तात्या टोपे  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tatya tope
tatya tope
poora nam ramachndr pandurng yevalakar
any nam tatya tope
janm 1814 ee.
janm bhoomi yevala, patauda zila, maharashtr
mrityu 18 aprail, 1859
mrityu sthan shivapuri, madhy pradesh
abhibhavak pandurng tryambak bhatt tatha rukmini baee
karm bhoomi maharashtr
bhasha marathi, urdoo aur gujarati
prasiddhi svatntrata senani
vishesh yogadan bharat ke pratham svatntrata sngram men tatya tope, rani lakshmibaee tatha nana sahab ka pramukh yogadan tha.
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh maratha, rani lakshmibaee, bajirav dvitiy, nana sahab, peshava, bithoor, pratham svatntrata sngram.
any janakari ramakrishn tope ke bayan ke anusar tatya tope apane pita ki 12 sntanon men se doosare the. unaka ek saga aur chhah sautele bhaee aur char bahanen thin.

tatya tope (angrezi: Tatya Tope, janm- 1814 ee., patauda zila, maharashtr; mrityu- 18 aprail, 1859, shivapuri, madhy pradesh) ko san 1857 ee. ke 'pratham svatantrata sngram' ke agraniy viron men uchch sthan prapt hai. is vir ne kee sthanon par apane sainik abhiyanon dvara uttar pradesh, rajasthan, madhy pradesh aur gujarat adi men angrezi senaon se kadi takkar li aur unhen buri tarah pareshan kar diya. gorilla yuddh pranali ko apanate hue tatya tope ne angrezi senaon ke chhakke chhuda diye. ve 'tantiya topi' ke nam se bhi vikhyat the. apani atoot deshabhakti aur virata ke lie tatya tope ka nam bharatiy itihas men amar hai.

janm parichay

tatya tope ka janm san 1814 ee. men nasik ke nikat patauda zile men yevala namak gram men hua tha. unake pita ka nam pandurng tryambak bhatt tatha mata ka nam rukmini baee tha. tatya tope deshasth kulakarni parivar men janme the.[1] inake pita peshava bajirav dvitiy ke grih-vibhag ka kam dekhate the. unake vishay men thode bahut tathy us bayan se ikatthe kie ja sakate hain, jo unhonne apani giraftari ke bad diya aur kuchh tathy tatya ke sautele bhaee ramakrishn tope ke us bayan se ikatthe kie ja sakate hain, jo unhonne 1862 ee. men badauda ke sahayak rejidens ke samaksh diya tha. tatya ka vastavik nam 'ramachndr pandurng yevalakar' tha. 'tatya' matr upanam tha. tatya shabd ka prayog adhik pyar ke lie hota tha. tope bhi unaka upanam hi tha, jo unake sath hi chipaka raha. kyonki unaka parivar moolatah nasik ke nikat patauda zile men chhote se ganv yevala men rahata tha, isalie unaka upanam yevalakar pada.[2]

bithoor agaman

tatya tope jab mushkil se char varsh ke the, tabhi unake pita ke svami bajirav dvitiy ke bhagy men achanak parivartan hua. bajirav dvitiy 1818 ee. men basee ke yuddh men angrezon se har ge. unaka samrajy unase chhin gaya. unhen ath lakh rupaye ki salana penshan mnjoor ki gee aur unaki rajadhani se unhen bahut door hatakar bithoor, kanapur men rakha gaya. yah spasht roop se aisi sthiti se bachane ke lie kiya gaya tha ki vah apane khoe hue samrajy ko punah prapt karane ke lie kuchh nee chalen n chal saken. bithoor se 12 mil door gnga ke tat par chhota-sa sundar nagar tha. vahan bajirav ne apane lie ek vishal prasad ka nirman karavaya aur apana adhikansh samay dharmik karyakalapon men vyatit karane lage. tatya tope ke pita peshava bajirav dvitiy ke karmachari tatha unake vaphadar the, isilie ve bhi parivar sahit bajirav dvitiy ke pas 1818 ee. men bithoor a ge. ramakrishn tope ke bayan ke anusar tatya apane pita ki 12 sntanon men se doosare the. unaka ek saga aur chhah sautele bhaee aur char bahanen thin. yadyapi tatya apane bachchon ke sath alag rahate the, phir bhi sabhi vyavaharik karyon ke lie unaka parivar snyukt parivar tha.

