16 kilomitar dakshin men tamasa nadi ke kinare sthit nandigram men bhi shri brajavasi lal ke netritv men utkhanan kary kiya gaya. ullekh hai ki ram ke vanagaman ke pashchath bharat ne yahin par nivas karate hue ayodhya ka shasan kary snchalit kiya tha. yahan ke simit utkhanan se prapt vastuen ayodhya ki vastuon ke samakalin hain.

simit kshetr men utkhanan

1981-1982 ee. men simit kshetr men utkhanan kiya gaya. yah utkhanan mukhyat: hanumanagadhi aur lakshmanaghat kshetron men hua. isamen 700-800 ee. poo. ke kalatmak patr mile hain. shri lal ke utkhanan se pramanit hota hai ki yah bauddh kal men ayodhya ka mahattvapoorn sthan tha.

buddh rashmi mani aur hari manjhi ke netritv men

ayodhya ka ek drishy

bharatiy puratattv sarvekshan vibhag, bharat sarakar, nee dilli dvara buddh rashmi mani aur hari manjhi ke netritv men 2002-2003 eesavi men ramajanm bhoomi kshetr men utkhanan kary kiya gaya. yah utkhanan kary sarvochch nyayalay ke nirdesh par snchalit hua. utkhanan se poorv uttari krishn parimarjit snskriti se lekar paravarti mugalakalin snskriti tak ke avashesh prakash men ae. pratham kal ke avasheshon evn rediyo karban tithiyon se yah nishchit ho jata hai ki manav sabhyata ki kahani ayodhya men 1300 eesa poorv se prarambh hoti hai.[66]

namoona sakhya namoonon ki tithi [67] purnaganana varsh men
snkhya-7, ayodhya-1, 2152 ji-7 (16) 9.15 mitar 2830 100 bi. pi. (880 ee. poo.) 1190- 840 ee. poo.
snkhya-8, ayodhya-1, 2153 ji-7 (19) 11.00 mitar 2860 100 bi. pi. (910 ee. poo.) 1210- 900 ee. poo.
snkhya-9, ayodhya-1, 2154 ji-7 (20) 11.53 mitar 3200 130 bi. pi. (1250 ee. poo.) 1680- 1320 ee. poo.

