गोरिल्ला युद्ध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gorilla yuddh ek prakar ka chhapamar yuddh. mote taur par chhapamar yuddh ardhasainikon ki tukadiyon athava aniyamit sainikon dvara shatrusena ke pichhe ya parshv men akraman karake lade jate hain. vastavik yuddh ke atirikt chhapamar antardhvns ka kary aur shatrudal men atnk phailane ka kary bhi karate hain. gorilla yuddh ladane vale chhapamar sainikon ko pahachanana kathin hota hai. inaki koee vishesh veshabhoosha nahin hoti. din ke samay ye sadharan nagarikon ki bhanti rahate hain aur rat ko chhipakar atnk phailate hain. chhapamar niyamit sena ko dhokha dekar vidhvns kary karate hain. 'gorilla' ya 'gerila'[1] shabd, jo 'chhapamar' ke arth men prayukt hota hai, spainish bhasha ka hai. spainish bhasha men isaka arth 'laghu yuddh' hai.

itihas

sadharan yuddhon ke sath hi chhapamar yuddhon ka bhi prachalan hua tha. sabase pahala chhapamar yuddh 360 varsh eesavi poorv chin men samrat huang ne apane shatru 'si yao'[2]ke viruddh lada tha. isamen si yao har gaya tha. inglaind ke itihas men chhapamar yuddh ka varnan milata hai. kerektakar[3] ne dakshini vels ke gadh se chhapamar yuddh men roman sena ko pareshan kiya tha.[4]

bharat men prayog

bharat men chhapamar yuddh ka adhik prayog 17vin shatabdi ke ant men aur 18vin shatabdi ke prarnbh men hua. marahathon ke in chhapamar yuddhon ne shaktishali mugal sena ka atmavishvas nasht kar diya tha. shantaji ghorapade aur dhanaji jadhav nam ke saradaron ne apane bhramanashali daston se sare desh ko padakrant kar dala. jab mugal sena akraman ki asha nahin karati thi, us samay akraman karake unhonne pramukh mugal saradaron ko vismit aur parajit kiya. marahathon ki saphal chhapamar yuddhaniti ne mugal sena ke sadhanon ko dhvast kar diya aur unake anushasan aur utsah ko aisa nasht kar diya ki san 1706 ee. men aurngazeb ko apani uttam sena ko ahamadanagar vapas bulana pada aur agale varsh aurngazeb ki mrityu ho gee. chhapamar marathe apane dridh tattuon par savar hokar charon or phail jate the, praday rok lete, angarakshakon ke kary men badha dalate aur aise sthan par pahunchakar, jahan unake pahunchane ki sabase kam asha hoti, lootamar karate aur sare pradesh ko akrant kar dete. is yuddhaniti ne mugalon ki kamar tod di, unake sadhanon ko nasht kar diya. inaki phurti ke karan mugal sena inako pakad n saki. isilie spen ke chhapamaron ne prayadvipiy yuddh men, aur roos ke aniyamit sainikon ne masko ke yuddh men nepoliyan ki nak men dam kar diya. amariki kranti men karnal jaaun es. mosali ityadi pramukh chhapamar the. inhonne apane shatruon ko bade prabhavashali dhng se dhamakaya aur pareshan kiya is kranti men chhapamar yuddhon ne ek nee disha li. ab tak yuddh rajyon dvara lade jate the, kintu ab yah rashtriy vishay ban gaya aur nagarik bhi vyaktigat roop se isamen sammilit ho ge the.

yuddhaniti

chhapamar sainikon ka siddhant hai- "maro aur bhag jao". ye sahasa akraman karate hain, adrishy ho jate hain aur thodi door par hi prakat ho jate hain. ve apane pas bahut kam saman rakhate hain. inake lie koee niyntranakarta bhi nahin rahata, at: inaki kriyashilata men badha nahin padati. chhapamar sena sadharanat: apane se balavan sena par sahasa akraman karake apani raksha kar leti hai. unhen apani buddhi vishesh par vishvas rahata hai. apani suraksha ke liye ye soochana dene vale ki vyavastha rakhate hain.