yuvavastha aur sathi

tatya ek achchhe mahattvakankshi navayuvak the. unhonne anek varsh peshava bajirav dvitiy ke tin dattak putr- nana sahab, bala sahab aur baba bhatt ke sahachary men bitae. ek kahani prasiddh hai ki nana sahab, unake bhaee, jhansi ki bhavi rani lakshmibaee, jinake pita us samay sinhasanachyut peshava ke ek darabari the aur tatya tope, ye sabhi age chalakar vidroh ke prakhyat neta bane. ye apane bachapan men ek sath yuddh ke khel khela karate the aur unhonne marathon ki virata ki anekon kahaniyan suni thin, jinase unhen vidroh ke lie prerana prapt huee thi. is kahani ko kuchh itihasakar apramanik manate hain. unake vichar se gatha ke is bhag ka tana-bana in viron ka samman karane vale desh premiyon ke mastishk ki upaj hai. phir bhi yah sach hai ki in sabhi ka peshava ke parivar se nikatatam snbndh tha aur vah apani ayu tatha sthiti bhinn hone ke bavajood prayah ek-doosare ke nikat ae honge. khoe hue rajy ki smritiyan abhi taja hi thin, dhundhali nahin padi thin. samrajy ko punah prapt karana aur apane nuqasan ko poora karana nana sahab aur unake bhaiyon ke anek yuva sapanon men se ek svapn avashy raha hoga. ve sabhi bad men apane durbal pita ki tulana men kafi achchhe sabit hue the.

yuddh kala prashikshan

tatya tope ne kuchh sainik prashikshan prapt to kiya tha, kintu unhen yuddhon ka anubhav bilkul bhi nahin tha. unhonne peshava ke putron ke sath us kal ke ausat navayuvak ki bhanti yuddh prashikshan prapt kiya tha. ghera dalane aur hamala karane ka jo bhi gyan unhen raha ho, vah unake us kary ke lie bilkul upayukt n tha, jisake lie bhagy ne unaka nirman kiya tha. aisa pratit hota hai ki unhonne gurilla yuddh jo unaki maratha jati ka svabhavik gun tha, apani vnsh parnpara se prapt kiya tha. yah bat un tarikon se siddh ho jati hai, jinaka prayog unhonne british senanayakon se bachane ke lie kiya.

'tope' upadhi

bithoor men unaki yogyataon aur mahattvakankshaon ke lie n ke barabar sthan tha aur vah ek uddhatt vyakti banakar hi vahan rahate, yah bat is tathy se spasht hai ki vah kanapur ge aur unhonne eest indiya kampani ki naukari kar li. kintu shighr hi hatotsahit hokar laut ae. isake bad unhonne kuchh samay tak mahajani ka kam kiya, kintu ise bad men chhod diya. kyonki yah unake svabhav ke bilakul pratikool tha. tatya ke pita peshava ke grih prabndh ke pahale se hi pradhan the, isalie unhen ek lipik ke roop men naukari pane men koee kathinaee nahin huee, kintu is naukari se bhi ve adhik prasann nahin the. lipik pad par kary karate hue hi ek any karmachari ki vishvasaghat snbndhi yojanaon ka pata lagane men navayuvak tatya tope ki yogyata, tatparata aur chatury se prabhavit hokar peshava ne ek vishesh darabar men 9 hiron se jadi huee ek topi unhen puraskar svaroop di. darabar men upasthit logon ne 'tatya tope' ke nam se unaki jay-jayakar ki. 1851 ee. men peshava ki mrityu ke pashchath nana sahab bithoor ke raja ho ge aur tatya unake pradhan lipik bane. vicharadhara ek jaisi hone ke karan ve ek-doosare ke itana nikat ae, jitana ki pahale kabhi nahin the aur shighr hi vah nana ke musahib ke roop men prasiddh ho ge.