paryatan

ayodhya ghaton aur mndiron ki prasiddh nagari hai. sarayoo nadi yahan se hokar bahati hai. sarayoo nadi ke kinare 14 pramukh ghat hain. inamen guptadvar ghat, kaikeyi ghat, kaushalya ghat, papamochan ghat, lakshman ghat adi vishesh ullekhaniy hain. mndiron men 'kanak bhavan' sabase sundar hai. lokamanyata ke anusar kaikeyi ne ise sita ko munh dikhaee men diya tha. oonche tile par hanumanagadhi akarshak ka kendr hai. is nagar men ramajanmabhoomi-sthal ki badi mahima hai. is sthan par vikramadity ka banavaya hua ek bhavy mndir tha kintu babar ke shasanakal men vahan par masjid bana di gee. jise 6 disnbar 1992 ko kuchh kattarapnthiyon ne gira diya. is vivadaspad sthan par is samay ramalala ki moorti sthapit hai sarayoo ke nikat nageshvar ka mndir shiv ke barah jyotilingon men gina jata hai. 'tulasi chaura' vah sthan hai jahan baithakar tulasidas ji ne ramacharitamanas ki rachana arnbh ki thi. prahlad ghat ke pas guru nanak bhi akar thahare the. ayodhya jain dharmavalnbiyon ka bhi tirth-sthan hai. vartaman yug ke chaubis tirthakaron men se panch ka janm ayodhya men hua tha. inamen pratham tirthakar rishabhadev bhi sammilit hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • aitihasik sthanavali | prishth snkhya= 39| vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar
  1. ayodhya mathura maya kashi kachiravantika, puri dvaravati chaiv saptaite mokshadayika:
  2. balakand 5, 6 ke anusar
  3. valmiki ramayan uttar kand 108, 4
  4. raghu vnsh sarg 16
  5. ayodhyan tu dharmgyn dirghaygyn mahabalamh, ajayath pandavashreshtho natitivrenakarmana- sabhaparv 30-2
  6. ayojjha
  7. jatak snkhya 454
  8. dekhie rayasadevij buddhist indiya, prishth 39
  9. es. si. de, histarisiti aauf ramayan end d indo aryan sosaiti in indiya end silon (dilli, ajnta pablikeshns, punamurdit, 1976), prishth 80-81
  10. aitarey brahman, 7/3/1; dekhen, j. ra. e. so, 1971, prishth 52 (padatippani
  11. 'sootamagadhasnbadhan shrimatimatulaprabhamh, uchchattaladhvajavatin shataghnishatasnkulamh' balaka 5, 11
  12. nndoolal de, d jiyografikal dikshanari aauf, ainshyent end midival indiya, prishth 14
  13. jems legge, d traivels aauf fahyan oriyntal pablishars, dilli, punarmudrit 1972, prishth 54
  14. ji pi malalasekar, dikshanari aauf pali prapar nems, bhag 2 prishth 1086
  15. nalinaksh datt evn krishnadatt bajapeyi, uttar pradesh men bauddh dharm ka vikas (prakashan byooro, uttar pradesh sarakar, lakhanoo, pratham snskaran, 1956) prishth 7 evn 12
  16. theragatha atthakatha, bhag 1, prishth 103
  17. dvitiy shati ee. poo.
  18. 'jalani ya tiranikhatayoopa vahatyayodhyamanurajadhanimh' raghu vnsh 13, 61; 'alokayishyanmuditamayodhyan prasadamabhrnlihamaruroh'- raghu vnsh 14, 29
  19. raghu vnsh 5,31; 13,62
  20. kosalo nam mudrit: sphito janapado mahanh, nivisht: sarayootire prabhoot dhanadhanyavan (ramayan, balakand, sarg 5, pnkti 5
  21. 'manuna manaverdran ya puri nirmita svayamy. tatraiv, pnkti 12
  22. vinodavihari datt, taun planing in aishyent indiya (kalakatta, thainkar spink end kn., 1925), prishth 321-322; dekhen vividh tirthakalp, adhyay 34
  23. ayata dash ch dve yojanani mahapuro, shrimati trani vistirn suvibhaktamahapatha. ramayan, balakand, sarg 5, pnkti 7
  24. yah chaluky raja jayasinh siddharaj aur usake uttaradhikariyon ka darabari kavi tha.
  25. dvadashayojanayaman navayojan vistritamh. ayodhyelyaparabhikhyan vinitan soakarotpurimh.. trishastisalakapurushacharit, parv. adhyay 2, shlok 912
  26. e. kaningham, aishyent jyografi aauf indiya (indolajikal buk haus, 1963), prishth 342
  27. ayodhya maya mathura kashi kanchi avntika. puri dvaravati chaiv saptete mokshadayika..
  28. upavriththotthitan dinan vadavamiv vahitamh. pansu gunthit sarvangagivimavarsh ch panina. ramayan, ayodhyakand, sarg 20, pnkti 34
  29. majjhim nikay, bhag 2, prishth 124
  30. malalasekar, dikshanari aauf pali prapar nems, bhag 1, prishth 165
  31. snyuktanikay (pali tekts sosaiti), bhag 3, prishth 140 aur age
  32. tatraiv, bhag 4, prishth 179
  33. adhyay 5, shlok 31
  34. adi puran 12, prishth 77; vividhatirthakalp, prishth 55; vishuddhannd pathak, histri aauf koshal (motilal banarasidas, varanasi 1963 ee.) prishth 55
  35. ailakjendar kaningham, aishyent jyografi aauf indiya (indolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1976), prishth 405
  36. nndoolal de, di jiyografikal dikshanari aauf aishyent end midival indiya, prishth 174
  37. phargusan, arkiyolaji in indiya, prishth 110
  38. bi. e. smith, j. ra. e. so., 1898, prishth 124
  39. viliyam hovi, j. ai. so. b., 1900 prishth 75
  40. dablyoo, bost, j. ra. e. so., 1906, prishth 437 aur age
  41. bharatasinh upadhyay, buddhakalin bharatiy bhoogol, (hindi sahity sammelan prayag, 2018), prishth 254
  42. avassak kamentri, prishth 24
  43. raj devids, buddhist indiya, prishth 39
  44. hemachand ray chaudhari, prachin bharat ka rajanitik itihas, (kitab mahal, ilahabad, 1976 ee.), prishth 91
  45. vishuddhannd pathak, histri aauf koshal, motilal banarasidas, varanasi, pratham snskaran, 1963, prishth 58
  46. ee. je. thamas, di laif aauf buddh aij lijend in histri, (stalej end kegan pal limited, landan, tritiy snskaran, punarmudrit, 1952), prishth 15
  47. brajavasi lal, arkiyolaji end too indiyan ipiks, enals aauf di bhandarakar oriyntal risarch instityoot, jild 54, 1973 ee.
  48. hnsamukh dhirajalal sankaliya, ramayan mith ar riyaliti, nee dilli, 1973 ee.
  49. hemachandr ray chaudhari, prachin bharat ka rajanitik itihas, prishth 7
  50. munishachandr joshi arkiyolaji end indiyan tredishns, sam abjarveshan, puratattv, jild 8, 1978 ee. poo., prishth 89-102
  51. taittiriy aranyak 1/27 ashtachakr navadvara devanan purayodhyan tasyamh hiranmyakoshah svargaloko jayotishavrit: yo vayatamh brahmamano ved amritenavritamapurimh tasmai brahm ch ayu: kirtimh prajamh yaduh vibhrajamanamh harinimh yashasha snparivrittamh puramh hiranyamayomh brahma viveshaparajitamh.
  52. brajavasi lal, baj ayodhya e mithikal siti, puratattv, jild 10, prishth 47
  53. atharveved, 10/2/28-33
  54. shrimadbhagavadagita, 5/13
  55. poorvullekhit, 1/27
  56. poorvullekhit, puratattv, jild 10, prishth 47
  57. poorvullekhit, puratattv, jild 8, prishth 98-102
  58. jems legge, di traivels aauf fahyan, (oriyntal pablishars, nee dilli, dvitiy snskaran, 1972), prishth 54-55
  59. thamas vatars, aaun yuvaaun chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag 1, prishth 355
  60. basubndhu ka adhyapan evn parishram adi ayodhya men hi hua tha.
  61. asang bodhisatv ka chhota bhaee basabndhu bodhisatv tha.
  62. prachin kal men bauddhon ki yah ichchha rahati ki ve log mrityu ke pashchath tushit svarg men maitrey ke nikat nivas karen.
  63. thamas vatars, aaun yuvaaun chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag 1, prishth 357
  64. i. a. ri., 1959-70, prishth 40-41
  65. i. a. ri. 1976-77, prishth 52
  66. hari manjhi aur bi. ar. mani, ayodhya 2002-2003, eksakaiveshans ait di "dispyooted sait" bharatiy puratattv sarvekshan vibhag, nee dilli, 2003, chhaya prati.
  67. karban-4 ke arddhajivan par adharit (5570 30 varsh

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