uddeshy

chhapamar yuddh ka uddeshy hai- "shatru ki niyamit sena ka prabhav ghatana". is uddeshy ki achchhe dhng se poorti karane ke liye ye shatru ke pichhe kary karate hain. sath hi bade paimane par kie jane vale niyamit sena ke karyon men bhi sahayata pahunchate hain. chhapamaron ka lakshy sainik hi nahin rahate. ve rel, yatayat, rasad, pul aur isi ke jaise any sadhanon ko bhi kshati pahunchate hain, jisase shatruon ki niyamit sena ke karyon men badha dal saken.[4]

pramukh vastuen

chhapamar yuddhon ke lie tin pramukh vastuen hain-

  1. chhapamar ke kary ke liye upayukt bhoobhag
  2. rajanitik avastha
  3. rashtriy paristhitiyan

is prakar ke kary ke liye sabase ati upayukt pahadi bhoomi hoti hai, jisamen jngal ho, athava aisa hi bhookhnd, jo jngalon aur daladalon se bhara ho. chhapamar yuddh se raksha ke liye chhapamaron dvara prayukt aniyamit vidhiyon ka gyan avashyak hai, jisase sahakari prayatnon dvara unake prayatnon ko turnt nasht kar diya jay. ek aur vishesh upayogi vidhi us kshetr ko gher lena hai, jisamen chhapamar vishram karate hain.

vishvayuddh

pratham vishvayuddh men yoorop men lnbe morache lagate the. chhapamaron ke liye ye kshetr vishesh akarshak nahin tha, kintu san 1916-1918 ka arab ka vidroh to bilakul aniyamit tha. karnal ti.ee. larens ne arab ki sena ke sahayog se chhapamari ke jo kary kie, ve ullekhaniy hain. madhy poorv ke turkon ki do durbalataen thin. pratham to janata athava arabon ke bich ki ashanti aur dvitiy turk samrajy ko niyntrit karane vali bhnjanashil aur durbal snchar vyavastha. larens aur unake sahayak arabon ne turk gadhon se bachate hue rel ki lainen kat din, akramanon se turkon ko pareshan kiya aur unhen age badhane se rok diya. ab doosari or se jardan men sthit niyamit angrez sena ne pramukh turk sena par akraman kar diya. idhar larens ne apani sena ki sahayata se is turki sena ka any senaon se snbndh vichchhed kar diya. larens ki saphalata ke karan the, usaki sena ki gatishilata, bahy sahayata, samay aur janamat, jisase nagarikon ki sahayata prapt ho saki. is prakar chhapamaron ko vijay mili.

dvitiy vishvayuddh aur usake pashchat

doosare vishvayuddh ka prarnbh hone ke poorv chhapamar yuddh ka ek utkrisht udaharan dekha gaya. japaniyon ne chiniyon par akraman kar diya. san 1937 ee. men chini senaon ne nagaron ko khali kar diya aur svayn pichhe hat ge. chin ke logon ko amarika se shastr aur gola barood mila, jisaki sahayata se inhonne shatru sena ko ek lnbe kal tak bahut pareshan kiya aur chhote-chhote sainik dalon ko mukhy sena se alag karake nasht kar diya. dvitiy vishvayuddh men chhapamari ke liye vistrit kshetr mila. yoorop men jarmanon ki aur dakshini-poorvi eshiya men japaniyon ki vijay itani tivrata se aur itane vistrit kshetr men huee ki vijit kshetron men shasan ka achchha prabndh n ho saka. sainikon ne jaise hi ek sthan par vijay paee, unhen sahasa age badh jane ki agya mili. vijit kshetr chhote-chhote sainik dalon ke adhikar men chhod dene pade. chhapamari ke liye ye kshetr adarsh sthal ban ge aur shighr hi shatru dalon ke bikhare hue snchar kshetron ko saphalatapoorvak nasht kar diya gaya.[4]