vyaktitv

tatya tope ke vyaktitv men vishisht akarshan nahin tha. janalaing ne jab unhen bithoor men dekha tha to ve unake vyaktitv se prabhavit nahin hue the. unhonne tatya ke vishay men kaha hai ki- "vah ausat oonchaee, lagabhag panch phit 8 inch aur ikahare badan ke, kintu dridh vyaktitv ke the. dekhane men sundar nahin the. unaka matha nicha, nak nasachhidron ke pas phaili huee aur dant betaratib the. unaki ankhen prabhavi aur chalaki se bhari huee thin. jaisi ki adhikansh eshiyavasiyon men hoti hain, kintu unake oopar unaki vishisht yogyata ke vyakti ke roop men koee prabhav nahin pada."[3]

tatya tope

'bambe taims' ke snvadadata ne tatya se unaki giraftari ke pashchath bhent ki thi. usane 18 aprail, 1849 ke snskaran men likha tha ki tatya n to khoobasoorat hain aur n hi badasoorat; kintu vah buddhiman hain. unaka svabhav shant aur nirbadh hai. unaka svasthy achchha aur qad ausat hai. unhen marathi, urdoo aur gujarati ka achchha gyan tha. ve in bhashaon men dhara pravah bol sakate the. angrezi to vah matr apane hastakshar karane bhar ke lie janate the, usase adhik nahin. vah ruk-ruk kar, kintu spasht roop se, ek napi-tuli shaili men bolate the. kintu unaki abhivyakti ka dhng achchha tha aur ve shrotaon ko apani or akrisht kar lete the. yah sach hai ki tatya apani vak-shakti aur samajhane ki apani shakti se prayah apane virodhiyon ki senaon ko bhi samajhakar apane paksh men mila lete the.

prasiddhi

1857 ee. tak log tatya tope ke nam se aparichit the. lekin 1857 ki natakiy ghatanaon ne unhen achanak andhakar se prakash men la khada kiya. pratham svatntrata sngram ke prarnbh hone se poorv ve rajyachyut bajirav dvitiy ke sabase bade putr bithoor ke raja nana sahab ke ek prakar se sathi-musahib matr the, kintu svatntrata sngram men kanapur ke sammilit hone ke pashchath tatya peshava ki sena ke senadhyaksh ki sthiti tak pahunch ge. usake pashchatavarti yuddhon ki sabhi ghatanaon ne unaka nam sabase age ek puchchhal tare ki bhanti badhaya, jo apane pichhe prakash ki ek lnbi rekha chhodata gaya. unaka nam keval desh men nahin varanh desh ke bahar bhi prasiddh ho gaya. mitr hi nahin, shatru bhi unake sainik abhiyanon ko jigyasa aur utsukata se dekhane aur samajhane ka prayas karate the. samachar patron men unake nam ke lie vistrit sthan upalabdh tha. unake virodhi bhi unaki prashnsa karate the, jaise-

  1. karnal malsan ne unake snbndh men kaha hai ki- "bharat men snkat ke us kshan men jitane bhi sainik neta utpann hue, vah unamen sarvashreshth the."
  2. sar jaaurj phaaurest ne unhen 'sarvotkrisht rashtriy neta' kaha hai.
  3. adhunik angrezi itihasakar parsikras steding ne sainik kranti ke dauran deshi paksh ki or se utpann 'vishal mastishk' kahakar unaka samman kiya. usane unake vishay men yah bhi kaha hai ki- "vah vishv ke prasiddh chhapamar netaon men se ek the."

