उत्तर प्रदेश का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uttar pradesh vishay soochi
uttar pradesh    itihas    bhoogol    yatayat    arthavyavastha    prashasan    kala    krishi    snskriti    udyog    shiksha    paryatan
India-flag.gif
uttar pradesh ka itihas
Uttar Pradesh Map.jpg
rajadhani lakhanoo
rajabhasha(en) hindi bhasha, urdoo bhasha
sthapana 12 janavari, 1950
janasnkhya 19,95,81,477[1][2]
· ghanatv 828[2] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 2,40,928 varg kimi
jalavayu ushnadeshiy manasoon
tapaman 31 °C
· grishm 46 °C
· sharad 5°C
mndal 18
zile 75[2]
sabase bada nagar kanapur
mahanagar kanapur
bade nagar lakhanoo, ilahabad, agara, merath, varanasi, gaziyabad, kanapur
mukhy aitihasik sthal varanasi, agara, ilahabad, kannauj, kushinagar, kaushambi, chitrakoot, jhansi, faizabad, merath, mathura
mukhy paryatan sthal mathura, vrindavan, agara, varanasi, ayodhya, chitrakoot, fatehapur sikari, saranath, shravasti, kushinagar
mukhy dharm-sampraday hindoo, islam, eesaee, bauddh, jain evn any
ling anupat 1000:908[2] ♂/♀
saksharata 69.72%
· stri 59.26%
· purush 79.24%
uchch nyayalay ilahabad
rajyapal ram naeek
mukhyamntri yogi adityanath[3]
upamukhyamntri 1. keshav prasad maury

2. dinesh sharma

vidhanasabha sadasy 404
vidhan parishad sadasy 100
lokasabha kshetr 80
rajyasabha sadasy 30
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Uttar Pradesh Logo.gif

uttar pradesh ka itihas bahut prachin hai. uttar pradesh ke itihas ko panch kalon men banta ja sakata hai-pragaitihasik evn pauranik kal (lagabhag 600 ee.poo. tak), bauddh-hindoo (brahman) kal (lagabhag 600 ee.poo. se lagabhag 1200 ee.), muslim kal (lagabhag 1200 se 1775 ee.), british kal (lagabhag 1775 se 1947 ee.), svatntrata pashchath ka kal (1947 se vartaman tak). gnga ke maidan ke bichonbich ki apani sthiti ke karan uttar pradesh samooche uttari bharat ke itihas ka kendr bindu raha hai. uttar vaidik kal men ise 'braharshi desh' ya 'madhy desh' ke nam se jana jata tha. uttar pradesh vaidik kal men kee mahanh rishi-muniyon, jaise - bharadvaj, gautam, yagyvalky, vasishth, vishvamitr aur valmiki adi ki tapobhoomi raha hai. kee pavitr pustakon ki rachana bhi yahin huee. bharat ke do mukhy mahakavy ramayan aur mahabharat ki katha bhi yahin ki hai.

eesa poorv chhathi shatabdi men uttar pradesh men do ne dharmon - jain aur bauddh ka vikas hua. buddh ne apana pratham upadesh saranath men diya aur bauddh dharm ki shuruat ki. uttar pradesh ke hi kushinagar men unhonne nirvan prapt kiya. uttar pradesh ke kee nagar jaise- ayodhya, prayag, varanasi aur mathura vidya adhyayan ke lie prasiddh kendr the. madhy kal men uttar pradesh muslim shasakon ke adhin ho gaya tha, jisase hindoo aur islam dharm ke pas ane se ek nee mili-juli snskriti ka vikas hua. tulasidas, sooradas, ramannd aur unake muslim shishy kabir ke atirikt any kee snt purushon ne hindi aur any bhashaon ke vikas men apana bahumooly yogadan diya.

uttar pradesh ka itihas lagabhag 4000 varsh purana hai, jab ary yahan aye aur vaidik sabhyata ka arambh hua, tabhi se yahan ka itihas milata hai. ary sindhu aur sataluj ke maidani bhagon se yamuna aur gnga ke maidani bhag ki or badhe. inhonne yamuna aur gnga ke maidani bhag aur ghaghara kshetr ko apana ghar banaya. inhin aryon ke nam par bharat desh ka nam 'aryavart' athava 'bharatavarsh' (bharat aryon ke ek chakravarti raja the, jinake nam aur khyati se yah desh bharatavarsh ke nam se jana gaya) pada.