  • uttari afrika men itali ki senaon ne prarnbh men bade-bade kshetron par adhikar kar liya aur vahan ke nivasiyon ko buri tarah kuchal diya. yahan ka janamat itali ke viparit ho gaya. angrezon ne is bhavana ka labh uthaya aur vahan ke mool vasiyon ki sahayata se saphalatapoorvak chhapamar yuddhon ka snchar kiya. itali ke phauji daston ki snchar vyavastha, havaee adde, petrol, gola barood ke bhndar, motar yatayat adi bengaji se mistr ki sima tak phaile hue the. upayukt shastron se sajjit paidal sena ya jipen in chhapamar sainikon ke liye vishesh upayukt thin. chhapamar shatru dal ke lakshyon par ratri men akraman karate the.
  • san 1941 ke vasnt men jarmanon ne yoogoslaviya par adhikar kar liya. desh ke adhikrit hone ke pashchath‌ hi josipavraozovik[5] ki adhyakshata men vahan ke logon ne ek chhapamar dal banaya, jo shatru sena ke viruddh kary karata tha. shastron ki avashyakata ki poorti vahan ki janata se ya shatrudal se chhine hue shastron se hoti thi. jarmani aur itali ki sainik tukadiyon or unake addon par akraman karake inhonne yuddh ka saman prapt kiya. saphalata ke sath-sath inaki snkhya men bhi vriddhi huee. san 1943 ee. ke ant tak yah snkhya lagabhag 1,50,000 ho gee. yah shakti yugoslaviya bhar men phaili huee thi aur vishesh roop se jngalon aur pahadon men sthit thi. snchar vyavastha, jahan tak snbhav ho sakata tha, shatru dal se chhine ge rediyo seton se chalati thi. yoogoslaviya ke is dal ka uddeshy shatru ke un snpann lakshyon par akraman karana tha, jo durbal the aur jahan akraman hone ki sabase kam apeksha ki jati thi. isake atirikt kisi bhi avastha men ve aisa avasar nahin dena chahate the ki shatru un par pratyakraman kar saken.

maikarthar ka yogadan

philipin men niyukt snyukt rashtr ke janaral dagalas maikarthar us kshetr men kee varsh rah chuke the. unhonne japaniyon ke viruddh chhapamar sena ki vyavastha ki. unhonne adhikariyon ke kee chhote-chhote dal is tapoo men bikher die. ye adhikari is kshetr se bhali bhanti parichit the. inaka kam japani sena se bachakar chhapamari karana tha. pravidhik snchar adi men daksh vyaktiyon ko milakar pratyek dal men adhik se adhik 15 vyakti hote the. inaka mukhy kary gupt samachar prapt karana aur unhen preshit karana tha. inaka doosara kary tha desh men sthapit japani niyntran men badha dalana. in dalon ke phail jane ke bad dalon men parasparik snchar ki vyavastha men kathinaee hone lagi. is kathinaee ko door karane ke liye chhapamaron ne janata ke chhote rediyo seton se kam liya. bad men san 1942 ee. men janaral maikarthar ke aaustreliya sthit mukhy karyalay se chhapamar tukadiyon ka sidha rediyon snbndh sthapit ho gaya. shighr hi sabamerinen bhejane ki niyamit vyavastha ho gee aur aprail, 1944 tak sabhi bade dvipon ka janaral maikarthar se rediyo snpark sthapit ho gaya. shighr hi vibhinn dvipon par senaen utarane ki yojana bani. ab chhapamaron ke kary gupt soochana prapt karana aur snyukt rashtr sena ke liye lakshy dhoondhana rah gaya. is prakar chhapamaron ke dvara kie ge jasoosi ke karyo se janaral maikarthar ko is kshetr ko punarjagrat karane aur apane karyon ki yojana banane men mahatvapoorn sahayata mili.

  • faravari, 1943 ee. men janaral aden si. vinget khachcharon aur bailon dvara 3,000 sainikon ke sath chindabin aur iravadi nadiyan par karake barma men sthit japani senaon ke prishthabhag men pahunch ge. yahan inhonne japani snchar vyavastha bigadi, shastron ke bhndar nasht kar die aur japaniyon dvara bharat par hone vale akraman men badha dali. adhik bhitar tak jane vale inake dalon ko, jo chindavin ke nam se jane jate the, snchar vyavastha ke liy vayuyanon dvara rediyo set die ge. isi varsh angrezon ne barma men kechin jati ko chhapamari ke liye snyojit kiya. unhen rediyo seton ke prayog ke lie prashikshan diya gaya tha. ye log shatru sena ke pichhe adhik samay tak tik saken, isake liye us kshetr men sahayataprad vatavaran ki bhi srishti ki gee. doosare vishvayuddh ke pashchath‌ malaya, hindachin adi eshiyaee desh bhi chhapamari ke liye achchhe kshetr ban ge.[4]