jhansi ki rani aur tatya tope

san 1857 ke do vikhyat viron jhansi ki rani aur tatya tope men se jhansi ki rani ko atyadhik khyati mili. unake nam ke charon or yash ka chakr ban gaya tha, kintu tatya tope ke sahasapoorn kary aur vijay abhiyan rani lakshmibaee ke sahasik karyon aur vijay abhiyanon se kam romanchak nahin the. rani lakshmibaee ke yuddh abhiyan jahan keval jhansi, kalapi aur gvaliyar ke kshetron tak hi simit rahe the, vahin tatya tope ek vishal rajy ke saman kanapur, rajapootana aur madhy bharat tak phail ge the. karnal hyooroj jo madhy bharat men yuddh abhiyan ka sarvesarva tha, usane yadi rani lakshmibaee ki prashnsa 'un sabhi men sarvashreshth vir' ke roop men ki thi to mejar mid ko likhe ek patr men usane tatya tope ke vishay men kaha tha ki- "vah bharat yuddh neta aur bahut hi viplavakari prakriti ke the aur unaki sngathan kshamata bhi prashnsaniy thi." tatya ne any sabhi netaon ki apeksha shaktishali british shasan ki ninv ko hilakar rakh diya tha. unhonne shatru ke sath lnbe samay tak sngharsh jari rakha. jab svatntrata sngharsh ke sabhi neta ek-ek karake angrezon ki shreshth sainik shakti se parabhoot ho ge to ve akele hi vidroh ki pataka phaharate rahe. unhonne lagatar nau mah tak un adhe darjan british kamandaron ko chhakaya jo unhen pakadane ki koshish kar rahe the. tatya tope ant tak aparajey hi bane rahe.

british shasan se vidroh ke karan

1857 ee. ka vidroh jin karanon se hua, unase sabhi parichit hain. kuchh karan nimnalikhit hain-

  1. sar jaun larens ne kaha tha- "yah charabi lagi karatoos aur matr charabi lagi karatooson ke karan hua." kintu matr charabi lagi karatoos itana bada aur shaktishali toofan lane men samarth nahin ho sakati thi. vastav men charabi lagi karatoos, jaisa ki sipahiyon ko sndeh tha, unhen eesaee dharm men parivartan karane ka ek jaghany hathiyar tha. isake lie to roopak ki bhasha men yah kaha ja sakata hai ki yah pake hue phode par nashtar tha. isase pahale bhi anek sainik sudhar ho chuke the, jisamen yah kaha tha ki sipahi apani shan se badhaee gee dadhi ek nirdisht paitarn men hi rakhe.
  2. bharatiy sainikon ko yah adesh diya gaya tha ki ve bharatiy pagadi ke sthan par chamade se bane top pahanen.[4]
  3. barma yuddh ke dauran sipahiyon ko samudri yatra karane par majaboor kar diya gaya tha. sipahiyon ne isaka virodh bhi kiya tha, kyonki vah aisa samajhate the ki yah unake dharmik vishvason par anavashyak hastakshep tha, lekin kampani sarakar ne unake sndeh ke nirakaran ke lie koee bhi prayas nahin kiya.
  4. chartar adhiniyam, 1813 ne sare bharat ka dvar sabhi angrezon ke lie khol diya tha. jisake parinamasvaroop mishanariyon ke dharm parivartan karane par snbndhi karyakalap teji se badhate ja rahe the. ek samasamayik vyakti ne yah kaha ki "mishanariyon par se rok hata li gee thi, tala todakar charch ke daravaze par phenk diya gaya tha, dharmagrnthon ko bahar le jakar un par pravachan karane ka mauqa de diya gaya tha. jab eesaee sarakar bharat men eesaiyat ke prasar ka virodh n kar saki."

yuddh abhiyan

san 1857 ke pratham svatantrata sngram ke visphot hone par tatya tope bhi samarangan men kood pade. jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee aur nana sahab ke prati angrezon ne jo anyay kiye the, unaki unake hriday men ek tis thi. unhonne uttari bharat men shivarajapur, kanapur, kalapi aur gvaliyar adi anek sthanon men angrezon ki senaon se kee bar loha liya. san 1857 ke svatntry yoddhaon men vahi aise tejasvi vir the, jinhonne vidyut gati ke saman apani gatividhiyon se shatru ko ashchary men dal diya tha. vahi ekamatr aise chamatkari svatantrata senani the, jisane poorab, pashchim, uttar aur dakshin ke sainik abhiyanon men phirngi angrezon ke dant khatte kar diye the. rajasthan ki bhoomi men tatya ne jo shaury ka parichay diya tha, vah avismaraniy hai. desh ka durbhagy tha ki rajasthan ke rajaon ne unaka sath nahin diya.