pragaitihasik evn pauranik kal

puratattv ne uttar pradesh ki arambhik sabhyata par nee raushani dali hai. dakshini zile pratapagadh men paee gee manav khopadiyon ke avashesh lagabhag 10,000 ee. poo. ke batae ge hain. vaidik sahity aur do mahakavyon, ramayan v mahabharat se is kshetr ke satavin shatabdi ee. poo. ke pahale ki janakari milati hai. jisamen gnga ke maidanon ka varnan uttar pradesh ke antargat kiya gaya hai. mahabharat ki prishthabhoomi rajy ke pashchimi hisse hastinapur ke asapas hai, jabaki ramayan ki prishthabhoomi poorvi uttar pradesh rajy men bhagavan ram ka janmasthan ayodhya hai. rajy men de any pauranik srot hain-vrindavan v mathura ke asapas ke kshetr jahan krishn ka janm hua tha.

ramayan men hinduon ke bhagavan ram ka prachin rajy kaushal isi kshetr men tha, ayodhya kaushal rajy ki rajadhani thi. hindoo dharm ke anusar bhagavan vishnu ke athaven avatar bhagavan krishn ka janm uttar pradesh ke mathura shahar men hua tha. vishv ke prachinatam nagaron men se ek mana jane vala varanasi shahar bhi isi pradesh men hai. varanasi ke samip saranath ka stoop bhagavan buddh ke lie prasiddh hai. samay ke sath sath yah vishal kshetr chhote-chhote rajyon men vibhajit ho gaya aur gupt, maury aur kushan samrajyon ka bhag ban gaya. 7vin shatabdi men kannauj gupt samrajy ka pramukh kendr ban gaya tha.

bauddh-hindoo (brahman) kal

satavin shatabdi ee. poo. ke ant se bharat aur uttar pradesh ka vyavasthit itihas arambh hota hai, jab uttari bharat men 16 mahajanapad shreshthata ki daud men shamil the, inamen se sat vartaman uttar pradesh ki sima ke antargat the. buddh ne apana pahala upadesh varanasi (banaras) ke nikat saranath men diya aur ek aise dharm ki ninv rakhi, jo n keval bharat men, balki chin v japan jaise sudoor deshon tak bhi phaila. kaha jata hai ki, buddh ko kushinagar men parinirvan (sharir se mukt hone par atma ki mukti) prapt hua tha, jo poorvi zile devariya men sthit hai. panchavin shatabdi ee. poo. se chhathi shatabdi ee. tak uttar pradesh apani vartaman sima se bahar kendrit shaktiyon ke niyntran men raha, pahale magadh, jo vartaman bihar rajy men sthit tha, aur bad men ujjain, jo vartaman madhy pradesh rajy men sthit hai. is rajy par shasan kar chuke is kal ke mahanh shasakon men chandragupt pratham (shasanakal lagabhag 330-380 ee.) v ashok (shasanakal lagabhag 268 ya 265-238), jo maury samrat the aur samudragupt (lagabhag 330-380 ee.) aur chandragupt dvitiy hain (lagabhag 380-415 ee., jinhen kuchh vidvanh vikramadity manate hain). ek any prasiddh shasak harshavardhan (shasanakal 606-647) the. jinhonne kanyakubj (adhunik kannauj ke nikat) sthit apani rajadhani se samooche uttar pradesh, bihar, madhy pradesh, pnjab aur rajasthan ke kuchh hisson par shasan kiya.

is kal ke dauran bauddh aur hindoo (brahman) snskriti, donon ka utkarsh hua. ashok ke shasanakal ke dauran bauddh kala ke sthapaty v vastushilp pratik apane charam par pahunche. gupt kal (lagabhag 320-550) ke dauran hindoo kala ka bhi adhikatam vikas hua. lagabhag 647 ee. men harsh ki mrityu ke bad hindoovad ke punarutthan ke sath hi bauddh dharm ka dhire-dhire patan ho gaya. is punarutthan ke pramukh rachayita dakshin bharat men janme shnkar the, jo varanasi pahunche, unhonne uttar pradesh ke maidanon ki yatra ki aur himalay men badrinath men prasiddh mandir ki sthapana ki. ise hindoo matavalambi chautha evn antim math (hindoo snskriti ka kendr) manate hain.