koriya sngharsh, 1950

joon, 1950 ee. men koriya men jo sngharsh vyapak ho gaya, usamen atynt adhunik shastron se sajjit niyamit sena ke viruddh chhapamari atynt prabhavashali siddh huee. yahan samyavadi chhapamaron ko apane se shreshth shaktiyon se apane ko bachane ki shiksha di gee thi. chhoti tukadiyon dvara shighratapoorn akraman karane, teji ke sath pichhe hatane, titar-bitar ho jane aur pun: ekatr hone par vishesh bal diya gaya. chhapamari ke mukhy ang the- sidha akraman aur chhipakar akraman. 10 hajar se 20 hajar tak ki janasnkhya vale nagaron par san 1956 ee. tak akraman hote rahe. akramak dalon men 50 se 300 tak vyakti rahate the. akraman kramanusar do dalon ki sahayata se hota tha. pahali tukadi akramak kshetr men pahunchati aur apane kary ki poorti karake titar-bitar ho jati. doosari tukadi ke palayan ke samay pahali tukadi usaki raksha karati. lautana sadaiv kisi any marg se hota tha, jo pahadon se ya kisi badi nadi ko par hokar rahata tha. yuddh aur prachar ke hetu shatru paksh ko pareshan bhi kiya jata tha, jisase shatru sena ka naitik patan ho jay.

siddhant

chhapamar yuddh ke siddhant aj bhi vahi hain, jo yuddh ke arnbhik samay men the. aj bhi chhapamar tivr gati se chalate hain, dhokha dekar shatrudal par vahan akraman karate hain, jahan vah sabase adhik durbal hota hai. sath hi ve shatru ko pratyakraman karane ka avasar bhi nahin dete. yuddh men prayukt hone vale shastron, saj samanon, sainik sthapanon adi vyavasthaon ki bhedyata ke sath-sath hi, jinaki sahayata se shighratapoorvak akraman ya antardhvns snbhav hai, chhapamaron ka kshetr bhi badhata ja raha hai. sath hi adhunik yuddh vidhiyon men bhi is prakar ke yuddh ka mahatv badh gaya hai. sunirdharit lakshy aur yuddh kaushal ki paramavashyak shrinkhalaon ke vinash dvara shatru ke akraman ki sari yojanaon ko viphal banaya ja sakata hai. bhaugolik paristhitiyan bhi apana vishesh mahatv rakhati hain aur chhapamari ke liye suvidhajanak karyakshetr atynt avashyak hai.

chhapamar yuddh men kranti

rediyo aur viman, in do avishkaron ne chhapamar yuddh men kranti la di. jahan chhapamaron ko in sadhanon se sahayata prapt karane ka marg khula, vahin ye upakaran unaka pichha karane ke kam bhi ane lage. phir bhi inamen hani ki apeksha labh adhik hua. pahale chhapamaron ko apane sathiyon ke samachar kabhi-kabhi hi mil pate the, kintu ab laghu vahaniy preshakon ki sahayata se unhen ichchhanusar apane sathiyon se snpark sthapit karane ki suvidha mil gee. phir vayuyanon dvara chhapa tatha any sabhi prakar ki aniyamit senaon ko utarane, unhen lene, unaki shakti ko sudridh banane aur praday tatha samarik mahatv ki any vastuon ko unhen upalabdh karane ka bhi kary snpann hone laga.

chhapamaron ka pramukh kary hai- "shatrusena ko unake prishthabhag se milane vali samagri ka vinash karana". anavik shastron ke vikas ko dekhate hue samarik niti badalegi. senaen chhoti-chhoti tukadiyon men vibhajit hongi. praday stroton, yuddh adharon, udyogon tatha any samarik vyavastha ka vikendrikaran karana avashyak hoga. phalasvaroop, yadi anavik shakti ka prayog hua, to chhapamaron ke lakshy akar men chhote aur snrakshan adhik ho jaynge. parinam yah hoga ki chhapamari ka kshetr vishal aur adhik prabhavi ban jayaga. niyamit sena bhi chhoti-chhoti tukadiyon men yuddh karengi. in paristhitiyon men chhapamar yuddh hi vishesh saphal ho sakenge. yah kahana anuchit n hoga ki yuddh men anavik shastron ka prayog hone par keval chhapamar yuddh hi pramukh mahatv ka hoga aur any vidhiyon ka sadharan upayog hi rah jayaga.[4]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. guerrilla
  2. Tse ayo
  3. Caractacur
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 gorilla yuddh (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 06 julaee, 2014.
  5. tito

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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