pratham svatntrata sngram ki lapaten jab kanapur pahunchin aur vahan ke sainikon ne nana sahab ko peshava aur apana neta ghoshit kiya to tatya tope ne kanapur men svadhinata sthapit karane men aguvaee ki. tatya tope ko nana sahab ne apana sainik salahakar niyukt kiya. jab brigediyar janaral haivalaauk ki kaman men angrez sena ne ilahabad ki or se kanapur par hamala kiya, tab tatya ne kanapur ki suraksha men apana ji-jan laga diya, parntu 16 julaee, 1857 ko unaki parajay ho gayi aur unhen kanapur chhodana pada. shighr hi tatya tope ne apani senaon ka punargathan kiya aur kanapur se barah mil uttar me bithoor pahunch gaye. yahan se kanapur par hamale ka mauka khojane lage. is bich haivalaauk ne achanak hi bithoor par akraman kar diya. yadyapi tatya bithoor ki ladaee men parajit ho gaye, parntu unake netritv men bharatiy sainikon ne itani bahaduri pradarshit ki ki angrez senapati ko bhi prashnsa karani padi.

kushal senapati

tatya ek kushal senapati the. parajay se vichalit n hote hue ve bithoor se rav saheb sindhiya ke ilake men pahunche. vahan ve gvaliyar kantijent nam ki prasiddh sainik tukadi ko apani or milane men ve saphal rahe. vahan se ve ek badi sena ke sath kalapi pahunche. navambar 1857 men unhonne kanapur par akraman kiya. mejar janaral vindhal ki kaman men kanapur ki suraksha ke lie sthit angrez sena titar-bitar hokar bhagane lagi, parntu yah jit thode samay ke lie hi thi. british sena ke pradhan senapati sar kaaulin kaimpabel ne tatya ko 6 disambar ko parajit kar diya. isalie tatya tope khari chale gaye aur vahan nagar par kabja kar liya. khari men unhonne anek topen aur tin lakh rupaye prapt kie, jo sena ke lie zaroori the. isi bich 22 march ko sar hyooroj ne jhansi par ghera dala. aise najuk samay men tatya tope karib bis hazar sainikon ke sath rani lakshmibaee ki madad ke lie pahunche. british sena tatya tope aur rani ki sena se ghir gayi. antatah rani ki vijay huee. rani aur tatya tope isake bad kalapi pahunche. is yuddh men tatya tope ko ek bar phir hyooroj ke viruddh parajay dekhani padi. bad men phool bag ke pas hyooroj ke netritv men angrezi sena se yuddh karate hue rani lakshmibaee 17 joon, 1858 ko shahid ho gayin.

isake bad tatya tope ka das mah ka jivan advitiy shaury gatha se bhara hai. lagabhag sab sthanon par vidroh kuchala ja chuka tha, lekin tatya ne ek sal ki lambi avadhi tak mutthi bhar sainikon ke sath angrez sena ko jhakajhore rakha. is dauran unhonne dushman ke viruddh ek aise jabardast chhapemar yuddh ka snchalan kiya, jisane unhen duniya ke chhapemar yoddhaon ki pahali pnkti men lakar khada kar diya. is chhapemar yuddh ke dauran tatya tope ne durgam pahadon aur ghatiyon men varsha se uphanati nadiyon aur bhayanak jngalon ke par madhy pradesh aur rajasthan men aisi lambi daud lagaee, jisane angrezi kheme men tahalaka machaye rakha. bar-bar unhen charon or se gherane ka prayas kiya gaya aur bar-bar tatya ko yuddh karane pade, parntu yah chhapamar yoddha ek vilakshan soojhaboojh se angrezon ke gheron aur jalon ke pare nikal gaya. tatkalin angrez lekhak silavestar ne likha hai ki- "hazaron bar tatya tope ka pichha kiya gaya aur chalis-chalis mil tak ek din men ghodon ko daudaga gaya, parntu tatya tope ko pakadane men kabhi saphalata nahin mili."