muslim kal

is kshetr men halanki 1000-1030 ee. tak musalamanon ka agaman ho chuka tha, lekin uttari bharat men 12vin shatabdi ke antim dashak ke bad hi muslim shasan sthapit hua, jab muhammad gori ne gahadavalon (jinaka uttar pradesh par shasan tha) aur any pratispardhi vnshon ko haraya tha. lagabhag 600 varshon tak adhikansh bharat ki tarah uttar pradesh par bhi kisi n kisi muslim vnsh ka shasan raha, jinaka kendr dilli ya usake asapas tha. 1526 ee. men babar ne dilli ke sultan ibrahim lodi ko haraya aur sarvadhik saphal muslim vnsh, mugal vnsh ki ninv rakhi. is samrajy ne 200 varshon se bhi adhik samay tak upamahadvip par shasan kiya. is samrajy ka mahanatam kal akabar (shasanakal 1556-1605 ee.) ka kal tha, jinhonne agara ke pas nee shahi rajadhani fatehapur sikari ka nirman kiya. unake pote shahajahan (shasanakal 1628-1658 ee.) ne agara men tajamahal (apani begam ki yad men banavaya gaya maqabara, jo prasav ke dauran chal basi thin) banavaya, jo vishv ke mahanatam vastu shilpiy namoonon men se ek hai. shahajahan ne agara v dilli men bhi vastushilp ki drishti se kee mahattvapoorn imaraten banavaeen thin.

uttar pradesh men kendrit mugal samrajy ne ek nee mishrit snskriti ke vikas ko protsahit kiya. akabar isake mahanatam pratipadak the, jinhonne bina kisi bhedabhav ke apane darabar men vastushilp, sahity, chitrakala aur sngit visheshgyon ko niyukt kiya tha. hindutv aur islam ke takarav ne kee ne maton ka vikas kiya, jo in donon aur bharat ki vibhinn jatiyon ke bich am sahamati qayam karana chahate the. bhakti andolan ke snsthapak ramanand (lagabhag 1400-1470 ee.), jinaka dava tha ki, mukti ling ya jati par ashrit nahin hai aur sabhi dharmon ke bich anivary ekata ki shiksha dene vale kabir ne uttar pradesh men maujood dharmik sahishnuta ke khilaf apani ladaee kendrit ki. 18vin shatabdi men mugalon ke patan ke sath hi is mishrit snskriti ka kendr dilli se lakhanoo chala gaya, jo avadh (audh, vartaman ayodhya) ke navab ke antargat tha aur jahan sampradayik sadabhav ke mahaul men kala, sahity, sngit aur kavy ka utkarsh hua.

british kal

lagabhag 75 varsh ki avadhi men vartaman uttar pradesh ke kshetr ka eest indiya kampani (british vyaparik kampani) ne dhire-dhire adhigrahan kiya. vibhinn uttar bharatiy vnshon 1775, 1798 aur 1801 men navabon, 1803 men sindhiya aur 1816 men gorakhon se chhine ge pradeshon ko pahale bngal prezidensi ke antargat rakha gaya, lekin 1833 men inhen alag karake pashchimottar prant (arambh men agara prezidensi kahalata tha) gathit kiya gaya. 1856 ee. men kampani ne avadh par adhikar kar liya aur agara evn avadh snyukt prant (vartaman uttar pradesh ki sima ke samaroop) ke nam se ise 1877 ee. men pashchimottar prant men mila liya gaya. 1902 ee. men isaka nam badalakar snyukt prant kar diya gaya.

1857-1859 ee. ke bich eest indiya kampani ke viruddh hua vidroh mukhyat: pashchimottar prant tak simit tha. 10 mee, 1857 ee. ko merath men sainikon ke bich bhadaka vidroh kuchh hi mahinon men 25 se bhi adhik shaharon men phail gaya. 1858 ee. men vidroh ke daman ke bad pashchimottar aur shesh british bharat ka prashasan eest indiya kampani se british taj ko hastantarit kar diya gaya. 1880 ee. ke uttarardh men bharatiy rashtravad ke uday ke sath snyukt prant svatntrata andolan men agrani raha. pradesh ne bharat ko motilal neharoo, madan mohan malaviy, javaharalal neharoo aur purushottamadas tndan jaise mahattvapoorn rashtravadi rajanitik neta die. 1922 men bharat men british samrajy ki ninv hilane ke lie kiya gaya mahatma gandhi ka asahayog andolan poore snyukt prant men phail gaya, lekin chauri chaura ganv (prant ke poorvi bhag men) men huee hinsa ke karan mahatma gandhi ne asthayi taurar par andolan ko rok diya. snyukt prant muslim lig ki rajaniti ka bhi kendr raha. british kal ke dauran relave, nahar aur prant ke bhitar hi snchar ke sadhanon ka vyapak vikas hua. angrezon ne yahan adhunik shiksha ko bhi badhava diya aur yahan par lakhanoo vishvavidyalay (1921 men sthapit) jaise vishvavidyalay v kee mahavidyalay sthapit kie.