angrezon se lagatar sngharsh

gvaliyar se nikalane ke bad tatya ne chambal nadi par ki aur rajasthan men tonk, boondi aur bhilavada gaye. unaka irada pahale jayapur aur udayapur par adhikar karane ka tha, lekin mejar janaral rabarts vahan pahale se hi pahunch gaya. parinam yah hua ki tatya ko, jab ve jayapur se 60 mil door the, vapas lautana pada. phir unaka irada udayapur par adhikar karane ka hua, parntu raaubarts ne vahan gherabndi ki. usane lephtinent karnal homs ko tatya ka pichha karane ke lie bheja, jisane tatya ka rasta rokane ki poori taiyari kar rakhi thi, parntu aisa nahin ho saka. bhilavada se age knkaroli men tatya ki angrez sena se jabardast muthabhed huee, jisamen ve parast ho gaye. knkaroli ki parajay ke bad tatya poorv ki or bhage, taki chambal par kar saken. agast ka mahina tha. chambal nadi kafi tej pravah se bah rahi thi, lekin tatya ko jokhim uthane men annd ata tha. angrez unaka pichha kar rahe the, isalie unhonne badh men hi chambal nadi par kar li aur jhalavad ki rajadhani jhalarapatan pahunche. jhalavad ka shasak angrez-parasth tha. isalie tatya ne angrez sena ke dekhate-dekhate usase lakhon rupaye vasool kie aur 30 topon par adhikar kar liya. yahan se unaka irada indaur pahunchakar vahan ke svadhinata senaniyon ko apane paksh men karake phir dakshin pahunchana tha. tatya ko bharosa tha ki yadi narmada nadi ko par karake maharashtr pahunchana snbhav ho jay to svadhinata sngram ko n keval jari rakha ja sakega, balki angrezon ko bharat se khadeda bhi ja sakega.

narmada par karake aur usake dakshini kshetr men pravesh karake tatya tope ne angrezon ke dilon men dahashat paida kar di. nagapur kshetr men tatya ke pahunchane se bambee prant ka garvanar elaphinsatan ghabara gaya. madras prant men bhi ghabarahat phail gee. tatya apani sena ke sath pnchamadhi ki durgam pahadiyon ko par karate hue chhindavada ke 26 mil uttar-pashchim men jamee ganv pahunch gaye. vahan ke thane ke 17 sipahi mare gaye. phir tatya tope boradeh hote hue 7 navambar ko mulataee pahunch gaye. mulataee men tatya ne ek din vishram kiya. unhonne tapti nadi men snan kiya aur brahmanon ko ek-ek asharphi dan ki. bad men angrezon ne ye asharphiyan jabt kar lin. mulataee ke deshamukh aur deshapande parivaron ke pramukh aur anek gramin unaki sena men shamil ho gaye. parntu tatya ko yahan jan samarthan prapt karane men vah saphalata nahin mili, jisaki unhonne apeksha ki thi. tatya ke ek sahayogi ne likha hai ki- "tatya us samay atynt kathin sthiti ka samana kar rahe the. unake pas n gola-barood tha, n rasad, n paisa. unhonne apane sahayogiyon ko agya de di ki ve jahan chahen ja sakate hain, parntu nishthavan sahayogi aur anuyayi aise kathin samay men apane neta ka sath chhodane ko taiyar nahin the." tatya asiragadh pahunchana chahate the, parntu vahan kada pahara tha. atah nimad se bida hone ke pahale unhonne khandava, pipalod adi ke pulis thanon aur sarakari imaraton men ag laga di. khandava se ve kharagon hote hue madhy bharat vapas chale gaye. kharagon men khajiya nayak apane 4000 anuyayiyon ke sath tatya tope ke sath ja mila. inamen bhil saradar aur malasin bhi shamil the.

giraftari

indaragadh men tatya tope ko nepiyar, shabars, samaraset, smith, maikel aur harnar namak brigediyar aur usase bhi oonche angrez sainik adhikariyon ne har ek disha se gher liya. bachakar nikalane ka koee rasta nahin tha, lekin tatya men apar dhiraj aur soojh-boojh thi. angrezon ke is kathin aur asnbhav ghere ko todakar ve jayapur ki or bhage. devas aur shikar men unhen angrezon se parajit hona pada. ab unhen nirash hokar paron ke jngal men sharan lene padi. paron ke jngal men tatya tope ke sath vishvasaghat hua. naravar ka raja manasinh angrezon se mil gaya aur usaki gaddari ke karan tatya tope 8 aprail, 1859 ee. ko sote samay men pakad lie gaye.

mrityu sambandhit tathy

tatya tope ki mrityu se sambandhit tathy nimnalikhit hain-

  • is vir ke sambandh men kaha jata hai ki angrezon ne tatya ke sath dhokha karake unhen pakada tha. bad men angrezon ne unhen fansi par lataka diya, lekin khoj se ye gyat hua hai ki fansi par latakaya jane vala koee doosara vyakti tha, tatya tope nahin. asali tatya tope to chhadmavesh men shatruon se bachate hue svatantrata sngram ke kee varsh bad tak jivit rahe. aisa kaha jata hai ki 1862-1882 ee. ki avadhi men svatantrata sngram ke senani tatya tope 'narayan svami' ke roop men gokulapur, agara men sthit someshvaranath ke mandir men kee mahine rahe the.
  • bharat men 1857 ee. men hue pratham svatntrata sngram ke agrani neta tatya tope ke bare men bhale hi itihasakar kahate hon ki unhen 18 aprail, 1859 men fansi di gayi thi, lekin unake ek vnshaj ne dava kiya hai ki ve 1 janavari, 1859 ko ladate hue shahid hue the. tatya tope se jude naye tathyon ka khulasa karane vali kitab 'topez aaupareshan red lotas' ke lekhak parag tope ke anusar- "shivapuri men 18 aprail, 1859 ko tatya ko fansi nahin di gayi thi, balki guna zile men chhipa badaud ke pas angrezon se loha lete hue 1 janavari, 1859 ko tatya tope shahid ho ge the." parag tope ke anusar- "isake bare men angrez mejar paizet ki patni liyopold paijet ki kitab 'aind kntonament : e janaral aauf laif in indiya in 1857-1859' ke parishisht men tatya tope ke kapade aur safed ghode adi ka jikr kiya gaya hai aur kaha ki hamen riport mili ki tatya tope mare ge." unhonne dava kiya ki tope ke shahid hone ke bad desh ke pratham svatntrata sngram ke senani aprail tak tatya tope banakar loha lete rahe. parag tope ne bataya ki tatya tope unake poorvaj the. unake paradada ke sage bhaee.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. tatya tope ki deshabhakti (hindi) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 16 mee, 2015.
  2. tatya tope ka balakal bithoor men peshava ke dattak putr nana sahab aur jhansi ki virangana rani lakshmibaee ke sath vyatit hua tha. age chalakar 1857 men desh ki svadhinata ke lie tinon ne jo atmotsarg kiya, vah hamare svatantrata sngram ke itihas men svarnaksharon men ankit hai. tatya ne 1859 men die ge apane ek bayan men apani ayu 45 varsh bataee thi, jisase yah pata lagata hai ki unaka janm 1813 ya 1814 ee. ke asapas hua tha.
  3. jan laing; vandaring in indiya end adars skechej aph laiph in hindustan
  4. is top ki vajah se vellor men sipahi vidroh ho chuka tha.
  5. tatya tope ko phansi nahin di gee, vah ladate hue shahid hue the: parag tope (hindi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 16 mee, 2015.

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