svatntrata ke pashchath ka kal

1947 men snyukt prant nav svatntr bharatiy ganarajy ki ek prashasanik ikaee bana. do sal bad isaki sima ke antargat sthit, tihari gadhaval aur ramapur ke svayatt rajyon ko snyukt prant men shamil kar liya gaya. 1950 men ne snvidhan ke lagoo hone ke sath hi snyukt prant ka nam uttar pradesh rakha gaya aur yah bharatiy sngh ka rajy bana. svatntrata ke bad se bharat men is rajy ki pramukh bhoomika rahi hai. isane desh ko javahar lal neharoo aur unaki putri indira gandhi sahit kee pradhanamntri, soshalist parti ke snsthapak achary narendr dev, jaise pramukh rashtriy vipakshi (alpasnkhyak) dalon ke neta aur bharatiy janasngh, bad men bharatiy janata parti v pradhanamntri atal bihari vajapeyi jaise neta die hain. rajy ki rajaniti, halanki vibhajanakari rahi hai aur kam hi mukhyamntriyon ne panch varsh ki avadhi poori ki hai.

rajy ka vibhajan

uttar pradesh ke gathan ke turant bad uttarakhand kshetr (gadhaval aur kumaoon kshetr dvara nirmit) men samasyaen uth khadi hueen. is kshetr ke logon ko laga ki, vishal janasnkhya aur vrihad bhaugolik vistar ke karan lakhanoo men baithi sarakar ke lie unake hiton ki dekharekh karana sambhav nahin hai. berozagari, garibon aur samany vyavastha v pine ke pani jaisi adharabhoot suvidhaon ki kami aur kshetr ke apekshakrit kam vikas ne logon ko ek alag rajy ki mang karane par vivash kar diya. shuroo-shuroo men virodh kamazor tha, lekin 1990 ke dashak men isane zor pakada v andolan tab aur bhi ugr ho gaya, jab 2 aktoobar 1994 ko muzaffaranagar men is andolan ke ek pradarshan men pulis dvara ki gee golibari men 40 log mare ge. antat: navambar, 2000 men uttar pradesh ke pashchimottar hisse se uttaranchal ke ne rajy ka, jisamen kumaoon aur gadhaval ke pahadi kshetr shamil the, gathan kiya gaya.

pratham svatantrata sngram men uttar pradesh ka yogadan

san 1857 men angrezi fauj ke bharatiy sipahiyon ne bagavat kar di thi. yah bagavat lagabhag ek varsh tak chali aur dhire dhire yah bagavat poore uttar bharat men fail gayi. isi bagavat ko bharat ka pratham svatantrata sngram nam diya gaya. yah bagavat merath shahar se shuroo huee. jisaka karan angrezon dvara gay aur suar ki charbi se bane karatoos the. is bagavat ki vazah laaurd dalahauzi ki rajy hadapane ki niti bhi thi. yah sngram mukhyatah dilli, lakhanoo, kanapur, jhansi aur bareli men lada gaya. is sngram men jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, avadh ki begam hazarat mahal, bakht khan, nana saheb, tatya tope adi anek deshabhakton ne bhag liya.
arati, gnga nadi, ilahabad
Aarti, Ganga River, Allahabad
uttar pradesh rajy ki bauddhik shreshthata british shasan kal men bhi bani rahi. sanh 1902 men 'narth vest provins' ka nam badal kar 'yoonaitid provins aauph agara end avadh' kar diya gaya. sadharan bolachal ki bhasha men ise 'yoo. pi.' kaha gaya. sanh 1920 men pradesh ki rajadhani ko ilahabad ke sthan par lakhanoo bana diya gaya. pradesh ka uchch nyayalay ilahabad men hi bana raha aur lakhanoo men uchch nyayalay ki ek nyayapith shakha (haeekort bainch) sthapit ki gayi. bad men 1935 men isaka snkshipt nam 'snyukt prant' prachalit ho gaya. svatntrata prapti ke bad 12 janavari 1950 men 'snyukt prant' ka nam badal kar ‘uttar pradesh’ rakha gaya. govind ballabh pnt is pradesh ke pratham mukhy mantri bane. aktoobar 1963 men sucheta kripalani uttar pradesh aur bharat ki 'pratham mahila mukhyamantri' banin.

san 2000 men bharatiy snsad ne uttar-pradesh ke uttar pashchimi, poorvottar uttar pradesh ke mukhyatah pahadi bhag gadhaval aur kumaoon mandal ko mila kar uttar pradesh ko vibhajit kar uttaranchal rajy ka nirman kiya, jisaka nam bad men badal kar uttarakhnd kar diya gaya hai. uttar pradesh ki adhikansh jhilen kumaoon kshetr men hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2011 ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Statistics Of Uttar Pradesh (hindi) adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 16 julaee, 2014.
  3. uttar pradesh sarakar (hindi) uttar pradesh ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 16 julaee, 2014.

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